http://www.culturalpolicies.net/_grafics/logoprintbw.gif
Report creation date: 14.10.2008 - 11:59
Countr(y/ies): United Kingdom
Chapter(s): 1,2,21,22,23,24,241,242,243,244,245,246,3,31,32,33,4,41,42,421,422,423,424,425,426,427,428,429,4210,43,5,51,511,512,513,514,515,516,517,518,519,52,53,531,532,533,534,535,536,537,538,539,5310,6,61,62,63,64,7,71,72,73,8,81,811,812,813,82,821,822,83,831,832,84,841,842,9,91,92

United Kingdom/ 1. Historical perspective: cultural policies and instruments

The United Kingdom is made up of four nations - England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, each with its own distinct culture and history. Three of these - England, Wales and Scotland - together make up Great Britain. The population of England is significantly higher than the three other nations combined.

The present UK arts funding system has its origins in the 1940s; the international political climate at the time initiated a debate on whether there was a role for government in funding the arts as an expression of a free and democratic society. From this recognition sprang, in 1940, the first national body to support the arts, the Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts (CEMA). This Council spent both charitable and public funds on the arts, eventually under the chairmanship of the great economist, John Maynard Keynes. His vision of state support for the arts was largely responsible for ensuring that CEMA evolved in 1946 into the Arts Council of Great Britain, still considered to be the first arts agency in the world to distribute government funds at "arm's-length" from politicians. Keynes believed that the Arts Council would only have a temporary existence during the rebuilding of cultural life in the Houses of parliamentaftermath of the Second World War. Nevertheless, consciously or otherwise, what had taken place was a tacit recognition by government that it had a role to play in supporting the arts.

The Council's grant from government in 1945/46 was GBP 235 000. After 10 years it had grown modestly to GBP 820 000 (1955/56). The Council was primarily reactive - allocating funds for arts organisation and artists and providing help and encouragement. Gradually it cut back on direct provision for certain activities yet continued its support for the touring of art exhibitions and an "Opera for All" touring programme aimed at smaller venues. Significantly the various "Charters" giving the Council its mandate to operate never defined the "arts", and although the number of supported arts organisations grew, the range of art forms was still fairly narrow after 20 years (poetry, photography and jazz, for example, were not supported for many years). Although legally part of the Arts Council of Great Britain, Scotland and Wales had their own Arts Councils. The Arts Council of Northern Ireland was established as an independent body in 1962.

For much of the first 20 years of post war Britain, the government department responsible for the grant-in-aid to the Arts Council of Great Britain, the national museums and galleries and the British Library etc. was the Treasury. However, in 1965 responsibility was passed to the Department for Education & Science. At that time, the UK Government's First Minister for the Arts, Jenny Lee, issued a government White Paper setting out a Policy for the Arts, following which the Arts Council's grant significantly increased by 45% in 1966/67 and a further 26% in 1967/68, raising it to GBP 7.2 million. Advice to national government on museum policy came from a Standing Commission on Museums and Galleries set up in 1931. It was given the responsibility of granting aid to national museums in 1963 and became the Museums and Galleries Commission with its own Charter in 1987.

The 1970s were characterised by expansion of arts expenditure and by considerable debate about what forms of arts and culture should be subsidised. The protagonists were advocates of the "traditional" approach to supporting excellence in the classical or contemporary arts on the one hand, and the growing number of practitioners from what might be labelled "alternative culture" movements (built on the growth of community arts and arts centres and rooted in local communities) on the other, who labelled the Arts Council's approach as "elitist".

Local authorities began to expand their support, building or refurbishing regional theatres, museums and galleries and multipurpose civic halls, as well as running their own programmes and festivals. However, although government legislation in 1948 had given local councils legal authority to support arts and entertainment the powers were, and remain, permissive rather than mandatory. As a consequence, support was patchy. The 1960s and 1970s were also the period when regional arts associations developed in a piecemeal fashion, either as consortiums of local arts organisations, or set up by local authorities, as a reaction to the closure of the Arts Council of Great Britain's regional offices. Regional arts associations were primarily intermediate organisations, acting as a link between the Arts Council and the regions.

The 1980s were a decade when political and economic pressures led to a fundamental reappraisal of the funding and management of the arts and culture in Britain. While remaining committed to the principle of public sector support, government required the arts and culture organisations to look for new sources of revenue to supplement their income. As evidence of this change in public policy, witness the establishment in 1984 of the Business Sponsorship Incentive Scheme, which for the first time matched funds from business with a government grant, administered by Arts & Business to encourage new sponsorship.

In 1990, the government asked the Arts Council of Great Britain to develop a National Arts and Media Strategy in partnership with the British Film Institute, Crafts Council, Scottish and Welsh Arts Councils and the regions. This was the first time in the Arts Council's history that an attempt had been made to devise a co-ordinated policy to broadly guide arts funding developments. This process involved the organisation of some 50 seminars around Britain to take evidence and a series of commissioned papers. However, not long after its publication in late 1992, the report was, in effect, "shelved".

In fact, the 1990s were characterised by fundamental policy and especially structural change in arts and culture. In 1992, a re-elected Conservative government established for the first time a co-ordinated Ministry to deal with arts, museums, libraries, heritage, media, sport and tourism called the Department of National Heritage. Then, in 1994, a fundamental decision was taken to devolve the Arts Council of Great Britain's responsibilities and functions to three new separate bodies: the Arts Council of England, the Scottish Arts Council and the Arts Council of Wales. Each nation therefore runs its own affairs in relation to arts funding.

A significant development was the introduction of the National Lottery in the mid 1990s which brought a major new income stream for the cultural sector (approx. 28% of money spent on lottery tickets and scratch cards goes to the National Lottery Distribution Fund). In the initial years, the focus was very much on capital projects, for example the refurbishment of museums and galleries as well as new buildings. Subsequently, the funds were allocated in more flexible ways, for example small community projects, commissions or feature films, as well as to individuals. The Lottery's 10th birthday, in November 2004, revealed that GBP 2 billion had been allocated through Arts Council England. A recent change that will enable the public to nominate where their money goes has lead to concern that culture will lose out to other good causes; there are fears that the successful 2012 Olympics bid will divert money away from culture, and uneven allocation of funds across the English regions. For more information see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 6.

The incoming Labour administration elected in 1997 renamed the Department of National Heritage as the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. In return for increased investment in culture to end years of "standstill" funding, the government also sought to reduce the number of arm's length cultural agencies through a series of mergers. The Museums & Galleries Commission and the Library & Information Commission merged to become a new body initially called Re:source, and since 2004 known as the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council. The Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England was amalgamated with English Heritage.

The UK Film Council was created in 2000 as a new strategic agency to develop the UK's film industry and culture. The agency absorbed the British Film Commission, the production board of the British Film Institute (bfi), the Lottery film department of Arts Council England and the part private / part public body, British Screen Finance. The bfi retained its independence, but now receives its government funding through the UK Film Council, which channels the majority of government funding for film.

An important early priority for the UK Film Council was to create for itself a dynamic strategy for film in the English regions. It had inherited not only the bfi's regional strategic and funding functions but also relationships with agencies dealing with film locations, training and production. After a wide public consultation, the UK Film Council set up the Regional Investment Fund for England (RIFE) in 2001 to increase investment for film directly in the English regions. This led to the creation of the Regional Screen Agencies (RSAs), in the same year, which took their place alongside film agencies in Scotland (Scottish Screen), Wales (Sgrin Cymru) and Northern Ireland (Northern Ireland Film and Television Commission). The agencies merged a range of smaller regional film bodies and have forged new partnerships with local stakeholders to become advocates for film and the moving image on a regional level.

The UK Film Council and the RSAs share a common set of aims for talent, opportunity and access across all aspects of film development and RIFE is used to invest in production, education, film heritage, exhibition, training and location services. The funding and strategy has had an impact: investment has risen from less than GBP 4 million in 2000 to more than GBP 20 million in 2003/04 for all sources and is continuing to increase. This has resulted in increasing opportunities for talented individuals to develop careers in film, and the creation of networks of cinemas, film clubs and societies allowing people and communities the chance to see and enjoy the widest range of films in rural and urban use.

The UK Film Council has worked closely with the three National Screen Agencies (NSAs) in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Based on a solid foundation of shared strategic vision, UKFC has ensured that NSAs are key consultees on all aspects of its UK-wide strategy and partners in its delivery. UKFC's own funding and investment schemes have been made available across the UK and have been used to support shared projects in terms of film education, exhibition and production.

A shared concern for all of the national and regional screen agencies has been the lack of positive images of non-metropolitan London appearing on the screen. This issue is particularly acute in such areas as Northern Ireland or the North East of England where a diet of negative images in the media has contributed to negative perceptions (albeit for very different reasons). Film and television exposure of the nations and regions in all their facets and cultures, offers a major opportunity to alter this negative perception, build confidence and develop regional and national identities. This ambition underpins much of the shared strategy of the UKFC and its partners.

The UK Film Council seeks to maximise the contribution of major broadcasters, particularly the public service broadcasters, to the extension of audience choice. A 2006 concluded agreement with the BBC potentially doubles the Corporation's commitment to UK film production, not only by increasing in-house activity but by buying the best of the UK's independent feature production for screening on network television.

The government also established eight Regional Cultural Consortia in the English regions outside London to develop integrated cultural strategies across England and ensure that culture has a strong voice in regional development (strategies for culture in London are the responsibility of the Greater London Assembly). Local authorities are also now encouraged to develop local cultural strategies by the DCMS, or to incorporate them into their Sustainable Communities Strategies (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 2.3).

In April 2002 the Arts Council of England and the Regional Arts Boards were legally established as a single arts development agency for England. In February 2003 the organisation announced its new identity and slightly changed name: Arts Council England.

United Kingdom/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.1 Organisational structure (organigram)

No up to date organisational diagrams are available incorporating all four countries of the UK.

The UK Parliament and Government are responsible for all cultural issues in England and for some issues such as broadcasting across the whole of the United Kingdom. However, in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, most cultural issues are now the responsibility of the Scottish Parliament and Executive, the National Assembly for Wales and the Welsh Assembly Government, and the Northern Ireland Assembly and Executive respectively ("the devolved administrations"). The Northern Ireland Assembly was established as part of the Belfast Agreement and is the prime source of authority for all devolved responsibilities and has full legislative and executive authority. However, the Assembly was suspended from midnight on 14 October 2002 and was dissolved on 28 April 2003. The Secretary of State has assumed responsibility for the direction of Northern Ireland Departments. The Scotland Act 1998, the Government of Wales Act 1998 and the Orders in Council made under it, and The Northern Ireland Act 1998 specify which issues remains the responsibility of the UK Government in each of those parts of the UK. It should be noted that while the Scottish Parliament and the Northern Ireland Assembly (when in session) are able to make primary legislation in respect of those issues which have been devolved, the National Assembly for Wales is only able to make secondary legislation; responsibility for primary legislation for Wales remains with the UK Parliament and Government.

United Kingdom/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.2 Overall description of the system

The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) implements government policy and administers government grants to national museums and art galleries in England, Arts Council England, the UK Film Council, the British Library and other national culture and heritage bodies. Its other responsibilities include the regulation of the film and music industries, broadcasting and the media, the National Lottery, gambling and the export licensing of cultural objects. DCMS is headed by a Secretary of State, who is assisted by a Minister of State and two Parliamentary Under-Secretaries of State.

In May 2005, new Ministerial responsibilities within DCMS were announced: the Secretary of State has overall responsibility for departmental strategy. For culture, this includes the creative economy, BBC Charter review and digital switchover and international policy. The Minister for Culture covers arts, heritage, museums, galleries and libraries, while the Minister for Creative Industries and Tourism is responsible for broadcasting, creative industries (including film and music), tourism and licensing. There is a separate Parliamentary Select Committee for Culture, Media and Sport, appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure, administration and policy of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport and its associated public bodies.

In all parts of the UK spending on culture operates on an "arm's length" basis, through a number of Non-Departmental Public Bodies (NDPBs). These include organisations responsible for the arts, sport, film and heritage in England and their counterparts in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Many museums and galleries are also run as NDPBs, including the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Natural History Museum and the Tate Gallery. Some "public bodies", including the four Arts Councils and the UK Film Council (which has a UK-wide remit), also act as distributors of National Lottery funds.

The Chancellor launched a new office of Charity and Third Sector Finance in 2006; based within the Treasury, it will offer advice on financial issues in the third sector, including the Gift Aid scheme that enables charities to reclaim basic tax (22% in 2006/07) on donations. Gift Aid now involves GBP 625 million repayments to 60 000 charities (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 5.1.5 for more details).

The UK Parliament and Government retain both legislative and policy responsibility for the whole of the UK in the following areas:

DCMS also retains legislative and policy responsibility for film in Wales. All other subject areas are the responsibility of the devolved administrations in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

In addition to the specific reserved subjects, EU and international issues are also the responsibility of the UK government. As with other such matters, however, it has been agreed that the devolved administrations retain a legitimate interest.

There have been significant structural changes to Non-Departmental Public Bodies in England in recent years including, for example, the creation of the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council (previously known as Re:source), which merged the Museums & Galleries Commission and the Library and Information Commission, the creation of a new UK Film Council, and the merging of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and English Heritage under the name of the latter. A new Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) was established to promote better quality building and urban design. Following a recent feasibility study, the DCMS and British Phonographic Industry are in discussions with a view to establishing a Music Council, which will be similar to the UK Film Council and Design Council in function i.e. help unite the music sector on key issues and work with government on developing policies.

Probably, the most changes in the past 12 years have occurred in the Arts Council system. Perhaps the most significant of these was the creation, in 2002, of Arts Council England (ACE) by the merger of former regional arts boards in England with the Arts Council of England to create a single, unified development body for the arts. A Peer Review of this body (commissioned by the Department for Culture Media and Sport (DCMS) and ACE, published 2005) "to provide the Arts Council with a deeper understanding of its performance and capacity, and to act as a catalyst for improvement" was broadly positive. However it referred to a "climate of mistrust" between DCMS and ACE and led to ACE producing an Action Plan intended to address the points raised. The report and full ACE response can be found at: http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/peerreview. Three priorities identified as a result of this process were: the need to engage more actively with stakeholders, including the public; consider the way ACE works with government, especially DCMS; and the role and structure of the national office. With regard to the latter, and also to address issues remaining since the restructure in 2002, ACE published a new national office structure in October 2006 which includes a reduction of 33 permanent posts, a move that proposes to save GBP 1.8 million a year. The stated aim is to create a "more focused, streamlined and effective organisation that is better able to provide national leadership and planning, build new partnerships and make a stronger case for the arts"; the shift is clearly towards strategy. Four new departments are being created:

See http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/pressnews/press_detail.php?rid=5&id=723 for more information.

Non-Departmental Public Bodies working in England, or covering the UK as a whole, receive funding directly from DCMS. This is now done for three years at a time, to allow bodies more freedom in planning ahead. Funding agreements, which are publicly available, set out the aims, objectives and targets that each NDPB has agreed with DCMS.

Cultural policies in the English regions are determined by regional agencies working in DCMS sectors. DCMS has established a Regional Cultural Consortium in each of the eight English planning regions outside London. Regional Assemblies have also been established by the government to facilitate partnership working within the regions, with responsibilities for regional planning, advocacy and policy development and scrutinising the work of the Regional Development Agencies. There were also plans to devolve some central government responsibilities,  but the first referendum, in North East England, rejected the concept in 2004, and there are no further proposals for the foreseeable future.

Scotland

The administration of cultural matters in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Executive. The Minister for Tourism, Culture and Sport and the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED) have responsibility for policy covering the arts, film, architecture, the cultural heritage, the Gaelic language, tourism, sport and liaison with the UK Government on broadcasting and the National Lottery. The Tourism, Culture and Sport Group within SEED also has responsibility for grant-aiding a number of cultural NDPBs, including the Scottish Arts Council, Scottish Screen (whose task is to develop and promote the screen industries), the three national institutions (the National Museums of Scotland, the National Galleries of Scotland and the National Library of Scotland), and Brd na Gidhlig, the Gaelic development agency. The Group's Cultural Policy Division directly funds the Scottish Libraries and Information Council (SLIC) and the Scottish Museums Council (SMC). These are both membership organisations that take a national developmental role within their sectors and provide advice and briefing to the Executive.

The Scottish Assembly appointed Scottish Cultural Commission published a report in June 2005, which included 124 recommendations, one of which proposed abolishing the Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen in favour of two new agencies: Culture Scotland to handle policy and the Culture Fund to manage the finance. However, the Culture Minister rejected the majority of the proposals in Parliament, but proposed the establishment of a new agency, Creative Scotland, that would absorb the functions of the Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen. The new body's remit is not yet fully defined, but is likely to include the creative industries as well as the delivery of a "new approach for recognising and growing talent". Funding for the major performing arts companies (previously the remit of the Arts Council) is to be transferred directly to government control. The proposals also envisage a larger role for Scotland's 32 local authorities as "key partners" in the arts. The process of appointing a "co-terminus Board" for Creative Scotland is underway and is likely to be in place by the spring of 2007. As part of the changes, a Culture Bill is currently at the drafting stage and is likely to be debated in the Scottish Parliament in autumn 2007.

Historic Scotland is an Agency of the Department and is directly responsible to Scottish Ministers for safeguarding and promoting the country's built heritage. In December 2002, the Minister for Tourism, Culture and Sport in Scotland announced a review of the structure and functions of Historic Scotland. The main findings of the review have been published. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/Search/Q/Subject/462/Page/2.

The Tourism, Culture and Sport Group also have responsibility for the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS) and the Royal Fine Art Commission for Scotland (RFACS). RCAHMS is responsible for recording the historic built environment and maintaining the National Monuments Record of Scotland, much of which is now accessible on-line.  RCAHMS works closely with the Welsh equivalent body (RCAHMW) in widening electronic public access to the information held by their respective archives. RFACS was replaced from April 2005 by a new body: Architecture and Design Scotland (ADS), which will have a much wider remit as the Executive's "champion" for good architecture in Scotland, with a key role to play in implementing the commitments within A Policy on Architecture for Scotland.

Wales

The National Assembly for Wales has devolved responsibilities in Wales for culture and related issues. Within the Welsh Assembly Government the portfolio of the Assembly Minister for Culture, Welsh Language and Sport covers the arts, museums, archives and libraries, language, heritage, sport and physical activity and lottery issues. Since 1999 a number of public agencies, e.g. the Arts Council of Wales, the Welsh Language Board, Sports Council for Wales, National Library of Wales and (WA) Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales, have been funded by, and accountable to, the Assembly following the transfer of responsibility from the former Welsh Office. Cadw is part of the Welsh Assembly Government and is responsible for the country's built heritage. The Design Commission for Wales, established in 2002, promotes sustainable development, equality of opportunity and social inclusion by providing bespoke training to councillors, planners etc., championing best practice and acting as a non-statutory consultee within the urban planning process.

CyMAL: Museums, Archives and Libraries Wales was established as a new policy division of the Welsh Assembly Government from April 2004 to develop strategic direction for local museums, archives and libraries and provide financial support and advice.

Northern Ireland

The Northern Ireland Executive was established as part of the Good Friday Agreement. The Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL) is one of 10 Executive Departments. Its remit includes the arts and culture, creativity, film, museums, libraries, archives, sport and leisure amenities, language and diversity policy and matters relating to the National Lottery. DCAL supports a number of Non-Departmental Public Bodies. These include: the Arts Council of Northern Ireland, which became a statutory body in 1995; the National Museums and Galleries of Northern Ireland, established in 1998 by the merger of four major museums and heritage collections; and the Northern Ireland Museums Council, which is the main channel of the Executive's support to local museums. DCAL also supports the Northern Ireland Film and Television Council, now known as the Northern Ireland Film and Television Commission (NIFTC), which is a company limited by guarantee. The NIFTC also receives support from the local economic development agency, Invest Northern Ireland. Local government also has a role in supporting cultural activity, including local museums.

As part of the ongoing Review of Public Administration (RPA) decisions taken in 2006, the public library service in Northern Ireland will be delivered by a single, dedicated library authority, instead of being part of the wider remit of the five Education and Library Boards. Arts Council Northern Ireland (ACNI) will continue to fund major arts bodies, but will no longer be responsible for funding community arts, which will be under the remit of a new tier of "super-councils".

United Kingdom/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.3 Inter-ministerial or intergovernmental co-operation

The UK Government is committed to ensuring greater co-ordination between government departments and between tiers of governance to ensure effective delivery of policy. This relates both to cultural matters and to cross-cutting issues. By way of illustration, local authorities in England were encouraged by government to prepare local cultural strategies by 2001 to improve the quality of life. In Northern Ireland, DCAL has facilitated district councils in the development of local cultural strategies and sustains the momentum gained through its support to a Cultural Forum. The Arts Council of Northern Ireland consults regularly with district councils on the exercise of its functions through a Forum for Local Government and the Arts (FLGA). In this regard the Arts Council instituted a GBP 2.4 million Challenge Fund in 2004, over four years, to support local organisations and projects on the basis of priorities agreed with local authorities. The primary purpose of the Challenge Fund, known as "The Art of Regeneration", is to encourage local authorities to work collaboratively by strengthening and deepening existing or new partnerships to help meet some of the social challenges facing Northern Ireland society. The Council is using the Challenge Fund to engage local authorities and to put the arts and artists at the heart of regeneration.

In response to the government's wider "Shared Future Agenda", the Arts Council of Northern Ireland developed the "Re-imaging Communities" initiative (launched in August 2006). This is a three-year programme that aims to provide grant-aid for the development of local community based projects with particular emphasis on the replacement of existing paramilitary murals and other offensive items with more positive imagery, in order to make  communities more welcoming to all. The priority areas are housing estates, peace lines, interface areas and offensive public spaces. The objective will be to engage local people and communities through, for example, residents associations, to find ways of developing imagery that the whole community can relate to.

The Social Exclusion Unit of the UK Government is another example of joint-working. The Unit set up a series of Policy Action Teams to recommend how policies in different areas of government responsibility could address deprivation and disadvantage caused by social exclusion. One of these, Policy Action Team 10, was asked to consider how to maximise the impact on poor neighbourhoods of government spending and policies on culture and leisure, and also to identify best practice in using arts, sport and leisure to engage people living in deprived areas, particularly those who may feel most excluded, such as disaffected young people and people from ethnic minority groups.

In 2006, the Department for Culture, Media and Sport launched a joint initiative to bring together government-sponsored agencies to promote the value of culture to the creation of strong sustainable communities. The project is called Where We Live! and involves Arts Council England, the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council, the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment, English Heritage and Sport England. Working with local authorities and developers, it aims to promote positive changes brought about by cultural provision in communities, particularly those facing housing-led growth and regeneration. 

With regard to finance, the Treasury has been working with DCMS to support two new schemes using money from the Invest to Save Budget (ISB). The first is a GBP 250 000 grant aimed at funding seven "exemplar" arts organisations to find new approaches to change, called Missions, Models, Money (MMM). Projects include Lift international theatre festival developing a more "dynamic and interactive" way of engaging the public and Manchester Camerata chamber orchestra moving into new premises at the Royal Northern College of Music to further develop "synergies" (http://www.missionmodelsmoney.org.uk). The evaluation of this work will then be used as good practice models. Secondly, 12 arts, culture and energy efficiency projects will be supported by GBP 12 million from ISB - this includes an on-line learning project by a consortium of 10 National Museums.

In the area of minority languages, support is shared between Northern Ireland and Ireland (the North / South Language Body), and Ireland, Northern Ireland and Scotland (ICC / Colmcille, the Columba Initiative) to ensure that language protection and encouragement is integrated and aligned.

United Kingdom/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.1 Overview of main structures and trends

A considerable amount of international cultural co-operation is undertaken by individuals and organisations through networks, exchanges and personal contact. This is an integral dimension of the work of many organisations and individuals as well as the cultural and creative industries, which do much business overseas. The British Council (which is part-funded by the Foreign & Commonwealth Office) continues to have an important role to play through its offices in many countries. Its focus is increasingly on cultural development opportunities, new partnerships and cultural relations. The level of resources available for international engagement remains an issue of concern to cultural practitioners.

A recent review of public diplomacy efforts in the UK, led by Lord Carter, has resulted in the creation of a new Public Diplomacy Board (2006), replacing the one established in 2002. It is an advisory committee designed to improve the cohesion, effectiveness and impact of government efforts to promote the UK overseas. The Board is responsible for formulating a national public diplomacy strategy to support the UK's key overseas interests and objectives. Members include the Foreign & Commonwealth Office, the British Council and the BBC World Service.

Amongst the previous Public Diplomacy Board's activities was a programme of specific promotional campaigns; China was the focus of a major public diplomacy campaign in 2003 - Think UK - and in 2004 the Board initiated a campaign - Crossroads for Ideas - to welcome the eight new Central European states to the EU.

Scotland

The Scottish Executive actively supports and finances the international promotion of Scottish arts and culture, working through its cultural Non Departmental Public Bodies. A number of bilateral Co-operation Agreements with other governments and regions include cultural objectives and they provide a framework for exchanging good practice and encouraging international partnerships. Recognising the importance of this area and building upon successful joint initiatives, the Scottish Arts Council and The British Council Scotland appointed a Head of International Art in 2004, who will deliver a strategy for promoting Scotland's arts abroad. Historic Scotland's expertise in cultural heritage tourism contributes to various trade missions and it provided advice in 2004 to the government of Montenegro on the management of Kotor World Heritage Site funded by the British Council. UK heritage bodies participate in international groups e.g. the International Committee on the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage and the International Council on Monuments and Sites; and support European Heritage Days, an initiative of the Council of Europe.

Wales

In Wales, a small specialist unit, Wales Arts International, advances two way opportunities for the arts, supported by the Arts Council of Wales and The British Council.

Northern Ireland

The Arts Council of Northern Ireland (ACNI) works with other partners to promote abroad the work of artists from Northern Ireland. It has experience of international affairs and looks to create and utilise partnerships and associations with other government and non-government agencies, for example in conjunction with the British Council and Visiting Arts (ACNI joint-funds a post in the British Council).

ACNI's International Strategy recognises the reciprocal elements of international work, through "exportation and importation" of arts and artists. As part of that strategy, and under its Support for the Individual Artist Programme (SIAP), the Council's International Schemes offer support to artists, and in some cases to arts organisations, in the exportation of their work and in the enhancement of their opportunities for international experiences.

Since 2002, ACNI has an ongoing partnership with Malta that originally led to artists from Northern Ireland performing at the Maltese Cultural Festival. More recently, the Maltese delegation has visited the Arts Council and this has resulted in proposals for future partnership working in the areas of music, visual arts and circus. Also, ACNI has agreed to offer assistance to the newly formed Arts Council of Malta.

ACNI has in place a number of reciprocal exchanges for international residencies, including the New York Residency; Banff Residency; Winnipeg Exchange Residency; St James Writers' Residency in Malta and the British School at Rome Fellowship.

Northern Ireland is host to a number of important international events, the most notable of these being the "Belfast Festival at Queen's" which is now approaching its 44th anniversary. This is the largest festival of its kind in Ireland and brings the best of international art to Belfast.

United Kingdom/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.2 Public actors and cultural diplomacy

In the 2005 review, which led to the establishment of the new Public Diplomacy Board (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 2.4.1), Lord Carter defined "public diplomacy" as: "Work aiming to inform and engage individuals and organisations overseas, in order to improve understanding of and influence for the United Kingdom in a manner consistent with governmental medium and long term goals. "

The British Council states that its purpose and values are: "to build mutually beneficial relationships between people in the UK and other countries and to increase appreciation of the UK's creative ideas and achievements. This work is driven by our strong belief in internationalism, a commitment to professionalism and an enthusiasm for creativity."

The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) has recently developed an International Strategy, and is currently working on a Cultural Foreign Policy, starting with a map of existing international cultural activity. This includes museum and gallery curatorial exchanges, work between national museums, etc. The UK offers an insurance guarantee for cultural objects on loan for exhibitions called the Government Indemnity Scheme (GIS); it is administered by the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council on behalf of the DCMS. The scheme allows museums to put on a greater number of major exhibitions of high quality, with the government carrying the risk rather than an insurance company. The demand for GIS has been rising; museums are increasingly taking advantage of it to present items that attract new and diverse audiences. They do this through mounting temporary exhibitions and borrowing material from abroad, from private owners and / or in co-operation with other European and international museums to create touring exhibitions.

DCMS is a member of the Six Presidencies' group, which have, at the request of the European Union, made "Increasing the Mobility of Collections" a key feature of the current EU cultural programme. This is a Europe-wide initiative, which is working on the creation of an EU Action Plan for the EU promotion of museums collections' mobility and loan standards, contributing to the implementation of Council Regulation NR 1383904.

International collaboration is encouraged by such organisations as Visiting Arts, a quasi- independent body funded by the British Council, the Arts Councils and the Foreign Office, with an emphasis on support for the presentation of international work in the UK. In 2004, it launched the Visiting Arts Scotland Cultural Profile, a tool designed to facilitate international projects and collaborations: http://www.scotland.culturalprofiles.org.uk/.

The UK delegation at meetings of the World Heritage Committee includes representatives from the Scottish Executive and its agencies. The UK (through Historic Scotland) is represented at the Council of Europe CD-PAT committee. Historic Scotland co-ordinates the UK response to the Framework Convention negotiations. The UK is also represented at meetings of the HEREIN project, a Council of Europe heritage database initiative supported by the European Union.

DCMS, with the UK Film Council, sits on the management committee of the EU's MEDIA Plus programme. The UK Government is working closely with the European Commission and other Member states to ensure that the programme contributes to a sustainable European film industry. DCMS also represents the UK on the Executive Council of the European Audiovisual Observatory, a Council of Europe organisation, which collects and disseminates data on the audiovisual sector. The key objectives of DCMS are to ensure that British industry derives the maximum benefit from UK participation and involvement in these organisations and to ensure that they are run in an efficient and coherent manner to best address the needs and interests of the audiovisual and broadcasting sectors.

The UK model of mixed public private financing is becoming increasingly attractive in the light of the pressures on state funding in other countries. Arts & Business has been involved in training in over 32 countries and also holds the presidency of CEREC, the European Committee for Business, Arts and Culture, which promotes business and arts relationships.

There have been extensive changes to the co-production environment, which will make film co-production much more difficult. A number of new treaties are being agreed (S. Africa, Morocco, China, India and Jamaica), bilateral treaties are being suspended and existing treaties are being reviewed. The review of the tax environment (brought into force in 2006), in which a tax credit has been provided for film, means that co-production is more difficult and costly than hitherto and the numbers of co-productions has fallen substantially.

Several organisations in the UK run international cultural education and training programmes. The British Council offers a number of scholarships to overseas students to study in the UK. They are also involved with youth exchange, teaching exchange, school partnerships and training / work experience abroad. Fellowships offered through the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts (NESTA) and the Clore Leadership Programme (an initiative that aims to help to train and develop a new generation of leaders for the cultural sector in the UK) can also include opportunities for international training / experience, as do some Visiting Arts' projects.

Since 2001, ACE has offered an International Artists Fellowship programme, which enabled artists from all art forms, and at any stage in their career, to engage with artists from other cultures and disciplines. 180 fellowships have taken place in 30 countries around the world. Smaller artist-led organisations also arrange their own initiatives, such as AN - The Artists Information Company "Networking Artists Networks" bursary and international residency exchanges offered by studios such as Gasworks and Spike Island.

A business-led alliance called the Tourism and Heritage Export Group works to improve the export potential of the UK's heritage skills; one of its key tasks is to advise DCMS and UKT&I (UK Trade & Investment) on the export strategy for the sector.

There has been much greater awareness of the relevance of international cultural co-operation in recent years. However, finding funding to undertake the work can still prove a difficult and time consuming process. The Arts Councils in the UK all support international work, but it is only recently that these ideas have been given a more structured form in strategy documents and in the case of ACE, internationalism has become one of their six priorities.

ACE published its first ever International Policy in June 2005. The policy provides a framework to support the development of new international partnerships and initiatives. Arts Council Scotland and the British Council Scotland launched an International Arts Strategy in 2006 and have established a joint Head of International Arts.

United Kingdom/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.3 European / international actors and programmes

The UK Government, through the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) and in consultation with the devolved administrations, has the lead responsibility for cultural co-operation in the EU, and on cultural policy issues in the Council of Europe. The UK Government had been one of the founders of UNESCO and, after a 12 year absence due to financial and political differences, the UK rejoined UNESCO in 1997. The UK UNESCO National Commission sector committee for culture was set up in 2000 and is administered by the British Council. The Commission, along with the culture committee (and other sector committees), was dissolved in 2003, but was then reinstated from March 2004. The culture committee was re-established in the summer of 2005, comprising 20 elected members from a range of organisations, supported by a Cultural Network (operating mainly electronically).

DCMS is a member of the Six Presidencies' group, which have, at the request of the European Union, made "Increasing the Mobility of Collections" a key feature of the current EU cultural programme. This is a Europe-wide initiative, which is working on the creation of an EU Action Plan for the EU promotion of museums collections' mobility and loan standards, contributing to the implementation of Council Regulation NR 1383904.

The DCMS is the government department responsible for the implementation of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. DCMS undertook a consultation with key organisations in 2004. The Convention was due to be laid before Parliament in late 2006 and advice on the Convention is awaited from the European Commission.

United Kingdom/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.4 Direct professional co-operation

The Public Record Office of Northern Ireland (PRONI) is represented on the Irish Manuscripts Commission (IMC). The IMC - a body appointed by the government of Ireland - publishes manuscript material of Irish interest and opportunities for co-operation between the body and PRONI are being developed.

Most of the domestic Arts Councils engage with international networks.  For example, as well as the joint working mentioned in http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 2.4.2, Arts Council England is currently a member of EFAH, ITEM, ELIA and Les Rencontres. Links with EFAH will be developed through the ACE international information and policy service they are involved with.

ACE supports international co-operation projects through its main funding streams; Grants for the Arts, and regular funding for organisations. ACE also directly administers an International Artists Fellowships programme, which provides opportunities for UK artists to undertake a period of creative development in an international "host" organisation. The programme will run until 2008.

United Kingdom/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.5 Cross-border intercultural dialogue and co-operation

England

Arts Council England released an "artist-centred" international policy in 2005, described as "an extension of their work in England" with the intention of supporting experience and exchange that leads to deeper understanding and co-operation:
http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/documents/publications/intpolicypdf_phpBqtojd.pdf

Northern Ireland

The Arts Council of Northern Ireland works closely with its counterpart in the Republic of Ireland, An Comhairle Ealaion, in cross-border co-operation. ACNI co-funds approximately 15 organisations with An Comhairle Ealaion in the Republic. These cover a range of artforms including literature, music and visual arts. Further co-operation and collaboration with the Republic involves undertaking joint research projects and sharing best practice.  

Wales

Dance Encounters was a project run by Wales Arts International in partnership with artists and dance organisations in Wales during 2005-06.  Through events that combine debate, discussion, workshops and performance, the Dance Encounters programme sought to offer rich and stimulating opportunities to explore current ideas on practice and dance development, to share knowledge and experience and to form new working relationships. The project involved partners from Austria, Canada, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Netherlands, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Zimbabwe.

For more information, see our Intercultural Dialogue section

United Kingdom/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.6 Other relevant issues

The Department for International Development (DFID) is the part of the UK Government that manages Britain's aid to developing countries and works to get rid of extreme poverty.  It has 2 offices in the UK and 64 overseas.  It supports a small number of development projects that involve culture, for example: a radio programme in Nigeria (through the State & Local Government Programme); an educational TV drama series - Makutano Junction - in Kenya; use of drama in Peru to promote knowledge of the election process and psychosocial projects, as part of emergency relief. Independent organisations and cultural practitioners also initiate a wide range of culture in development projects; the British Council produces an Arts & Culture in Development Directory featuring 70 examples - available online at: http://www.britishcouncil.org/arts-performing-arts-acd-directory.htm

There are a number of culture-in-development programmes underway throughout Northern Ireland; one particularly notable project is the "Re-imaging Communities Programme", which ACNI, along with other key partners, is leading. Communities across Northern Ireland will benefit from a GDP 3.3 million investment over the next 3 years. It is anticipated that this programme will help all communities in Northern Ireland focus on broader expressions of civic and cultural identity and to create a more inclusive and welcoming society for everyone. There is also the EU Special Support Programme for Peace and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland, which aims to address the legacy of conflict and build upon the opportunities arising from peace.

The UK hosts a range of well established international cultural events, as well as an increasing number of festivals and activities programmed by national and regional authorities, organisations and venues, for example, Scotland has hosted the Edinburgh International Festival since 1947; the London International Festival of Theatre has been running since 2001 and the Notting Hill Carnival was established in 1964. In 2012, London will be hosting the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. The Legacy Trust UK Consortium has been selected as the preferred candidate to establish a new charitable Trust to support a diverse range of cultural and sporting initiatives throughout the UK. When it is established in 2007, Legacy Trust UK will receive a GDP 40 million expendable endowment (GDP 34 million from The National Lottery and GDP 6 million from the Exchequer) to be spent over the years leading up to and including 2012.

United Kingdom/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.1 Main elements of the current cultural policy model

Historically, the UK system of support for culture has been regarded as the archetypal "arms-length" model, with successive governments choosing quangos (quasi-autonomous non governmental organisations) or, as they are increasingly known by government, NDPBs (Non Departmental Public Bodies) as the instruments which administer the disbursement of government funds for culture and determine who the beneficiaries will be. Arguably, the arm's length principle is essentially a "convention" between government and the various arts and cultural agencies, and the terms of these relationships are set down in management standards. Certainly, the nature of the relationship between central government and the arm's length agencies has changed since the early 1980s, with government being seen as more interventionist on issues such as setting broad policy objectives or the reorganisation and restructuring of such bodies. In recent years this has been given added impetus by the creation of devolved government administrations in Scotland and Wales, both of which have developed their own cultural strategies.

In April 2006, the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council (MLA) announced the MLA Partnership. This is the national MLA agency and the nine regional agencies working together, from a single shared corporate plan, to deliver four strategic aims: (1) To increase and sustain participation; (2) To put museums, libraries and archives at the heart of national, regional and local life; (3) To establish a world-class and sustainable sector; and (4) To lead sector strategy and policy development. The nine regional Chairs of Boards sit upon the national Board with six other Board members. The Regional Agencies remain independently constituted organisations. The Partnership ensures that MLA speaks with one voice regionally and nationally to government, funders and partners and is responsive to the sector. MLA supports museums, libraries and archives to improve lives through knowledge; to support learning; inspire creativity and celebrate identity.

In March 2001, the Arts Council of England proposed a merger with the 10 Regional Arts Boards to create a new single arts funding and development organisation. The new body came into being in Spring 2002 (though it did not have at that time a new name). Integral to the new organisation are nine regional offices to match the nine regional planning areas that form the basis of the government's regional structure. Each of the nine regional offices has its own regional council and the chairs of each serve on the national Arts Council. It is fair to note this development was contentious.  Nevertheless, in the Arts Council's view, the principal benefits of these changes are:

The Arts Council had provided the bulk of the Regional Arts Boards' funding, but the separate constitution of each body had led to differing priorities and, in the Council's opinion, to confusion among artists and others as where responsibility lay. The proposals resulted in considerable debate, with concerns centred particularly on whether the effect would be to recentralise rather than decentralise arts responsibilities. In its early history the Arts Council of Great Britain had regional offices, but these were wound up during the 1950s. As a reaction, this led to the creation by local authorities of a network of regional arts associations to represent arts concerns at a regional level which they considered the Council was in danger of overlooking. Following the Wilding Report of 1989, which found significant variation in the distribution of funding between regions, the regional arts associations were restructured as Regional Arts Boards by the government in 1990. Paradoxically, the recent changes seemed to conflict with the government's strategic approach to decentralisation, but the Arts Council was able to confirm the importance of the regions at the heart of the new organisation and, following this reassurance, ministers supported the changes.

 Four years on from their reorganisation and simplification, the Arts Council England grants for the arts have been reviewed, leading to an overhaul and re-launch in an attempt to improve their efficiency and consistency. The main aims are to smooth out the application process, speed it up for smaller grants and reduce the administrative burden on officers. The new single Grants for the Arts programme has five key assessment criteria :

The Arts Council made it clear that this was part of an ongoing process and there were likely to be further reviews and amendments. As described in http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 2.2, a recent Peer Review has provided momentum for the next significant changes at ACE - an extensive restructuring of the national office and an increased focus on strategy. The new departments are:

Following its creation in 2000, one of the UK Film Council's first moves was to set up the Regional Investment Fund for England (RIFE) to increase investment for film directly in the English regions. This, in turn, led to the creation of the Regional Screen Agencies (RSAs) in England, which have subsequently engaged in a new set of partnerships with other stakeholders in film. The UK Film Council and the RSAs share a common set of aims for talent, opportunity and access across all aspects of film development and RIFE is used to invest in production, education, film heritage, exhibition, training and locations' services. The funding and strategy has already started to have an impact: investment has risen from less than GBP 4 million in 2000 to more than GBP 20 million in 2003/04 for all sources and is continuing to increase.

Scotland

The Scottish Assembly appointed Scottish Cultural Commission published a report in June 2005, which included 124 recommendations, one of which proposed abolishing the Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen in favour of two new agencies: Culture Scotland to handle policy and the Culture Fund to manage the finance. However, the Culture Minister rejected the majority of the proposals in Parliament, but proposed the establishment of a new agency, Creative Scotland, that would absorb the functions of the Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen. The new body's remit is not yet fully defined, but is likely to include the creative industries as well as the delivery of a "new approach for recognising and growing talent". Funding for the major performing arts companies (previously the remit of the Arts Council) is to be transferred directly to government control. The proposals also envisage a larger role for Scotland's 32 local authorities as "key partners" in the arts. The process of appointing a "co-terminus Board" for Creative Scotland is underway and is likely to be in place by the Spring 2007. As part of the changes, a Culture Bill is currently at the drafting stage and is likely to be debated in the Scottish Parliament in Autumn 2007.

Wales

Following a ministerial review in 2004, the Welsh Culture Minister proposed the abolition or review of a number of arm's length agencies including the Arts Council of Wales. However, proposals to abolish the Arts Council of Wales and place its strategic planning and direct funding functions under control of the Assembly Government have been strongly opposed due to fears it could lead to "politicisation" of the arts.

The Culture Minister also proposed an overarching Culture Board for Wales, chaired by the Minister and comprising senior figures from the arts, plus local authorities in an attempt to provide greater accountability and ensure the Assembly's objectives were fully implemented by its quangos. The Arts Council of Wales has expressed concern about the implied separation of grant-giving from strategy formulation and the separate treatment of six national arts companies, which the Minister proposed should be funded directly by the Assembly in future. The discussions continue and stakeholders are awaiting the results of the Wales Arts Review (due to report in December 2006), which has been commissioned by the Culture Minister to advise on the future framework for funding arrangements to support the arts.

United Kingdom/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.2 National definition of culture

There is no official UK definition of culture. British culture, with its national, regional and linguistic distinctiveness and multi-cultural diversity, is not regarded as a single entity. Today, it is more accurate to refer to the cultures of Britain to reflect the broad range of that diversity.

United Kingdom/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.3 Cultural policy objectives

The fundamental aim of UK cultural policy is to make the best things in life available to the largest possible number of people. Its goals are to increase access to and participation in the cultural and sporting life of the nation and to enhance the quality of the experience on offer, whetting people's appetite for excellence.

To achieve its vision to extend excellence and improve access in all its sectors, the Department for Culture, Media and Sport has developed five strategic priorities around which it organises its work. The DCMS five strategic priorities are broken down as follows:

The Department's Public Service Agreement (PSA) targets are linked to its strategic priorities. PSAs set out each government department's aims, objectives and key targets. They are agreed with HM Treasury and form an integral part of the spending plans set out in Spending Reviews.

For objectives specific to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.1.

United Kingdom/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.1 Main cultural policy issues and priorities

Recent years have seen an increased recognition in the way in which DCMS sectors in England (such as arts and sport) can contribute to the achievement of wider government objectives such as promoting social inclusion and neighbourhood renewal and its increasing commitment to investment in cultural (i.e. human) capital. They have witnessed a closer working relationship between central and local government, in recognition of jointly-shared aims and the need for services to be effectively delivered. A further key development has been the introduction of Public Service Agreements between the Treasury and individual government departments, and the bodies they, in turn, fund. These set out the targets that the funded body has agreed to work towards in return for its funding, and demonstrate the key priorities for the body.

In all four UK nations, the period since 1996 has been one of policy review and change with a new incoming UK Government in 1997 with its own objectives and the delegation of responsibility for culture to the Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly, and the creation of the Northern Ireland Assembly. In this period of upheaval, certain cultural issues have been given priority such as access, excellence, creativity, cultural diversity, the artist, new technologies and culture and education.

Following the Comprehensive Spending Review (CSR) in 1998, the government set new priorities for public spending with significant extra resources in key services. The government also made a commitment to link this extra investment to modernisation and reform, to raise standards and improve the quality of public services. The White Paper, Public Services for the Future: Modernisation, Reform, Accountability (December 1998) and its supplement published in March 1999, delivered this commitment by publishing for the first time measurable targets for the full range of the government's objectives. They form an integral part of the spending plans set out in Spending Reviews. At each subsequent Spending Review (2000 and 2002) PSAs have been refined and developed in order that departments continue focussing on the priorities that the government is committed to deliver.

DCMS is committed to encouraging a fully integrated approach to the delivery of cultural services in England. In 2002, it published guidelines on Local Cultural Strategies, drawing on the experiences of a pilot study that involved 14 local authorities. In 2005, 13 local councils were chosen by DCMS and the Local Government Association to become part of the new national "Cultural Pathfinders" programme, to promote the government's social, environmental and economic agenda through cultural initiatives at a local level.

England

In 2006, Arts Council England completed the first ever major review of contemporary visual arts, encompassing a wide field of art forms including artists' film and video, crafts, live art, photography, new media arts and education and critical debate, which has informed Turning Point, a national 10 year strategy for the visual arts. This new framework aims to support the development of closer links and collaboration across heritage and contemporary visual arts and the commercial sectors. It is also intended to enable the Arts Council to adopt a more strategic role, grounded in a clear understanding of the visual arts sector and its broader context.

ACE has also published its corporate plan, Our Agenda for the Arts, for the period 2006-08. The overall ambition of ACE during this period is to put the arts at the heart of national life and people at the heart of the arts. Our Agenda outlines ACE's new priorities for this period, i.e.:

See http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/documents/publications/phpkYDIl9.rtf.

In recognition of the growing threat posed by piracy to the UK film industry, the UK Film Council undertook a study which considered both the scale and extent of copyright theft and the means by which it could be countered. In terms of measures to combat piracy, the study explored the legal framework; enforcement; security measures; education and consumer awareness; and the development of new business models.

The findings of this study were presented in the report Film theft in the UK, published in 2004. It sets out 30 recommendations for government, the industry and government-backed and other stakeholders, action on which is being co-ordinated by the UK Film Council-led Anti-Film Theft Task Force.

Scotland

Scotland's National Cultural Strategy - Creating our future - Minding our past - was a four year policy framework, underpinning the development of culture across Scotland. It was developed following extensive consultation and published by the Scottish Executive in August 2000. It set out four policy objectives:

Among the cultural achievements outlined in the Strategy are:

The Scottish Executive produced a Literature Review of the Evidence Base for Culture, the Arts and Sport Policy, published in August 2004, which examines the social and economic impact of culture, arts and sport initiatives. It provides a coherent social research evidence base to inform cultural policy development. The Review is available on line at http://www.scotland.gov.uk/socialresearch.

In April 2004, Scottish Ministers set up an independent Cultural Commission to review cultural provision and delivery at all levels, across the country. The Commission was given a remit to examine existing arrangements. The approach entailed extensive consultation with the cultural sector and other interested parties. The Commission's findings and recommendations were presented to Ministers in June 2005 entitled Our next major enterprise... (available at http://www.culturalcommission.org.uk/). The Commission had been asked to consider ways to boost access, exploring the notion of cultural rights for Scotland's citizens and its creative community, and to review the institutional and built infrastructure and governance of the country's cultural sector. The Executive undertook a consultation on publishing statistics on culture and sport, with a view to producing a compendium covering topics such as attendance, participation, attitudes, facilities, employment, financing etc.  Results indicated that people would prefer a web-based solution, which has led to two developments: the High Level Summary of Statistics website will be expanded and regularly updated and EXNET, a resource listing research, work plans and recent publications from the Executive and the Scottish Arts Council, is due to be launched towards the end of 2006.

Wales

Creative Future: Cymru Greadigol - a ten-year culture strategy was launched by the Welsh Assembly government in 2002, outlining a number of priorities for culture in Wales. Among these are the:

(ACW) Proposals to place the Arts Council of Wales's strategic planning and research functions, and direct funding of the six "national" arts companies, under the control of the Welsh Assembly Government were defeated in a plenary debate in the National Assembly. The future of arts funding is currently being reviewed by an independent Wales Arts Review Panel chaired by Professor Elan Closs Stephens. The Panel is expected to issue its report by late November 2006, and the Minister will respond by the end of the year.

Northern Ireland

In Northern Ireland, the Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL) sought to address the multiple challenges facing the cultural sector as it brought a new focus on culture, arts and leisure following the Northern Ireland political settlement and the introduction of devolved political arrangements. In 2000 DCAL initiated a wide-ranging and intensive consultation process, which resulted in the publication in 2001 of Face to Face, a ten year vision for arts and culture in Northern Ireland. In June 2001, four NI Departments working in partnership (Department of Education, Department for Employment and Learning, Department of Enterprise, Trade and Investment, and the Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure) published Unlocking Creativity - Making it Happen. This strategy aims to promote creativity as a necessary means to economic prosperity and social cohesion, and cuts across the fields of education, the creative industries, enterprise, innovation, the arts and society. A new medium term action plan to refresh the strategy is in preparation. At the time, the Arts Council of Northern Ireland was seen as holding a pivotal role in realising many of the core objectives of the strategy.

For its part, the Arts Council of Northern Ireland developed a five year Arts Plan setting out its strategic priorities and objectives from 2001 to 2006. They are:

In looking forward, the Department has published its second Corporate Strategy entitled Vision 04/07. The strategy sets out its vision for the contribution that culture, arts and leisure can make to Northern Ireland, to build a "confident, creative, informed and vibrant community", underpinned by its mission "to protect, nurture and grow our "Cultural Capital" for today and tomorrow".

"Cultural Capital" is a new way of thinking about business areas that conceptually brings all parts of the Department together, with the whole being more than the sum of all parts. It will help DCAL to develop a holistic approach to policy development across its diverse business areas and will unify thinking at the strategic level, adding value, prompting cross-fertilisation of ideas, creating synergy and producing greater levels of efficiency.

The three elements of "Cultural Capital" - People, Products / Services and Infrastructure - have a symbiotic relationship, each element driving the others and each element being interdependent upon the others. The belief is that a balanced level of investment in these areas will bring efficiency and value for money.

"Cultural Capital" will be implemented in a number of ways. DCAL will examine existing policies and programmes to understand how the three elements are currently being supported. It will develop a new policy maximising the impacts of investment within each element and ensuring efficiency by maintaining the balance of resources.

Alongside social and economic development, "Cultural Capital" will add value to the process of delivering government policy and achieving the aims of programme for government.

DCAL's Corporate Strategy (Vision 04/07) seeks to deliver the following goals:

In 2006, DCAL published a policy framework for public libraries, "Delivering Tomorrow's Libraries." This is expected to guide the development of the public library service over the next ten years, through the period of transition to a single, unified service for all of Northern Ireland. It contains standards for public libraries and sets out a renewed focus on customer service, based around libraries' role of providing access to books and information. DCAL's vision for the public library service is: "A flexible and responsive library service which provides a dynamic focal point in the community and assists people to fulfil their potential."

United Kingdom/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.1 Cultural minorities, groups and communities

The most recent official statistics on ethnic minorities within the UK population are from the 2001 Census (http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=273). The size of the minority ethnic population was 4.6 million, or 7.9 per cent of the total population of the United Kingdom at that time (54 153 898). Half of the total minority ethnic population were Asians of Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi or other Asian origin. A quarter of minority ethnic people described themselves as Black - that is Black Caribbean, Black African or Other Black. Fifteen per cent of the minority ethnic population described their ethnic group as Mixed. About a third of this group were from White and Black Caribbean backgrounds. The remaining minority ethnic groups each accounted for less than 0.5 per cent, but together accounted for a further 1.4 per cent of the UK population.

The Race Relations Amendment Act 2000 requires public bodies, including the UK's four Arts Councils, to demonstrate that they are promoting racial equality via their policies and practice.

The Museums, Libraries and Archives Council (MLA) has created a National Cultural Diversity Network for the museums, archives and libraries sector, delivering support, advice and training through regional Cultural Diversity Co-ordinators. In addition, the MLA Workforce Development Strategy includes a major strand "Diversify". This funds positive action traineeships and is researching the barriers stopping BME young people from entering the sector. Other positive action employment initiatives include a coalition of television broadcasters (and the UK Film Council) - the Cultural Diversity Network - who focus on diversity,  inclusion and employment in the sector, and which has led to action plans with targets and measures to integrate ethnic minorities into television at all levels (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.5). Two other examples are the ACE positive action publishing traineeship, aimed at people with a Black, African, Caribbean, Asian or Chinese background and EQ, a national equality and diversity agency working in the creative industries. EQ was established following a GBP 5 million programme called Creative Renewal, funded by the European Social Fund, which involved 41 organisations who developed innovative approaches to tackling inequality in the creative industries. 

Following the delivery, in 2001, of the report by the Committee for Ethnic Minority Employment in Film, examining how the proportion of black and minority ethnic people entering the film industry can be increased, the Film Council published a strategy on improving diversity and inclusion in film in the UK (Success through diversity and inclusion), and set up a Leadership on Diversity group for film. It has also undertaken a range of initiatives in line with the policy commitments of this strategy, such as establishing industry partnerships focused on delivering change in relation to film.

All four national Arts Councils promote cultural diversity in the arts.

England

Arts Council England has a Race Equality Scheme, which seeks to both embed diversity into the organisation itself, and also to encourage and support all regularly funded organisations to develop good practice in relation to race equality. The scheme has also established targets for ACE's Grants for the Arts programme regarding Black and Minority Ethnic artists and arts organisations - 10% minimum, nationally - which were exceeded in 2004/05 when 23% of individuals receiving grants defined themselves as Black and Minority Ethnic artists. Running from May 2003 to March 2004, "decibel" - raising the voice of culturally diverse arts in Britain was a GBP 5 million Arts Council England initiative aimed at raising the profile of, and developing infrastructure for, culturally diverse arts, defined as African, Asian and Caribbean artists. It sought to place diversity in the forefront of the Council's work, reinforcing professional practice and mainstreaming art works from diverse communities. The work will be continued by "decibel legacy" through to 2008. An evaluation of decibel's initial year found that some gains had been made by the initiative - nearly 60% of all respondents said their knowledge of African, Asian and Caribbean artists had increased and 80% of the 130 organisations that responded said they planned to develop their programming of culturally diverse artists as a result of decibel. However, criticisms included: confusion about the overall ethos and delivery, and performance targets not being in place when the initiative commenced.

Between 1998-2003, Arts Council England also ran the New Audiences Programme which included 209 projects focussed on developing Black and minority ethnic audiences or audiences for Black and minority ethnic work. The Arts Councils encourage the growth of Caribbean carnival across the UK, the most famous of which is the annual Notting Hill Carnival in London - the largest street festival in Europe - through support of both organisations and individual performers.

However, suggestions have been made that the DCMS is missing targets set for engaging minorities in the arts - e.g. a target of increasing disabled people's attendance at arts events from 29% (2001) to 32% by 2006 is not on track. 2004 figures suggest that attendance in this group had actually fallen to 26%, whilst that of socially excluded people had dropped from 10% to 9%. An Arts Council England spokesman said these statistics, taken from the Annual Report, were only interim calculations.

A report, Eclipse, compiled in 2001 by Arts Council England in conjunction with the Theatrical Management Association, looked at how the theatre industry can develop strategies to tackle institutional racism. Duriong 2005-06, the Arts Council worked with an Advisory Group of Black freelance artists and consulted widely into race equality within the theatre sector to produce Whose Theatre...? Report on the Sustained Theatre Consultation. The report makes recommendations to ensure the further development and long-term success of Back and Minority Ethnic artists, including focusing on the need for a network of buildings, cultural leadership, critical debate and archiving, international work and the role of the Arts Council, see: http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/documents/projects/phpTAqE9H.pdf

Scotland

The Scottish Arts Council prioritises three main areas of activity within its work to promote cultural diversity: visibility, capacity-building and mainstreaming. This includes a variety of initiatives such as research, capacity-building for a range of organisations, and funding of specific festivals such as the Edinburgh Mela and the North Glasgow Festival at Sighthill, home to many asylum-seekers and refugees. Mainstream organisations are also encouraged to programme diverse work and take on minority ethnic trainees.

In its Equality Strategy, the Scottish Executive sets out its commitment to promoting greater equality of opportunity for all. A key principle underpinning the development of the strategy is ensuring that equality issues are at the heart of policy making. As an illustration, the European Year of Disabled People 2003 was embraced proactively by Scotland's cultural agencies e.g. the Scottish Arts Council allocated GBP 350 000 to a programme of research, seminars, events, theatre productions and a major conference in December 2003.

Northern Ireland

The Arts Council of Northern Ireland (ACNI) is fully committed to the fulfilment of the Section 75 obligations under the Northern Ireland Equality Act 1998 on the promotion of equality of opportunity and good relations. The commitment to S75 duties is evidenced by the following statements contained within its 2006-2011 strategic documents:

In the financial year 2005/2006, ACNI allocated approximately GDP 527 000 to specifically deliver equality scheme commitments, for example, an InterCulturalism Programme was established to help black and minority ethnic groups throughout Northern Ireland develop their capacity to engage in arts projects.

More recently ACNI has begun to engage in discussion with minority ethnic clients with a view to establishing a forum to facilitate the exchange of ideas and to increase networking opportunities.

DCAL is leading a sub-group of the Northern Ireland Race Forum looking at the communication needs of ethnic minority communities. A report on the work of the group will be presented to the Race Forum before the end of 2006.

United Kingdom/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.2 Language issues and policies

English is the official language of the UK and is in common usage, though Wales is officially bi-lingual. The UK has signed the Council of Europe's Charter for Regional or Minority languages, and has accepted certain obligations in respect of designated languages in Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man.

Brd na Gidhlig (Alba), a Non Departmental Public Body (NDPB), was established in late 2002 as the main advisory and executive body on the Gaelic language, which is predominantly spoken in parts of the Scottish Highlands and Islands, but also by sizeable communities in the lowland cities. The Brd has responsibility for the overall direction and management of a National Plan for Gaelic. The responsible Minister is the Deputy Minister for Enterprise in the Highlands & Islands and for Gaelic. The Scottish Executive has introduced legislation to the Scottish Parliament in the shape of the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Bill which will see the Brd established in Statute and help secure the status of Gaelic as one of Scotland's official languages, but more importantly reverse the decline in the numbers of people speaking Gaelic.

The Scottish Executive also gives financial support to a number of Gaelic organisations involved in promoting language and culture. Scottish Arts Council support for the Gaelic language in 2003-04 amounted to GBP 927 000. This included aid to the Gaelic Books Council, Priseact nan Ealan (the Gaelic Arts Project), and the Fisean movement, which involves young people in learning about their language and their culture.

Historic Scotland aims to provide interpretation resources and activities at properties in its care, to foster awareness and use of languages spoken in Scotland.

In Wales: A Better Country (2003) the Welsh Assembly Government sets out its long-term vision of "a truly bilingual Wales": a country where the presence of both Welsh and English languages is a source of pride and strength. In March 2003, the Welsh Assembly Government launched Iaith Pawb (Everybody's language), the first National Action Plan for a bilingual Wales which sets out how the government will achieve its vision. It has committed resources of GBP 28 million. A Cabinet post of Minister for Culture, Sport and the Welsh Language was created in 2000. The Welsh Language Board was established as a statutory body under the Welsh Language Act 1993. Its primary aim is to promote and facilitate use of the Welsh language and it does this by awarding grants and regulating the preparation and implementation of Welsh Language Schemes by public bodies.

In film and television, S4C (the Welsh fourth channel) and the Gaelic TV Fund amongst others promote Gaelic languages in film.

Language diversity policy in Northern Ireland is developed by the Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL). The North-South Co-operation (implementation) Northern Ireland Order set up a North-South Language Body to promote greater awareness and use of the Irish language and Ulster-Scots language and culture. In 2002, the Arts Council of Northern Ireland conducted a needs analysis into Irish and Ulster-Scots language arts.

DCAL is providing GBP 12 million, over a 4-year period, to support Irish Language film and television production. The Irish Language Broadcast Fund has been operational since June 2005 and is administered by the Northern Ireland Film and Television Commission. The Fund includes a training scheme which provides trainees with the skills needed to broadcast in the Irish language.

DCAL is committed to take steps to ensure that a fully functioning Ulster Scots Academy is established by 2007 with an overall budget of GBP 12 million. An Ulster Scots Academy Implementation Group was asked to make recommendations for the establishment of an academy including governance, staffing, location and a detailed business plan. The Group was due to present its proposals in August 2006.

British Sign Language (BSL) and Irish Sign Language (ISL) were recognised as languages in their own right by the UK Government (2003) and the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland (March 2004). Taking Northern Ireland as an example: there are approximately 5 000 people in the deaf community who use sign language as their first or preferred language - BSL is used by approximately 3 500 and 1 500 use ISL. A Sign Language Partnership Group, led by DCAL, with representation from government departments and all major organisations representing the deaf community, is developing ideas for improving access to public services. This group has designed an exhibition which is touring public venues to raise awareness of both languages. A best practice document has also been developed to help front line staff communicate better with the deaf community. The group is also examining ways to enhance the supply of sign language interpreters and tutors.

United Kingdom/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.3 Intercultural dialogue: actors, strategies, programmes

"Intercultural" is a term that is often confused with "multicultural". By multicultural we understand that a society encourages people to practice culture(s) particular to their own heritage. Multiculturalism in itself does not necessarily promote engagement between different cultures, where as intercultural dialogue does.  Although there is no explicit government policy to promote "intercultural dialogue" in the UK it generally falls under the larger umbrella of cultural diversity, which is now a central issue to all key national and local cultural policies.  A major exception to this is Northern Ireland, where there have been a number of initiatives to promote intercultural understanding between the Protestant and Catholic communities.

The Department for Culture Media and Sport seeks to ensure that cultural diversity is considered in all its areas of activity, and looks to foster mutual understanding, nurture mutual respect and celebrate the cultural diversity of the UK. It states that "British culture is not a single entity; we should rightly speak of British cultures...Cultural diversity is all about celebrating being different, and differences between people go much deeper than race alone". It has undertaken a consultation on the European Commission's proposal for the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue 2008.

Championing cultural diversity, with the intention of promoting cultural dialogue, is one of all four national Arts Council's core ambitions and is integrated into their day to day work, with the aim of encouraging an environment where the arts reflect the full range and diversity of contemporary society, ensuring that everyone has access to quality arts activity. In the financial year 2005/2006, the Arts Council of Northern Ireland allocated approximately GBP 527 000 specifically to deliver equality scheme commitments, f or example, an InterCulturalism Programme was established to help black and minority ethnic groups throughout Northern Ireland to develop their capacity to engage in arts projects.

The Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) was set up under the 1976 Race Relations Act. It receives a grant from the Home Office, but works independently of government and is involved with a number of cultural projects to promote intercultural dialogue and cultural diversity. For example, the CRE have been organising the Race In the Media Awards (RIMA) for around 14 years. RIMA is currently supported by the UK Film Council, the National Lottery and private sponsorship and the intention is to reflect the different ways in which journalists, editors, producers, writers and performers have addressed the fast-developing issues of integration, diversity and "Britishness". One of the founding principles of the awards is to combat racial discrimination, racism and xenophobia, and to encourage good relations among individuals and communities from different backgrounds. The CRE launched Young Brits at Art in 2006 - a new art competition inviting British secondary school students to draw and paint pictures which express their thoughts and feelings about their place in Britain today. Schools in areas where race hate crimes and prejudice are prevalent will be offered special art workshops exploring identity led by professional artists.

The British Council Storylines project (http://www.britishcouncilstorylines.org/) is giving young filmmakers from Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone and the UK the opportunity to film personal stories about the interconnectedness of cultures and identities.  By sharing these stories with a larger audience through public exhibition and the internet the project intends to promote intercultural dialogue, witness shared concerns and increase mutual understanding. The British Council are also committed to youth exchange, on the basis that the experience can help promote intercultural dialogue and understanding, through their Connect Youth International programme (http://www.connectyouthinternational.com/), which provides advice, information and funding.

With regards to intercultural dialogue between the UK and other countries, there are several organisations working in this field. For example, Eurodesk was established in Scotland in 1990, but is now a European network of 500 partners in 31 countries giving information on European opportunities to young people. Visiting Arts is an independent educational charity and a limited company whose purpose is to strengthen intercultural understanding through the arts by supporting artists and arts organisations promote the flow of overseas work into the UK.

An example of a private funding body involved in helping create opportunities for intercultural dialogue is the Winston Churchill Memorial Trust, which offers Fellowships to all British citizens resident in the UK to acquire knowledge and experience abroad with the intention that they "gain a better understanding of the lives and different cultures of people overseas and, on their return, their effectiveness at work and their contribution to the community is enhanced greatly".

For more information, see:
Database of Good Practice on Intercultural Dialogue and our Intercultural Dialogue section.

For more information on the government's National Strategy for the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue please see: http://ec.europa.eu/culture/eac/dialogue/strategies_en.html 

United Kingdom/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.4 Social cohesion and cultural policies

Social exclusion, whether that is on the grounds of race, age, religion, gender, sexual orientation etc., has been identified as a key issue that creates division. Events over the past few years, for example the violent disturbances in Birmingham (2005), Bradford, Burnley and Oldham (2001), suggest a continuing mistrust and fear of amongst people with different cultural, racial and religious backgrounds. There are a number of local and national policies that seek to promote social cohesion through social inclusion and, since the mid 1980s, culture / the arts have proved to be effective vehicles in this regard.

Within the UK Government, the Community Cohesion Unit (http://old.homeoffice.gov.uk/comrace/cohesion/index.html) is part of the Home Office and has set out a common vision for all communities:

The government undertook a consultation in 2004 called Strength in Diversity to develop a Community Cohesion and Race Equality strategy, which was launched in January 2005, entitled Improving Opportunity, Strengthening Society.  This will form the basis of a renewed programme of action, across government and more widely, to build community cohesion and reduce race inequalities.

In its Equality Strategy , the Scottish Executive sets out its commitment to promoting greater equality of opportunity for all and in its National Cultural Strategy it states that "culture promotes social cohesion", citing projects supported by the Scottish Arts Council working in partnership with local organisations that have focused on culture as a means of supporting economic and social regeneration.

The Equality Bill has had its final reading in parliament and, when passed, the Commission for Equality and Human Rights (CEHR) will be established in 2007. The Equality Bill shows the government's commitment to human rights, equality and anti-discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation, religion or belief and age, alongside gender, race and disability. The Commission for Racial Equality is involved in a number of projects to promote social cohesion and tackle race hate crime and prejudice, for example the Young Brits at Art award mentioned above.

In Northern Ireland, the Community Relations Council was formed in January 1990 as an independent company and registered charity. It originated in 1986 as a proposal of a research report commissioned by the Northern Ireland Standing Advisory Committee on Human Rights. The Community Relations Council was set up to promote better community relations between Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland and, equally, to promote recognition of cultural diversity. Its strategic aim is to assist the people of Northern Ireland to recognise and counter the effects of communal division. It aims to do this by:

The Centre for Creative Communities is a non-governmental organisation supported by the Arts Council, amongst others, that believes that the arts and creativity are central to human development and essential elements in building sustainable communities.  They have developed a number of projects and conferences, such as the Common Threads programme, exploring the role of culture and an integrated approach to social cohesion and intercultural understanding: http://www.creativecommunities.org.uk/.

The Museums, Libraries and Archives Council is working with Arts Council England, English Heritage, CABE (Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment) and Sport England to deliver Where we live (2006-07). This campaign highlights the contribution that culture, heritage and sport make to sustainable community and community cohesion programmes. It also sets out a work plan, agreed with the Department for Communities and Local Government for joint working. MLA is also developing indicators to measure the impact that museums, libraries and archives have in addressing exclusion issues around sustainable communities, social inclusion and health.

United Kingdom/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.5 Media pluralism and content diversity

The UK Government believes that programming should appeal to a wide range of tastes and interests, and to people of different ages and backgrounds. This is reflected in the current regulatory arrangements.

The BBC's Royal Charter and its agreement with the government include obligations to provide a properly balanced service consisting of a wide range of subject matter and to serve the tastes and needs of different audiences. There are five terrestrial channels - BBC1, BBC 2, ITV 1, Channel 4 and Channel 5. Under the provisions in the Broadcasting Act 1990, ITV and Channel 5 are required to provide a diverse programme service calculated to appeal to a wide variety of tastes and interests. Channel 4 has a statutory duty to provide information, education and entertainment; a wide range of programmes must be provided.

Under the 1990 and the 1996 Broadcasting Acts, ITV 1, Channel 4, Channel 5, National Radio Licence holders and digital terrestrial programme licence holders are also required to promote equality of opportunity in employment between men and women and between persons of different racial groups.

Within this framework, decisions about programme content and presentation are a matter for the regulators and the broadcasters themselves. They have set out detailed requirements in the Independent Television Commission (ITC)'s Programme Code and the BBC's Producer Guidelines, including on the specific issues of the portrayal of ethnic minorities in programming.

A Communications White Paper published in 2000 reaffirms the government's commitment to ensuring that public service broadcasters continue to celebrate and reflect culturally diverse communities, and broadcast programmes that appeal to a wide range of tastes and interests as well as to people of different ages and backgrounds. This may be achieved through the realistic portrayal of people from diverse or varied cultural backgrounds or through new services, including community radio and television. The scope for such services increases in a digital environment whether they are delivered through terrestrial spectrum, cable, satellite or the Internet.

Following two years of intense debate, the Communications Act was passed in 2003; jointly sponsored by both the Department of Trade and Industry and the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, it established Ofcom as the independent media regulatory body, replacing five existing regulators - the Broadcasting Standards Commission, the Independent Television Commission, Oftel, the Radio Authority and the Radiocommunications Agency. The work of Ofcom and the Communications Act are intended to ensure that commercial television and radio, telecommunications networks and wireless and satellite services operate, compete and develop in the greater public interest. Ofcom also has a number of powers in relation to BBC television and radio and advises the Secretary of State on proposed newspaper mergers.

The BBC's 8th Royal Charter ends on 31 December 2006, providing an opportunity to review the BBC's role, functions and structure. Some of the key proposals in the government white paper A public service for all: the BBC in the digital age include a new governance process - the current board of Governors to be replaced by a new, transparent and accountable BBC Trust to oversee the Corporation, with ultimate responsibility for the license fee and for making sure the BBC fulfils its public service obligations. Six new purposes for the BBC have been set out in the new Charter(until the next renewal, due 31 December 2016):

In addition, Ofcom (the media regulator) has been conducting a far-reaching review of Public Service Broadcasting. The 12-month review involved detailed analysis of all the UK public service broadcasters: BBC, ITV1, Channel 4, Channel Five, S4C and all related television services taken together. It was evidence-based and research-driven, rooted in responses from viewers themselves. The outcome will feed into government's review of the BBC's Charter. The intention is for viewers and programmes to be central to the review that will inform the future shape of British television.

Ofcom published a blueprint (Oct 2004) of how public service broadcasting can be delivered in the pressures of the digital age, as the analogue television signal is gradually shutdown.  The report supports a "fully-funded" BBC, but also acknowledges that the arrangements currently in place for ITV and Channel Five may not be financially viable in the long term. It is proposing a new broadcasting organisation - a "public service publisher" - funded by GBP 300 million of public money per year (for three hours of programmes a day), to commission and transmit the kind of "merit" programming that it is feared ITV and Five are likely to abandon in the coming years and preserve the vibrancy and quality of British television. This would prevent the BBC becoming the monopoly public service provider. The venture would not make any programmes itself, but rather commission them from independent producers. These "traditional TV programmes" could also be delivered on broadband or direct to services like Sky Plus. Ofcom suggests three funding options: a supplement to the BBC licence fee; support from general taxation as with the BBC World Service (MPs and Treasury are unlikely to support this), or tax on other broadcaster's turnover (which would not be popular with commercial broadcasters). An organisation / group of individuals could bid for the 10 year operator's licence. The government will set the new licence fee after the BBC's Royal Charter is reviewed.

A Cultural Diversity Network (CDN), which held its first meeting in February 2000, was set up by television broadcasters in response to concerns raised by the Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport and others about the adequacy of the representation of the UK's multicultural society on and behind the screen. The network is a cross-industry initiative. As part of its work, the CDN has produced an action plan with shared objectives - Changing the face of television, Manifesto 2000. This has formed the basis of individual action plans, containing targets and measures to integrate ethnic minorities into television at all levels, which were launched by individual broadcasters in October 2000. DCMS welcomed the initiative as a demonstration of the broadcasters' commitment to increasing the diversity of those both in front of and behind the scenes, and will be watching progress.

Following the delivery, in 2001, of the report by the Committee for Ethnic Minority Employment in Film, examining how the proportion of black and minority ethnic people entering the film industry can be increased, the Film Council published a strategy on improving diversity and inclusion in film in the UK (Success through diversity and inclusion), and set up a Leadership on Diversity group for film. It has also undertaken a range of initiatives in line with the policy commitments of this strategy, such as establishing industry partnerships focused on delivering change in relation to film.

In recent years there has been much (and, arguably, unresolved) media debate about "dumbing down" - the notion that quality is being sacrificed in the arts and broadcasting in the pursuit of broadening the audience base.

Although broadcasting regulation is a UK Government matter, Scottish Ministers recognise the importance of the role of broadcasting in providing access to the diversity of Scotland's cultures and creative achievements. They consider it vital that greater production and commissioning powers are established within Scotland to achieve a more accurate reflection of Scottish culture nationally, within the UK, and internationally. The Screen Industries Summit Group for Scotland (SISG) is a high level strategic "think tank" appointed by Ministers to make recommendations about key actions and levers to achieve growth and sustainability for the screen industries in Scotland.

The Northern Ireland Film and Television Commission (NIFTC) believes that the historic exposure of negative images through film, television and print media have been the single largest contributor to the perception problems that face Northern Ireland. It feels that sustained film and television exposure of Northern Ireland, in all its facets and cultures, offers a major opportunity to alter this negative perception, build confidence and develop the identity of Northern Ireland. In this connection, it is committed to developing Northern Ireland's resident talent so that it can expose Northern Ireland's diverse cultures on an international stage.

See also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.1 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 5.3.1.

United Kingdom/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.6 Culture industries: policies and programmes

The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) defines the creative industries as "those industries that are based on individual creativity, skill and talent. They are also those that have the potential to create wealth and jobs through developing intellectual property". They include the following sectors: advertising; architecture; art and antiques markets; computer and video games; crafts; design; designer fashion; film and video; music; performing arts; publishing; software; television and radio.

The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) shares responsibility with the Department of Trade & Industry (DTI) for advertising, computer and video games, design and publishing, and has lead responsibility for the others, apart from software, which is under the DTI..

The Department for Culture, Media and Sport's work on the Creative Industries includes:

On 19 July 2004, in partnership with the Department of Trade and Industry and the Patent Office (who have direct responsibility for IP, patents and copyright), DCMS launched the Creative Industries Intellectual Property Forum. The Forum focused on three main areas of work: new business models, education and communication; and piracy and file sharing. It made a number of recommendations which government responded to:

Launched in 2005, the Creative Economy Programme is the first step in the government's goal of making the UK the "world's creative hub" by ensuring that the most is made out of the country's creative talents, raising awareness of the industry, creating a shared vision across national, regional and local stakeholders and developing policy and partnerships. The programme focuses on seven issues that are the key drivers of productivity in the creative industries - such as education and skills; competition and intellectual property; technology; business support and access to finance; diversity; infrastructure and evidence, and analysis. The DCMS has created expert working groups for each of these seven issues, drawing on expertise from across non-departmental public bodies (NDPBs), other government departments, the Government Offices for the regions and other stakeholders. The programme was due to consult widely during autumn 2006; its goal is to produce a government policy paper for the creative industries. The government wants people working in those industries - including the arts, fashion, music, computer games and advertising - to feedback their ideas. The creative economy programme website contains the latest information - http://www.cep.culture.gov.uk/

DCMS and partners support the work of three industry led export groups, helping to develop the strategy for the export of goods and services from the creative industries. These three groups bring together a unique degree of expertise from public and private sectors and trade bodies. The groups develop policies, programmes and activities-specifically focused on the creative industries, to help government assist new and established exporters to develop overseas trade capability and new opportunities abroad. The Creative Exports Group (CEG) aims to help raise the creative industries' economic potential at home and awareness worldwide. Through sharing best practice, informing and driving government support for the export of the creative industries, it aims to enhance export performance.

The Performing Arts International Development (PAID) group aims to seek out additional sources of funding and support, establish a framework of best practice and compile a directory of useful contacts that can be easily accessed by those in the sector.  It supports the development and maximising of new opportunities for companies and individual artists touring overseas. This group is now an industry led export group. Finally, Design Partners aims to help design exporters develop overseas trade and identify new opportunities and target markets abroad, thereby increasing design export potential. This group seeks to coordinate the activities of design industry bodies and government agencies and departments in order to meet its aim.

All the English regional development agencies and the devolved administrations have recognised the importance of the creative industries to regional economies.

The creative industries are the economy's fastest growing sector in London - employing more than half a million people (1 in 5 new jobs in the capital) and generating more than GBP 20 billion a year. Their contribution is also significant in rural areas - for example, a report entitled Building Creative Success shows that the creative industries in Devon generate GBP 900 million a year and employ 22 000+ people.

The London Development Agency was set up the Mayor's Commission in 2002 to look at the major issues affecting the sector and ways to support it leading to a major new initiative to showcase and boost London's creative industries. In 2005, a group representing the music, film, design and publishing industries have been lobbying the government to create a Copyright Office to improve intellectual property protection and also commission an annual survey into the contribution the industry makes to the economy (currently approx. 8% GDP).

In Scotland, the Scottish Executive has invested in the Creative Entrepreneurs Club, an industry led initiative with membership drawn from across Scotland. The initiative provides business to business and investor links, professional and business skills development opportunities, research, an interface with higher education, and briefing to the Scottish Executive. Support to the Creative Entrepreneurs Club is a Scottish Executive, Scottish Enterprise, and NESTA (National Endowment for Science Technology and the Arts) Partnership. A number of other cross cultural / enterprise agencies' partnerships has been established to address issues of support to varied aspects of Scotland's creative industries sector. These include the "Writers Factory", and the development of Cultural Enterprise offices, offering tailored support for the sector to a number of Scottish cities.

A GBP 7 million Wales Creative IP Fund has been established as part of the Welsh Assembly's strategy for the creative industries (defined as film, TV, new media and music). Through the Fund, Finance Wales acts as a "gap financier", offering finance (GBP 50 000-700 000) for productions, alongside money that has been already secured elsewhere. The intention is to stimulate growth in the creative industries and help them compete more effectively in their markets.

United Kingdom/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.7 Employment policies for the cultural sector

In 1997, the Prime Minister established a Creative Industries Task Force. Its primary roles were to raise awareness of the economic value of the industries, highlight the issues they faced, and to make recommendations for change. The Task Force agreed on a working definition for these industries as those activities which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have a potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property. The emphasis, therefore, was on the creator and the ability to exploit their originality. In terms of coverage, the creative industries were taken to include advertising, architecture, the art and antiques market, crafts, designer fashion, interactive leisure software, music, performing arts, publishing, software, television and radio.

The Task Force first measured the economic importance of the creative industries. The importance of this exercise was to convey to a wider audience the value of the industries in hard economic terms, as well as their contribution to the quality of life and to cultural values. It also demonstrated the relative importance of these industries compared to more traditional industrial sectors. The Creative Industries Mapping Document, first published in 1998 and updated in 2001, showed that not only were the industries a key economic contributor, but that they demonstrated faster than average growth potential. Against a backdrop in which manufacturing, the service sector and local government employment were all in decline, this was an area showing strong growth and the source of many of tomorrow's often highly skilled jobs. The Mapping Document also identified key issues affecting all the creative industries: skills and training; finance; intellectual property rights; and exporting. A range of measures was taken involving several government departments and players from the creative industries.

The latest Mapping Document, issued in 2001, showed that the creative industries in the UK:

Work is being carried out by the Creative Industries Higher and Further Education Forum to map and connect the various developments within academia relevant to skills and knowledge transfer agendas. The Entrepreneurship and Skills Task Group of the Forum has recommended changes to the higher education infrastructure and the development of a National Enterprise Programme to prepare graduates to work in the creative industries, citing the fact that 43% of employees in this sector are educated to degree level and higher, compared to 16% of the workforce as a whole.

Formed in May 2004, Creative & Cultural Skills is the Sector Skills Council for Advertising, Crafts, Cultural Heritage, Design, Music, Performing, Literary and Visual Arts. It is an industry-led organisation that intends to influence the supply of education and skills across the UK. Creative & Cultural Skills aims to provide a voice for employers of both large and small businesses to ensure that employers and individuals have access to high quality education and skills as well as increasing the vocational relevance of qualifications on offer and providing students with informed choice on courses and career pathways. The audio-visual sector is already served by Skillset, which develops initiatives and programmes to strengthen provision, skills and expertise in this field. Regional Development Agencies and Cultural Consortia are also playing a role in terms of regional links between industry and the creative sector.

There remains a key issue in terms of obtaining robust data and the government is looking at ways of improving data provision. However, the pace of change and the convergence of technologies will continue to create difficulties. In 2002, DCMS initiated the Regional Cultural Data Framework project to build a practical tool for gathering data on the sectors broadly covered by DCMS at a regional level for use by a wide range of practitioners. This comprehensive consultation process led to the development of the DCMS Evidence Toolkit (DET) - an online interactive web based toolkit for accessing and using information about the cultural sector. Organised according to the four strategic priorities of DCMS (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 3.3), the data enables users to build a coherent evidence base on which to make policy for the cultural sector (including sport and tourism).

In Scotland, the issues of obtaining robust data are exacerbated by the way in which data are collected on a UK basis without provision for disaggregation; the Scottish Executive is taking steps to address this through representation to the UK review of Standard Industrial Classification coding for industry sectors. It is intended to establish better evidence collection for Scotland through such means. Scotland has very few large companies within the sector and knowledge of issues affecting small and micro creative businesses is important to an understanding of the ecology of the sector as a whole. Partnerships between the key cultural and enterprise agencies have objectives for research, measures of success, and investment schemes, to assist the development and "taking to market" of leading edge creative ideas.

The Clore Leadership Programme, funded by the Clore Duffield Foundation, is an initiative that aims to help to train and develop a new generation of leaders for the cultural sector in the UK. Each year they assist a number of Clore Fellows to undertake an individual programme of learning, work, research, training, and secondment, designed to develop their leadership skills and experience. Non Departmental Public Bodies and other organisations fund some fellowships, including the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council and Arts Council England.

The Cultural Leadership Programme brings GBP 12 million over two years to promote excellence in management and leadership. It will focus on the core cultural sector - the arts, crafts, libraries and archives, museums and galleries - mainly in England. The Chancellor of the Exchequer announced this funding in the budget statement for 2005, to improve the business impact of cultural creativity. The Arts Council's partners in the programme are: the Treasury; Department for Culture, Media and Sport; Creative & Cultural Skills; Museum, Libraries and Archives Council; and the Clore Leadership Programme (an initiative that aims to help to train and develop a new generation of leaders for the cultural sector in the UK).

The delivery partnership wants to see leadership in the cultural sector that is dynamic, diverse and world class. This programme aims to develop opportunities for current and future leaders, encouraging their creativity, ambition and entrepreneurialism. The two-year programme will contribute to:

The New Deal for Musicians (NDfM), which started in August 1999, aims to help unemployed musicians or young adults who are seeking a career in the music industry. It aims to help all types of artists (including instrumentalists, vocalists, composers, songwriters and performing DJs) to move into careers in the music industry, either as artists under contract, or as self-employed. NDfM is open to 18-24 year olds who have been unemployed for six months or longer, and people aged 25 and over who have been unemployed for 18 months or longer. Many of the people on the NDfM programme move on to allied roles in the music industry, such as managers or stage crew.

Employers were able to pay lower rates of national insurance (NI) contributions for freelancers until 1998, when a change to government regulations on "entertainers" forced employers to pay higher NI to enable actors to claim job seekers allowance whilst "resting". It was revealed in 2005 that this, unintentionally, has had a detrimental impact on a significant number of British orchestras - as musicians are also classed as freelancers - who are left facing a GBP 33 million tax bill. Talks are currently underway between the orchestras, DCMS and the Inland Revenue in order to find a solution.

Historic Scotland has expanded its "Interns and Fellows" programmes, providing places for newly qualified conservation practitioners, and industry participants with the aim of expanding the fund of conservation skills and abilities in Scotland.

Within the TV industry, the Cultural Diversity Network is a coalition of broadcasters who have come together to work on ethnic minority employment issues in the sector.

United Kingdom/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.8 New technologies and cultural policies

A government White Paper on Competitiveness (1998) committed the Department of Trade & Industry to work with the digital content sector. The subsequent Action Plan addressed a range of issues including: skills and the content industries' interaction with educational institutions; finding appropriate investment sources for the industries' entrepreneurs; and the need for promotion, marketing and export initiatives.

Chief among its recommendations were the creation of a Digital Content Forum for representative bodies with interests in the digital media (content industries) to facilitate information exchange, raise awareness and make recommendations to government departments. Secondly, it recommended the development of a web portal to link relevant players, guide new companies (including small cultural industries) with start-up operations, and be a source of innovative ideas giving rise to new content. Many of the proposals were intended to dovetail with existing or recommended initiatives across government departments, including the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, to ensure they reflect the needs of the cultural sector.

The recognition that digital technology provides opportunities to widen access to the arts and cultural sector is also behind a government initiative, Culture Online, established in 2002. A key objective of Culture Online is to mobilize the resources of the cultural sector to enrich school education, particularly in history, English and drama, music, art and design, by forging new connections between digital technology and cultural resources. A budget of GBP 13 million, plus an additional GBP 3 million for 05/06, has been made available to fund projects that increase digital access to the nation's culture and heritage for new audiences (particularly children and "hard-to-reach" groups) through a number of projects using a range of new technologies, including the internet, digital TV and mobile devices. Cultural institutions have been encouraged to tender for funds to undertake projects such as digital access to collections and virtual reality exhibitions. For example, some projects that Culture Online has been working on include: ArtisanCam, which allows collaboration between well-known artists and schoolchildren over a video-conference link; Headline History enables pupils to become reporters on virtual newspapers from specific periods in history including the Romans, the Tudors, the Victorians and 20th Century Britain; WebPlayUK is an internet-based project enabling primary school children from rural and urban areas to work with a professional theatre company to create, produce and perform short plays.

Britain's first national virtual museum (the 24 Hour Museum) provides an online gateway to over 3 000 UK museums, galleries and heritage attractions and seeks to develop new audiences for culture. It receives approx. 1 million visitor sessions and 550 000 unique users a month and 85% of users said it was more likely to make them go to a museum or gallery: http://www.24hourmuseum.org.uk/. The site is now one of the top five most visited UK hosted cultural website.

Digital management of copyright material is becoming increasingly relevant to museums, libraries and archives and current copyright law can mean costs for research and clearance activity prove huge and occasionally prohibitive. Therefore, in August 2005 the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council (MLA) funded the Museums Copyright Group to explore, with the Design and Artists Copyright Society, the possibility of a blanket licence scheme that would allow the digitisation of artistic works in collections and digital copies to be made available to staff, students and the public. The MLA has also been involved with The People's Network project, completed in 2004, which used GBP 120 million lottery funding to connect all 4 200 public libraries to the internet. The MLA is also a member of the Creative Archive Licence Group, a group that includes the BBC, Channel 4 and the BFI. All members aim to make their content available for download under the terms of the Creative Archive License, a single, shared user license scheme for the downloading of moving images, audio and stills.

Arts Council England has supported a number of initiatives to develop and promote multimedia arts, at both the level of policy debate and practice.  It has also launched a series of art and science research awards jointly with the Arts and Humanities Research Board, which provides support for several new technology artists' fellowships. Work is also underway within the Arts Council to provide support for artists working with new media who require advice about intellectual property and copyright issues. The British Film Institute has also launched a digital initiative - screenonline - to broaden public access to its collection of films and related material.

Arts Alliance Digital Cinema (AADC) and the UK Film Council is to establish the world's first digital screen network. The aim is to broaden the range of films available to UK audiences and it will involve a network of up to 250 screens throughout the UK that will present arthouse or foreign language films. The GBP 11.5 million deal between AADC and UKFC will make available, in digital format, films that were previously on 35mm, thus reducing the distribution costs.

Government initiatives in Scotland include Open Scotland, 21st Century Government and Digital Inclusion. The Scottish Executive is exploring the feasibility of a National Digital Media Strategy in partnership with representative bodies in the tourism culture and sport sectors. The aim is to develop a shared vision of innovative ways to widen access, increase participation and improve services to the end user by 2010, through the use of digital media.

The Scottish Cultural Portal was launched in 2004 and provides a range of information, and links to other datasets on Scotland's culture. The portal is currently being developed and market tested: http://www.scotlandsculture.org/

Historic Scotland and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland launched a web resource called PASTMAP: http://www.pastmap.org.uk/. This provides information in map and text format on Scotland's historic environment - including the boundaries of scheduled ancient monuments, the location and description of listed buildings, and the location and description of all sites, buildings and other historic features in the National Monuments Record for Scotland. This is considered a first within Europe.

The Northern Ireland Film and Television Commission's Digital Film Archive (DFA) launched, in November 2000, with funding from the Heritage Lottery Fund and the British Film Institute, provides public access to Northern Ireland's film heritage since 1897, in the absence of a dedicated film archive for Northern Ireland. The DFA is currently available in nine educational and museum-related sites across Northern Ireland, and is continuing to be developed educationally with a Heritage Lottery Funded outreach programme. In addition the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts with the Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure are funding an education pilot project, Creative Learning in the Digital Age (CLDA).

United Kingdom/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.9 Heritage issues and policies

In July 2006, Parliament published a report entitled Protecting and Preserving our Heritage. The focus of the report was on the built heritage environment and is to be followed by a second heritage inquiry (Autumn 2006) into museums, galleries, cultural property and archives. Although the Department for Culture, Media and Sport has issued an number of strategies for heritage (such as The Historic Environment: A Force for our Future, 2001, Protecting our Historic Environment: Making the System Work Better, 2003), the Parliamentary report identifies a number of areas of concern and suggests that DCMS' approach to reform of the heritage protection system has been "less than energetic" (from recommendation 9). Amongst the issues identified in the 57 conclusions and recommendations are: a serious shortfall in funding for English Heritage; a need for more resources for local authorities to pursue the greater responsibilities being placed on them; heritage to be represented better across government; a need to acknowledge the important role of the historic environment in regeneration projects and support this economically; establishing some form of VAT relief scheme on repair work for listed buildings.

It also encouraged DCMS to make local authority historic environment records statutory, undertake research to ensure the effective implementation of the Heritage Reform Programme and to urgently review / update planning policy guidance related to the historic environment and archaeology.

In October 2001, a government-appointed Regional Museums Task Force issued a report, Renaissance in the Regions: a new vision for England's museums - calling for the establishment of a new framework for regional museums in England. The recommendations included the creation of a network of nine regional museum hubs / centres of excellence, plus a significant injection of additional funds over five years and the development of a national strategy for the museums and galleries sector. The latest performance figures for Renaissance in the Regions show an increase in visits to the participating museums, and in particular a 23% increase in contacts with children (with over GBP 1 million schoolchildren taking part in museum activities in 2004/05 alone) and a 20% increase in the number of community groups engaged with the participating museums. The government announced in the 2004 Spending Review White Paper that Renaissance would be extended to all nine regions and, in April 2005, 100 million GBP was allocated to the scheme, mostly to the regional hubs.

In April 2004, Investing in Knowledge, a five year vision for the future of museums, libraries and archives across the UK was launched. It highlights the importance of the wealth of knowledge contained in museums, libraries and archives in underpinning community cohesion, learning and skills, economic development and creativity and builds on the three major initiatives: Renaissance in the Regions ; Framework for the Future - the ten-year vision for public libraries; and the Archives Task Force - recommendations for unlocking archives for new generations of users.

Since 1 December 2001 all museums and galleries sponsored by DCMS have offered free admission to their permanent collections. In the following two years the number of visits to these museums increased by 72%, i.e. around 5.6 million extra visits per annum. The number of visits to all DCMS-sponsored museums continues to remain high, rising to over 34 million in 2003/04 compared with 24 million in 1997/98. Visits from lower income groups have also risen by 29%. Current policy is to continue to increase the number of visits to museums and galleries across the country from this priority group.

In 2004, the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council introduced the Museum Accreditation Scheme, which replaces the Museum Registration Scheme (1988) and sets nationally agreed standards for UK museums. To qualify, museums must meet clear basic requirements on how they care for and document their collections, how they are governed and managed, and on the information and services they offer to their users. The Scheme is regarded as one of the most innovative and effective developments in the museum sector in recent years. It has been used as a model for museums overseas. MLA administers the scheme in collaboration with the regional agencies for museums, libraries and archives in England, the Scottish Museums Council, the Northern Ireland Museum Council and CyMAL in Wales. MLA also runs the Designation scheme, which identifies the pre-eminent collections of national and international importance held in England's non-national museums, libraries and archives, based on their quality and significance.

The Scheme recognises that organisations with designated collections care for a significant part of England's cultural heritage. It was launched in 1997 for museums only, with two further rounds in 1998 and 1999, and extended to libraries and archives in 2005. The Scheme now covers over 100 collections held in museums, libraries and archives.

For the fourth year running, 40 museums and galleries will benefit from GBP 4 million from DCMS and the Wolfson Foundation via the Museums & Galleries Improvement fund, to help improve the quality of museums' displays, public spaces, disabled access and environmental controls. The fund has awarded GBP 12 million to 65 different institutions around England since 2002.

In Scotland, A Collective Insight, a national audit of museums and galleries, was published in 2002, which was followed by a consultation exercise to assist in the development of an action framework for this sector. Subsequently, in July 2003, An Action Framework for Museums was published by the Scottish Executive recommending the establishment of a regional framework to develop capacity and sustainability of the cultural heritage sector through active partnerships. The Regional Development Challenge Fund - GBP 3 million over three years - was established in 2004. The same year, the Scottish Museums Council, funded primarily by the Scottish Executive, published a national ICT strategy for Scotland's museums and the National Access and Learning Strategy for Museums and Galleries in Scotland.

The Local Museum and Heritage Review (LMHR) was initiated in 1999 by Northern Ireland Office Ministers, prior to devolution, which sought to chart the best way forward for the heritage and museum sector in Northern Ireland. A report was made available in 2001 which resulted in a joint response from the Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL) and the Department of the Environment (DOE) in October 2003. One of the key recommendations was the establishment of an inter-agency Heritage Sub Group (HSG), to assist in carrying forward the recommendations of the joint response, which included: establishing think-tanks to develop aspects of museums and heritage policy; enhancing links to cultural tourism and maximising the potential of heritage; promoting links to local government and other partners and considering the strategic development of visitor amenities.

For more information, see
European Heritage Network: Country profile United Kingdom

 

United Kingdom/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.10 Gender equality and cultural policies

The Department for Culture, Media and Sport are concerned to ensure that all groups in society are represented on the boards of its Non Departmental Public Bodies; the Department wants to draw on the richest possible pool of talent; and boards function best if their members bring a variety of different perspectives, and are in touch with wider society. The DCMS tries, therefore, to attract people with different backgrounds and experience, i.e. women, members of ethnic minorities, people with disabilities, younger people, people from outside London, and people with experience of different types of organisations and industries.

The DCMS has ambitious centrally agreed targets to increase the diversity of board appointments among three groups - 50% women, 10% people from minority ethnic backgrounds and 6% disabled people. In 2005-06, of the 124 Ministerial appointments made by DCMS, 33% were women, 10% were from an ethnic minority background, and 4% had a declared disability.

Another area of relevance to the DCMS is the role of the media in portraying images of women, violence and pornography. The report Living Without Fear notes the DCMS role in developing a media initiative on violence and other government work in this area.

In its Equality Strategy, the Scottish Executive sets out its commitment to promoting greater equality of opportunity for all. A key principle underpinning the development of the strategy is ensuring that equality issues are at the heart of policy making.

The UK Equal Opportunities Commission is an independent statutory body represented in all four countries, where it works with respective governments towards the elimination of sexual discrimination.

United Kingdom/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.3 Other relevant issues and debates

The introduction of the National Lottery in the mid 1990s has had a major impact on the cultural landscape of the UK, especially on the infrastructure. In 2004, the National Lottery celebrated its 10th anniversary, and figures indicated that it had invested GBP 2 billion into the arts, supported 100 new arts buildings and refurbished 500 others. However, concerns have been expressed both about the deliberate emphasis on buildings and not the activity which takes place inside them, and about evidence of a long term decline in Lottery ticket sales, which will mean less resources for distribution to cultural causes than the sector has been used to in recent years. The Lottery distributors have already begun to give greater emphasis to smaller capital projects and support for such things as the commissioning of new work and community activity. This policy shift may be due in part to concerns that some of the new capital projects were too optimistic in their forecasts of attendance numbers. As a result, a number of new museums, for example, have been in financial difficulty as their income has been considerably less than originally anticipated. In addition, there is concern within the cultural sector that recent moves allowing the public to influence how Lottery money is spent, and the introduction of the new online Monday lottery (with 70 beneficiary charities, very few of which have any link to the arts), will mean the arts and marginalised groups that benefit most from the funding would not be a popular choice. The Department for Culture, Media and Sport have already acknowledged that concerns over the advent of the 2012 Olympics having a detrimental impact on funding for other good causes are legitimate. Their website states that "Camelot's [the lottery organiser] estimates, as reviewed by the National Lottery Commission, are that around 60% of the monies raised from the Olympic Lottery games might come from sales diversions from existing games. This could lead to an overall reduction in income to the existing good causes of just over 5% over the seven-year period of the games". However, Legacy Trust UK Consortium has been selected to establish a new charitable Trust to support a diverse range of cultural and sporting initiatives throughout the UK. When it is established next year, Legacy Trust UK will receive a GBP 40 million expendable endowment (GBP 34 million from The National Lottery and GBP 6 million from the Exchequer) to be spent over the years leading up to and including 2012. Its aim is to support projects that:

According to a recent National Audit Office (NAO) report, the 17 "major" museums and galleries funded by DCMS generated revenues of GBP 107.5 million in 2002/03 (in addition to funding from DCMS), which is the lowest figure for five years (partly due to reduced admissions income since 2001 when free entry was introduced and partly reduced fundraising for specific capital projects). Trading income increased from GBP 17.7 million 1998/99 to GBP 21.5 million 2002/03, but it is no longer growing and the NAO has suggested that museums need to look closely at the profitability of some of their trading activities.

United Kingdom/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.1 Constitution

The UK has no written constitution, depending instead on the body of case law. There is no over-arching legislative Act specifically governing culture, though legislation has been introduced over many years concerning specific cultural sectors (e.g. museums and library laws date from the mid 19th century).

United Kingdom/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.2 Division of jurisdiction

In addition to the UK Government in relation to England, the Scottish Parliament and Northern Ireland Assembly can enact their own primary legislation and raise taxes for their own countries. This can include culture.

The National Assembly of Wales can only introduce secondary legislation, covering areas including culture, environment, housing, tourism and agriculture. It has no powers to alter income tax, but it does allocate the funds made available to Wales from the Treasury of the UK. Wales remains within the framework of the United Kingdom, and laws passed in Parliament in Westminster still apply to Wales.

The Channel Islands and the Isle of Man are direct dependencies of the Crown with their own legislative and taxation systems.

The UK Government (Westminster) passed legislation in recent years establishing Regional Cultural Consortia in the nine standard planning regions of England to achieve greater co-ordination of policies and support for culture between government agencies and funding programmes.

Local authorities are empowered in all four countries in the UK to support culture. Such powers are discretionary rather than mandatory except in the case of library provision, which is statutory. The Local Government Act 1948 enabled local authorities to spend, at their discretion, up to a 6d (equivalent to 2.5p) local rate on entertainment and the arts. The Local Government Act 1972 (1973 for Scotland) removed the upper limit of spending. Synergies between central government cultural priorities and local government actions are encouraged through ministerial guidelines. All local authorities are encouraged to develop culture and leisure strategies.

United Kingdom/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.3 Allocation of public funds

The UK Government traditionally funds the arts through an arm's-length principle whereby the government sets an overall arts funding figure but does not interfere with how it is distributed and leaves this to the various culture-form specific councils (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 2.2 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 3.1). Arts Councils are established under Royal Charter.

The National Lottery in the UK is centrally administered and controlled through Parliament via the DCMS by an appointed Lottery Commission. Its legislative base was established through the Lottery Acts of Parliament of 1993, 1998 and 2004. The new National Lottery Act 2006 received Royal Assent in July 2006. The new legislation aims to make the Lottery more responsive to people's priorities and to ensure that Lottery money goes efficiently to good causes. The Act also formalises the merger of the New Opportunities Fund, the Community Fund and the Millennium Commission into a single distributor - the Big Lottery Fund. Set up in June 2004, the Big Lottery Fund gives out half of all Lottery money. Simpler rules are intended to ensure that Lottery money will reach good cause projects faster and make it easier for groups to apply for Lottery support.

Historically, there has been a tradition of non-intervention in decision making about whom and what to support with government funds for culture. Ministers have a certain degree of discretion in relation to the distribution of funds, for example in relation to requiring structural or organisational change to / within the arm's length agencies they fund, or setting specific objectives and targets for such bodies to meet. Recent reviews in Wales and Scotland are putting these powers to the test (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 3.1 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.1).

United Kingdom/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.4 Social security frameworks

There are no specific social security measures governing the cultural sector.

See http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.7 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 5.1.6.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

United Kingdom/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.5 Tax laws

Arts & Business, funded by Arts Council England, advocates the mutual benefits of partnership between business and the arts. It runs a number of schemes including the New Partners investment programme for developing sustainable partnerships between business and the arts, which is directly funded by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. Parallel schemes for Scotland are managed by Arts & Business Scotland, with a number of prestigious awards for partnerships celebrated each year.

The British model has traditionally focused on the role of business in supporting the cultural sector, but several developments have encouraged a new view of the possibilities of increasing individual support for the arts. New models of donor involvement, known as venture philanthropy, have encouraged the Treasury to consider implementing more advantageous tax regimes, since tax planning has an obvious attraction for the individual donor. This new way of giving to charities took effect from April 2000 as part of the government plans "to get Britain giving". Following a review of Charity Tax Law, the Chancellor of the Exchequer proposed major simplifications and improvements to the treatment of gifts to charities including an introduction of a tax efficient way to donate gifts of shares. The changes were made in part to encourage private support, to complement the public money given to the arts, museums and heritage, and to increase the amount of money going to charities. Many cultural organisations in the UK have charitable status and are thus able to take advantage of these changes.

There are a number of schemes to encourage public-private partnerships using tax relief. For example, if a business temporarily seconds an employee to a charity or educational establishment, such as an arts organisation, the salary cost and other expenses which the employer would normally continue to pay will continue to be tax deductible. An Enterprise Investment Scheme was introduced by the government to help small companies raise money. It offers income and capital gains tax breaks to investors of at least GBP 1 000, though it is potentially high risk.

The entire landscape has changed in regard to tax support for film. A new tax credit came into law with the passing of the 2006 Finance Bill. The new tax incentives replace the section 42 and 48 film tax reliefs previously accessed via the sale and leaseback mechanism. The Bill can be found at the UK Parliament website at the link below. The relevant sections are Chapter 3, Films and Sound Recordings (page 28), Schedule 4, Taxation of Activities of Film Production Company (page 165) and Schedule 5, Film Tax Relief: Further Provisions (page 167).

http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmbills/161/2006161.htm see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 5.3.6 for more details.

One of the key policy priorities identified by the UK Film Council was to work closely with government as tax incentives for film were reviewed and ultimately updated. Fiscal measures are essential to countering the market failures associated with film industries across the world, and it was essential that the UK's suite of incentives preserved levels of inward investment and worked to promote domestic production.

The government completed its review of film tax incentives in March 2006, and the industry has welcomed the new measures which will make the UK an attractive place to make films. The UK Film Council continues to work closely alongside officials to ease the transition between the old and new systems.

The direct tax (corporation tax) and indirect tax (VAT) implications of business support for the arts depends on the nature of the support, who is giving it and the status of the recipient, most particularly if the arts organisation is a registered charity. More information can be found on the websites of HM Revenue & Customs - Customs and Excise and the Inland Revenue which merged in 2005 - (http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/) and Arts & Business (http://www.aandb.org.uk/).

The Acceptance in Lieu scheme, operating since 1947, allows a person who is liable to pay inheritance tax, capital transfer tax or estate duty to settle part, or all of the debt, by disposing of a work of art or other object to the Board of Inland Revenue for public ownership. To qualify for exemption, an object must be of national, scientific, historic or architectural interest. These are often antiques, works of art etc, and also archives. In 2006, the UK gained art works and heritage items to the value of GBP 25.2 million under the AIL scheme. It is managed on behalf of the government by the Museums, Libraries and Archives Council (MLA). Individuals offering objects under the Acceptance in Lieu Scheme have a legal right to remain anonymous; few choose to be named.

The book sector is specially treated for VAT purposes, being zero rated, as are some artist's supplies. In addition, since a European Court of Justice ruling in 2002, bodies administered on an "essentially voluntary" basis have been exempt from paying tax on admission charges - including theatres, museums, heritage and other cultural organisations. The clarification meant a number of organisations benefited from a significant tax rebate at that time.

Inland Revenue has ruled that grants and awards to artists are taxable. Creative people, such as writers, composers, playwrights etc, can arrange with the Inland Revenue authorities to have their tax spread over a period of years if they can demonstrate that their income fluctuates significantly as a result of spending more time some years on the creative process when their income is lower than normal. However, the Inland Revenue does regard "buying time" bursaries as tax free.

Since 2000, and under the provisions of the 1989 Gift Aid Act, non-profit organisations whose income was used wholly for heritage upkeep could claim Gift Aid tax relief on donations - worth an extra 28 pence for each GBP 1 donated. In 2004, the Inland Revenue argued it was being abused by some museums and organisations that were claiming Gift Aid on standard admissions and ordered a clamp down. Small museums are expected to lose about GBP 500 000 a year and members of the Association of Independent Museums expected to lose GBP 3.5 million a year between them. However, the Chancellor will be introducing a new scheme in April 2006 that will depend on visitors making a small donation on top of admission. Independent museums and other charitable attractions that persuade visitors to contribute at least 10% more than the entry fee will get Gift Aid. In 2005, the Chancellor announced that Gift Aid could be claimed on telephone donations without the written confirmation required previously.

United Kingdom/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.6 Labour laws

Artists fall within the general body of case law in this area. The UK Government has sought exemption from EU Directives concerning the maximum number of hours employees can work.

Arts Council England commissioned the Institute for Employment Research and the Centre for Educational Development, Appraisal and Research, at the University of Warwick, to undertake research on artists' labour markets and the effect of tax and benefits systems. The report, entitled "A balancing act - artists" labour markets and the tax and benefits system, was published in December 2002 and presents findings from a series of focus groups with practising artists, which explored their experiences of employment, the impact of UK tax and social security systems on their career and business choices, and their ability to sustain viable professional lives. Analysis of artists' labour markets was also undertaken, examining employment status, working patterns, earnings and take-up of social security benefits - the report is available at: http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/documents/publications/phpLI8ihP.pdf

Section 6 of the Child (Performances) Regulations Act 1968 was revoked in 2000 - this removed restrictions that prevented Local Education Authorities (LEAs) from granting a licence allowing a child to take part in a public performance if the child would, in the twelve months before that performance, have taken part in other performances on more than a certain number of days. Concern has been expressed that it leaves children more open to exploitation by the performing arts industry, particularly since there are few guidelines on rehearsal time and LEAs often do not have the capacity to police the laws. The difference in interpretation from one LEA to another also causes producers problems when negotiating with them to avoid contravention of insurance policies.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

United Kingdom/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.7 Copyright provisions

Original literary, dramatic, musical or artistic works (including computer programmes and databases), films, sound recordings, cable programmes, broadcasts and the typographical arrangement of published editions are automatically protected by copyright in the UK if they meet the legal requirements for protection. In general terms, copyright protection may also be given to works first published in (or, in the case of a broadcast or cable programme, made in or sent from) EU member states, or from countries party to international copyright conventions, the World Trade Organisation, or reciprocal agreements. The copyright owner has rights against unauthorised reproduction, public performance, broadcasting, rental and lending, issue to the public and adaptation of his or her work; and against importing, possessing, dealing with or providing means for unauthorised copies. In most cases the author is the first owner of the copyright, and the term of copyright in literary, dramatic, musical and artistic works is generally the life of the author and a period of 70 years from the year in which he or she dies. For films, the term is generally 70 years and sound recordings and broadcasts are protected for 50 years.

In recognition of the growing threat posed by piracy to the UK film industry, the UK Film Council undertook a study which considered both the scale and extent of copyright theft and the means by which it could be countered. In terms of measures to combat piracy, the study explored the legal framework; enforcement; security measures; education and consumer awareness; and the development of new business models.

The findings of this study were presented in the report Film theft in the UK, published in 2004. It sets out 30 recommendations for government, the industry and government-backed and other stakeholders, action on which is being co-ordinated by the UK Film Council-led Anti-Film Theft Task Force.

The EU Directive which harmonises Droit de Suite (artist's resale rights) was implemented in 2006 in the UK.

Blank tape levies are not applicable in the UK.

Since 1982, the Public Lending Right Scheme (PLR) has given registered authors royalties from a central government fund (totalling GBP 7.4 million in 2005-06, increasing to GBP 7.6 million in 2006-07) for the loans made of their books from public libraries in the UK. Payment is made according to the number of times an author's books are borrowed (the rate per loan increased from 5.26 pence to 5.57 pence in 2005-06). Currently, over 34 000 authors are registered for PLR . The maximum yearly payment an author can receive is GBP 6 600 from 2006-07, increased from GBP 6 000; in 2005-06, GBP 6.5 million was paid out to 18 500 authors.

The Copyright (Visually Impaired Persons) Act 2002 benefits visually impaired people who have difficulty accessing copyright material in the form in which it is published. Subject to certain conditions, they are able to make single accessible copies of copyright material, such as books, newspapers and instruction manuals, for their personal use without seeking permission from the copyright owners. Extensive legal guidelines came into force in May 2004 to ensure that new and existing non-domestic buildings are designed to be accessible to, and useable by, people with mobility and sensory impairments.

United Kingdom/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.8 Data protection laws

The Data Protection Act 1998 is designed to ensure the fair and lawful processing of the personal data of living individuals and updates previous legislation. It obliges organisations to provide a reasonable degree of confidentiality for information about people, and to respect their privacy. The Act has come into force by degrees and initially related only to personal data held on computer systems, but now also applies to personal data held in paper based files.

Archives and records are essential for freedom of information and data protection and the new legislation provides opportunities for improving record keeping by public bodies. Data protection legislation is UK-wide, while freedom of information legislation is devolved to Scotland, but not in Wales. Northern Ireland has agreed to adopt the Westminster Act in context this is meant to refer to the Freedom of Information Act 2000 which, although it is UK Government legislation (i.e. passed in Westminster) Northern Ireland (a devolved administration) agreed to adopt it. In Scotland, the Scottish Executive is carrying out a major review of its strategy on public records, which will help determine the need for, and shape, of future legislation.

In the early to mid 1990s there was considerable concern amongst UK cultural organisations and charities about the potential impact of data protection requirements, which were seen, for example, as preventing the common practice of exchanges of mailing lists between arts / cultural organisations. The obligation for prospective recipients to "opt-out" rather than "opt-in" to mailing lists for promotion has partially allayed such concerns.

The Freedom of Information Act 2000 provides clear statutory rights for those requesting information from public sector organisations, together with a strong enforcement regime. The Act received Royal assent in November 2000. The legislation applies to some 70 000 public authorities and publicly owned companies in the UK, including Parliament, Government Departments and local authorities, publicly funded museums and thousands of other organisations. National and local authority museums will be subject to the act. When it comes into force in 2005, they will have to make more of the information that they hold available on request. Under Data Protection, members of the public can only ask to see their own personal information. Under Freedom of Information, individuals have the right to see all kinds of information held by public bodies, subject to certain exemptions.

United Kingdom/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.9 Language laws

Specific legal provisions for the use of indigenous or foreign languages in the culture industries exist in Scotland, where the Gaelic Television Fund was set up to grant-aid Gaelic television production under the Broadcasting Act 1990, and in Wales, where the grant-aided Welsh Fourth Channel Authority was established by the Broadcasting Act 1980 to provide a Welsh language television service.

The Communications Act 2003 established a new Gaelic broadcasting body, Seirbhis nam Meadhanan Gidhlig (Gaelic Media Service), with wider powers to secure the provision in Scotland of a range of high quality and diverse Gaelic television and radio programmes. However, progress towards securing a Gaelic digital channel has been slow and marked by delays concerning jurisdiction between the UK Government and the Scottish Executive. The 2003 Act also introduced amendments to the Welsh Authority's public service remit, but retained the provision of Welsh language broadcasting as its core.

United Kingdom/ 5.2 Legislation on culture

There is no overall legislative framework governing culture. There is a range of legislation relating to governance and finance, much of it sector specific. Other legislation includes:

The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HASWA) applies to everyone at a place of work, including theatres, concert halls, museums and artists' studios and governs the conditions in which employees work.

There are several laws that cover the sale of cultural goods, the Sale of Goods Act 1979, the Trade Description's Act 1968, the Consumer Protection Act 1987and the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982.

There is ongoing debate around the potential impact on freedom of speech and the arts if the proposed Racial and Religious Hatred Bill (intended to prevent people being harmed because of their religious beliefs) and the Terrorism Bill are introduced. Fears have been expressed by artists in various sectors, as well as civil rights professionals, that such laws may be applied to "attacks" on ideas, leading to potential censorship of art works deemed "offensive" or dangerous by certain groups.

United Kingdom/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.1 Visual and applied arts

Artists in the UK now receive "Artists' Resale Right" by which they will benefit from a proportion of the profits made when their works are resold. In 1996 the EU Commission proposed and then adopted (in 2001) a Directive that all Member states introduce this right into their domestic laws by 2006. Though generally opposed by UK based auction houses, the UK Parliament has legislated to give living artists this right and, by 2012, and the right will be given to the estates of artists who have died within the previous 70 years.

When renting or managing studios where artists are working there are many other regulations apart from the Health and Safety at Work Act (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 5.2) that need to be observed (such as the Building Regulations Act of 1976 and the Fire Precautions Act of 1971) in addition to insurance, leasing and contracting obligations. Many studio complexes will not insure the personal or creative contents of each individual studio, thus this becomes the responsibility of the renting artist. Public Liability insurance is essential when undertaking any workshops or art activities involving members of the public, be it in a community centre, an outdoor park or school. Without insurance cover, if a person becomes injured or equipment is broken, the artist can be held personally accountable.

The Occupiers Liability Act 1957 specifies that the building or construction where art is displayed has the correct insurance cover against fire, theft and flood; that any artworks are insured against theft, loss or damage and that the safety of audiences or visitors is safeguarded. Artists often find they have to take out their own exhibition insurance where the premises owners or administrators do not.

The European Union is poised to insist that VAT on art sales is increased to 5% from 2.5%, a move greatly resisted for years by dealers and collectors in the UK who fear the dominant position in the UK market will be lost.

United Kingdom/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.2 Performing arts and music

The Theatres Act 1968 abolished the role of the Lord Chamberlain and censorship of theatre scripts. Obscene performances are still prohibited and those concerned may be liable to prosecution by the Civil Authority if the words and action of a play constitute a criminal offence (e.g. obscenity, incitement to racial hatred, or provocation likely to lead to a breach of the peace). They may also be liable to a civil action for defamation.

The Licensing Act 2003, which came into force in England and Wales in November 2005, brought together six licensing regimes for premises which provide regulated entertainment, are used for the sale of alcohol or provide late night refreshment. Under the new system, the concept of a separate public entertainment licence disappears, meaning that only a single authorisation will be needed to supply alcohol, provide regulated entertainment (such as a performance of live music, theatre, dance or the showing of a film), provide late night refreshment or any combination of these  activities. The 2003 Act also removed outdated anomalies, restrictions and exemptions (it repealed the Sunday Observance Act, the Sunday Entertainment Act, Sunday Theatres Act and a number of sections in the Theatres Act 1968).

The 2003 Act has wide-ranging implications for the licensing of premises for music and performance. The Act ended the "two in a bar rule", which allowed licensed premises (such as pubs) to put on up to two entertainers all night without the need for a licence. The British Government believed this rule in practice created a disincentive for venues to put on acts involving more than two people, but also failed to protect local residents from noise nuisance. Nevertheless, some musicians have expressed concern that the reforms will lead to venues putting on no live music. Research has been commissioned to find out whether venues have secured live music on their new licences. A High Court judgement in 2002 ruled that the restriction on two performers applied to the duration of an evening's entertainment in pubs and bars without a public entertainment licence. Also, any performance which mixed live and recorded music required a licence, regardless of numbers of performers.

United Kingdom/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.3 Cultural heritage

Statutory controls exist to protect historic buildings and monuments when this is considered to be in the public interest. The Museums Act 1845 empowered borough councils of at least 10 000 inhabitants to levy a 1/2 d (equivalent to 0.25 pence) on the local rates to provide public museums. The National Heritage Act 1983 clarified the administration of heritage and led to the formation of what is now English Heritage. Buildings of special architectural or historic significance (including occupied premises) are "listed" according to specific grades of importance by the relevant government departments or their appointed agencies in all four countries of the UK. In 2005, there were 372 038 entries on the list in England. Government departments are also responsible for compiling a schedule of ancient monuments, which offers a similar level of protection to that of "listed" buildings. In 2005, there were 19 717 scheduled monuments in England. Local planning authorities in Britain and central government in Northern Ireland are legally obliged to designate as "conservation" areas those places (as opposed to buildings) of special historic or architectural interest. In 2005, there were 9 374 Conservation Areas in England recorded by English Heritage.

In July 2003, the government published a consultation paper Protecting our historic environment: Making the system work better. This is a review of the designation system in England. It proposes one unified designation system for England in place of the considerable range of statutory and non-statutory schemes now in place.

The principal agencies and departments which support the work of the central government authorities protecting the heritage are English Heritage, Historic Scotland, CADW: Welsh Historic Monuments, and the Environment and Heritage Service in Northern Ireland. They discharge statutory responsibilities relating to the preservation, protection and maintenance of ancient monuments, historic buildings and conservation areas.

The position in Scotland is slightly different where the agency undertaking these functions, Historic Scotland, is also part of the Scottish Executive Education Department, and directly responsible to Scottish Ministers. The responsibility for recording the built cultural heritage is held in Scotland by the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland (RCAHMS). The Executive's Architecture Policy Unit works closely with Historic Scotland on matters affecting a sustainable approach to design, issues regarding modern architecture and the quality of the wider built environment relative to historic monuments.

The National Heritage Memorial Fund provides financial assistance towards the acquisition, maintenance and preservation of buildings, land, and works of art and other objects of outstanding importance to the national heritage. An independent agency, the National Trust, is responsible for more than 240 historic building in England open to the public. It is funded largely from membership subscriptions and income generated from the sale of products, souvenirs, etc. The National Trust for Scotland, an independent charity, is similarly responsible for 128 sites throughout Scotland. The bulk of historic buildings and archaeological sites remain in private ownership.

United Kingdom/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.4 Literature and libraries

The Public Libraries Act 1850 empowered local authorities to provide a free library service on a discretionary basis. In 1853 it was extended to Scotland and Ireland and the levy rates were raised in 1855, but support from philanthropists and wealthy entrepreneurs was the key to the development of the public library system up until 1919 when financial restrictions were abolished. The Public Libraries and Museums Act 1964 enabled local authorities to offer non-book material for loan through public libraries (e.g. records, films, and pictures) and made library provision mandatory. The Public Lending Right Act 1979 established the right for authors to be remunerated for loans made of their books through the public library system (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 5.1.7). The Obscene Publications Act 1959 relaxed censorship laws. In June 1999 the UK Government announced that public libraries would have to meet minimum standards set by the DCMS. The standards were first published in 2000, after consultation with The Library Association and the Local Government Association. The Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure in Northern Ireland introduced public library standards in 2006.

There is separate library legislation in Northern Ireland and new legislation will be introduced in 2006/07 to move the administration of public libraries to a single, dedicated, library authority for all of Northern Ireland.

Under the Legal Deposit Libraries Act, the person publishing work in print (including books, pamphlets, newspapers, magazines, music, maps etc) is responsible for delivering copies to the official deposit libraries.

United Kingdom/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.5 Architecture and environment

Since the 1997 Architects Act, the Architects Registration Board (ARB) regulates the architectural profession in the UK. To use the title "architect" a person must be appropriately qualified and registered with the ARB. The ARB has the power to take action against anyone that misuses the title. All architects registered with the ARB must also comply with the Architects Code.

There is a raft of legislation relating to architecture, environmental design and planning in the UK. For example; the Town & Country Planning Act of 1947 affirmed development rights belonged to the state and obliged local authorities to prepare plans of their areas and outline intentions for land use control; the Building Act 1984 protects the public by ensuring that the buildings around them are properly designed and safely built - regulations also cover issues like energy conservation and disabled access, they can apply both to new buildings and to work done on existing buildings; the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 require a co-ordinated approach to health and safety issues at every stage of a construction project.

At present, there is no national Percentage for Art legislation. However, since 1988 more than 50 city and district authorities have adopted "per cent for art" policies and implemented schemes in relationship to their refurbishment, construction, environmental and planning programmes. Urban Development Corporations are obliged by law to provide a "visually attractive environment".

Government Policy on the Architecture and the Built Environment for Northern Ireland was published on 13 June 2006. This document demonstrates the strength of government's commitment to good design and is a significant step forward in the drive to improve standards of design in architecture and the built environment. The vision is an attractive, healthy, safe and sustainable built environment which functions efficiently and enriches the experience of living for everyone in Northern Ireland. By delivering exemplary public projects, government aims to challenge and inspire the private sector to pursue similar strategies.

United Kingdom/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.6 Film, video and photography

Legislation for the cinema industry in the United Kingdom goes back to 1909, when the Cinematograph Act was passed providing for the licensing of exhibition premises and safety of audiences. The emphasis on safety has been maintained through the years in other enactments, such as the Celluloid and Cinematograph Film Act 1922, Cinematograph Act 1952 and the Fire Precautions Act 1971 - the two latter having been consolidated in a key piece of legislation, the Cinemas Act 1985. The Cinematograph (Amendment) Act 1982, which applied certain licensing requirements to pornographic cinema clubs, was also consolidated in the 1985 Act.

The Sunday Entertainments Act 1932, amended by the Sunday Cinema Act 1972 and the Cinemas Act 1985, regulated the opening and use of cinema premises on Sundays. The 1932 Act also established a Sunday Cinematograph Fund for "encouraging the use and development of cinematograph as a means of entertainment and instruction". This was how the British Film Institute was originally funded.

The financing of the British film industry has long been the subject of specific legislation. The Cinematograph Films Act 1957 established the British Film Fund Agency which, in turn, was responsible for making payments to British filmmakers, the Children's Film Foundation, the National Film Finance Corporation, the British Film Institute and towards training film-makers. The Film Levy Finance Act 1981 consolidated the provisions relating to the Agency and the exhibitors' levy. The Agency was wound up in 1988.

The British Film Institute Act 1949 allows for grants of money from Parliament to be made to the British Film Institute.

The Video Recordings Act 1984 controls the distribution of video recordings with the aim of restricting the depiction or simulation of human sexual activity and gross violence.

Classification certificates for the public exhibition of films are issued by the British Board of Film Classification.

The entire landscape has changed in regard to tax support for film. A new tax credit came into law with the passing of the 2006 Finance Bill. For films that cost up to GBP 20 million, the Film Production Company (FPC) will be able to claim an enhanced deduction of 100% with a payable cash element of 25% of UK qualifying film production expenditure. For films that cost over GBP 20 million, the FPC will be able to claim an enhanced deduction of 80%, with a payable cash element of 20% of UK qualifying film production expenditure. Tax relief is available on qualifying UK production expenditure up to a maximum of 80% of total qualifying costs.

Pre 1 April 2006, accelerated tax relief was available on production expenditure and / or the acquisition cost of "British" films, as defined in The Films Act 1985. The Act sets out the criteria to qualify as "British", including complying with the provisions of one of the UK's co-production treaties with other film producing countries, or the European Convention on Cinematographic Co-production, to which the UK is a signatory.

The new tax credit for production expenditure on lower budget British films was announced by the Chancellor in March 2004, to take effect from 2005 when Section 48 (the tax relief for films budgeted up to GBP 15 million) was due to expire. Section 48 was subsequently extended for a year and the new credit widened to include production expenditure on all British films, of whatever size budget. The new credit applies from 1 April 2006, subject to state aid approval. The UK Film Council has set out the case for a tax credit as an essential lever to encourage further private sector investment in film and, consequently, welcomed the government's continued support for film particularly as the new mechanism is open-ended. Earlier in 2004, and in an entirely separate move, the film production sector had been concerned by a government decision to close the tax loophole for film trading partnerships.

Film and Broadcast: The UK Film Council seeks to maximise the contribution of major broadcasters, particularly the public service broadcasters, to the extension of audience choice. A recently concluded agreement with the BBC potentially doubles the Corporation's commitment to UK film production, not only by increasing in-house activity but by buying the best of the UK's independent feature production for screening on network television.

Film theft: In recognition of the growing threat posed by piracy to the UK film industry, the UK Film Council undertook a study which considered both the scale and extent of copyright theft and the means by which it could be countered. In terms of measures to combat piracy, the study explored: the legal framework; enforcement; security measures; education and consumer awareness; and the development of new business models.

The findings of this study were presented in the report Film theft in the UK, published in 2004. It sets out 30 recommendations for government, the industry and government-backed and other stakeholders, action on which is being co-ordinated by the UK Film Council-led Anti-Film Theft Task Force.

As mentioned above, tax relief is available on production expenditure and / or the acquisition cost of "British" films, as defined in The Films Act 1985. The new "Cultural Test" is a revision of Schedule 1 of the Film Act 1985. DCMS are awaiting a formal response from the European Commission on the state aid application for the new tax relief, which requires films to pass the "Cultural Test". The Act sets out the criteria to qualify as "British", including complying with the provisions of one of the UK's co-production treaties with other film producing countries, or the European Convention on Cinematographic Co-production, to which the UK is a signatory. http://www.ukfilmcouncil.org.uk/filmmaking/filmingUK/taxreliefbritfilms/

In 2004 the film production sector had been concerned by a government decision to close the tax loophole for film trading partnerships.

The UK Film Council has also advocated that broadcasters should radically improve their level of engagement with the British film industry, on the grounds that broadcasters have an important role to play as financial investors in British film and as distribution channels for films to reach audiences, because film and television are an essential part of national cultural identity. A subsequent amendment to this effect was made within the Communications Act 2003. As a result of continuous campaigning, the BBC pledged to double its investment in British film to GBP 300 million over the next decade.

Piracy has become a more dominant issue in the film industry, with copyright theft now a major problem. The UK Film Council established an Anti-Piracy Task Force in 2004 and published a report, Film Theft in the UK, outlining the extent of the problem and proposing recommendations to combat the problem in November 2005.

Through the European Convention on Cinematographic co-production, films which are funded by the Northern Ireland Film and Television Commission (NIFTC) and that are produced in the North and South of Ireland can take advantage of Section 481 governing sale and leaseback although the terms of the new UK tax credit makes this less attractive than before.

United Kingdom/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.7 Culture industries

The culture industries are subject to the legislation outlined under each specific sector, as well as key legislation such as the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 5.1.7) and elements of contract law. 

United Kingdom/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.8 Mass media

Article 4 of the EC Broadcasting Directive Television Without Frontiers (TWF), implemented by the UK through the Broadcasting Acts 1990 and 1996, requires that Member states shall ensure, where practicable and by appropriate means, that broadcasters within their jurisdiction reserve a majority proportion of their qualifying transmission time for European works. Additionally, under Article 5, at least 10% of their transmission time must be earmarked for European independent works, including an "adequate" proportion for recent independent European works.

Independent production quotas have been statutorily imposed in relation to the UK's terrestrial and public service broadcasters. The Broadcasting Act 1990 requires the BBC, the ITV companies, Channel 4 and Channel 5 to devote at least 25% of their qualifying programming time to broadcasting a range and diversity of independent productions. European and independent production obligations provide continuous investment in the European audiovisual industry, while encouraging innovation and creativity.

The European Commission has published proposals to revise the Television Without Frontiers Directive, extending its scope beyond television broadcasting services to include on-line and on-demand audiovisual media services and simplifying the provisions in the Directive which relate to advertising, sponsorship and teleshopping. The UK Government has expressed concern about the proposal to extend the scope of the Directive.

The New Future for Communications White Paper covers the main issues the industry faces. These include regulation of cross-media ownership, regulation of converging markets, and spectrum management. In addition, emerging technologies (i.e. video on demand, personal television recorders) will create further challenges for traditional broadcasters.

Following two years of intense debate, the Communications Act was passed in 2003; jointly sponsored by both the Department of Trade and Industry and the Department for Culture, Media and Sport, it established the Office of Communications (Ofcom) as the independent media regulatory body, replacing five existing regulators - the Broadcasting Standards Commission, the Independent Television Commission, Oftel, the Radio Authority and the Radiocommunications Agency. The work of Ofcom and the Communications Act 2003 are intended to ensure that commercial television and radio, telecommunications networks and wireless and satellite services operate, compete and develop in the greater public interest. Ofcom also has a number of powers in relation to BBC television and radio and advises the Secretary of State on proposed newspaper mergers.

Tax relief is available on production expenditure and / or the acquisition cost of "British" films, as defined in The Films Act 1985 (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 5.3.6).

United Kingdom/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.9 Legislation for self-employed artists

There is no specific legislation concerning artists' employment.

See http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.7, http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 5.1.5 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 5.1.6.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

United Kingdom/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.10 Other areas of relevant legislation

The Freedom of Information Act (FOI) came fully into force on 1 January 2005; it enables anyone to request information from a public authority which has functions in England, Wales and / or Northern Ireland (FOI in Scotland falls under the Scottish Executive). The Act confers two statutory rights on applicants: to be told whether or not the public authority holds that information; and if so, to have that information communicated to them. It establishes a general right of access to information and obliges all public bodies, including government departments, councils (Arts Councils), public culture services (British Museum, British Library, British Council, National Lottery Commission) to disclose information within 20 working days of a request, providing there is no specific exemption. There are no requirements of residence, domicile or citizenship in order for a person (which can include a company) to be entitled to make a request. Paper-based files, notes, documents and records are included in the disclosure requirements. A government survey in 2004 revealed that only 17 per cent of UK public bodies were compliant, and had the software and measures in place for the arrival of the FOI.

Following on from Private Action, Public Benefit, the government's wide-ranging review of charities and the voluntary sector published on 25 Sept 2002, proposed new charity legislation makes the Charity Commission responsible for assessing the public benefit of charities / ensuring they are "charitable". Some arts charities may have to review their activities to be certain they remain registered. Charities will need to prove that all their activities conform to the principle of "providing public benefit" and will have to re-register with evidence of this. If charities are found to be failing in the delivery of public benefit the Commission will be empowered to enforce change, even as far as directing organisations' assets towards charitable purposes.

The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA), introduced in 1997, continues to be revised and updated in order to protect disabled people from discrimination in a wide range of areas such as accessing education services, public transport and gaining physical access to premises, as well as legislation to ensure equal access to employment. The Copyright (Visually Impaired Persons) Act 2002 benefits visually impaired people who have difficulty accessing copyright material in the form in which it is published. Subject to certain conditions, they are able to make single accessible copies of copyright material, such as books, newspapers and instruction manuals, for their personal use without seeking permission from the copyright owners. Extensive legal guidelines came into force in May 2004 to ensure that new and existing non-domestic buildings are designed to be accessible to, and useable by, people with mobility and sensory impairments.

United Kingdom/ 6. Financing of culture

6.1 Short overview

By 2005/06, the budget of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport had increased 60% since 1998/99. During this period, funding for the arts has been greatly favoured, increasing by 114%. However, in late 2004, DCMS announced a freeze in government spending on the arts for three years, so that funding to Arts Council England will be held at GBP 412 million annually until 2008 (museum funding, on the other hand, received an above inflation rise of 4.4%). ACE claim it represents a real terms cut of GBP 30 million. DCMS have defended the move saying that local government spending on culture is set to rise at above inflation rates and highlighted the huge increase in investment in the arts since 1997. The Renaissance in the Regions programme for museums received a significant increase in funding, however the sector expressed disappointment that there was not enough to roll out the programme equitably nation-wide.

The UK Government announced that a Comprehensive Spending Review (CSR) will take place in 2007, rather than the scheduled bi-annual spending review due in 2006. The postponed review will mean that spending allocations to government departments will not be announced until summer 2007, leaving bodies such as ACE unable to inform arts organisations of their funding allocations for 2008/09 until autumn 2007 at the earliest.

Launched in 1994, the National Lottery "good causes" money is distributed via 14 organisations; for the arts, culture and heritage this includes the four Arts Councils, the UK Film Council, Scottish Screen and the Heritage Lottery Fund. By October 2005, over GBP 16 billion had been raised for good causes; the arts allocation by distributing body and number of projects was as follows:

Table 1:     National Lottery grants, in GBP, November 2006

Distributing body

No. of projects

Amount

Arts Council England

29 541

2 139 921 077

Arts Council of Northern Ireland

2 578

89 872 703

Arts Council of Wales

5 314

141 747 513

Scottish Arts Council

7 265

219 742 333

Heritage Lottery Fund

13 869

3 545 432 430

Scottish Screen

477

21 045 363

UK Film Council

4 640

212 234 272

Source:      http://www.lottery.culture.gov.uk/ (regularly updated).

In November 2005, DCMS launched a consultation on the future shares of Lottery funding to each of the Lottery good causes, including the arts and film, sport and heritage, after 2009. The consultation resulted in the shares remaining at their current levels from 2009-2019. 28 pence from every pound spent on the Lottery goes to good causes. This money is divided as follows:

The 50% for Health, Education, Environment, Community and Charities, distributed by the Big Lottery Fund, was not part of the consultation and had already been determined.

Local authorities maintain about 1 000 local museums and art galleries, and a network of public libraries. They also provide grant aid for professional and amateur orchestras, theatres, opera and dance companies, festivals, arts centres, cultural venues, etc. In 2005, the National Association of Local Government Arts Officers (NALGAO) undertook a survey of arts spending amongst 88 local authorities which revealed 74% are operating on a standstill budget or experiencing cuts. Since 2003, at least 22 councils have either completely cut their arts service or made their arts officer redundant and, in 2004/05, 24% of other authorities have experienced a decline in funding up to 50%.

The Charities Aid Foundation annual statistical digest, Charity Trends 2005, revealed donations to the arts and culture organisations in the top 500 charities of GBP 361 million, making the arts and culture the fifth biggest charity sector (not including the heritage sector; The National Trust alone received GBP 144 million, making it the second most popular charity overall). Grants account for the largest proportion of charity income, followed by donations, then fees and contracts .

According to the Arts & Business Private Investment Benchmarking Survey 2004/05, business investment in the arts in the UK increased by more than 6% in 2003/04 to reach GBP 119.2 million (although still below the highest recorded figure of more than GBP 150 million in 1999-2000). Individual giving increased by 10% in 2003/04 to GBP 244.2 million (growing by 43% since 2001/02), whilst trust and foundation investment has decreased by 15%. Taking these three sources into account, private sector support to the arts in the UK increased by 3% to GBP 452.1 million.

In Scotland, although the funding of culture has increased, it has not kept pace with the overall increase in Scottish Executive spending. In 1997/98, the culture budget was 0.61% of the SE budget. In 2005/06 it is 0.44% of the SE budget. Restoring the previous proportion, for example, would require GBP 35 million. The Scottish Executive culture budget increased 39% from 1998/99 to 2005/06. The Scottish Art Council's funding increased by 48% during the same period. The funding allocated to cultural services including the budget provided to Historic Scotland (nearly GBP 40 million in 2004/05) is around 0.6% of the total Scottish Executive budget (see our next major enterprise: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005/09/0191729/17302)

In December 2004, the Culture, Arts & Leisure Minister for Northern Ireland announced an additional GBP 45 million for capital investment in the arts, sport, museums and libraries over the next three years. DCAL's budget will be GBP 122 million (2005/06), GBP 121 million (2006/07) and GBP 124 million (2007/08). In terms of the arts specifically, including Lottery funds already identified by the Arts Council, there will be a capital package of approx. GBP 23 million. GBP 14 million capital is to be allocated to the museums sector to improve the ageing infrastructure (from DCAL News Release 21 December 2004). Public libraries are to benefit from an increase in revenue funding of GBP 6.3 million, plus GBP 6 million to modernise facilities. However, the Draft Priorities and Budget 2006-2008 (released in November 2005) reinforces the budget cuts of 2004/05 and demands efficiency savings from DCAL, including calls for arts funding to have a greater impact on other government agendas. DCAL's arts budget will fall from GBP 14 million in 2005/06 to GBP 13.3 million in 2006/07 and GBP 13.2 million in 2007/08. The cuts form part of the government's programme to re-set priorities, cutting public spending on infrastructure in favour of "front line" public services. The announcement was cushioned by the release of GBP 15.5 million Lottery funding for capital projects designed to renew arts facilities in Belfast. Despite a vocal and well supported campaign by ACNI, ministers have refused to reconsider the budget allocations. However, funding for museums and libraries has increased.

Public spending on recreation, culture and religion grew 32% in Wales between 1999-2000 and 2004-2005, compared to 11% in England, 31% in Scotland and 22% in Northern Ireland (Institute of Public Policy Research North & the Economic and Social Research Council report). The Welsh Assembly budget is set to rise as follows: Culture 2004/05 - GBP 92.3 million; 2007/08 - GBP 104.6 million; Welsh language 2004/05 - GBP 12.4 million; 2007/08 - GBP 13.4 million.

The Expenditure and Food Survey is a continuous survey of around 7 000 household in the UK conducted by the Office of National Statistics. In 2004-2005 the second highest category was spending on recreation and culture, at GBP 59 a week, only exceeded by transport at GBP 60, out of an average weekly spending of GBP 434 per household. Recreation and culture includes TVs, computers, newspapers, books, leisure activities and package holidays. Households in the South East and East spent the most on recreation and culture, GBP 62 a week, and households in Northern Ireland spent the least, GBP 46 a week. The proportion of income spent on "leisure" - including theatre, cinema, TV licenses, holidays, sport, the lottery and education fees - has doubled since 1982 from 7% to 14% in the year to March 2005. Family Spending 2004-05 is available at: http://www.statistics.gov.uk/StatBase/Product.asp?vlnk=361

United Kingdom/ 6. Financing of culture

6.2 Public cultural expenditure per capita

In 2005/06 government spending on culture via the Arts Councils per head of population in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland is:

Between 1996/97 to 2001/02, arts expenditure from central and local government per head of population was considerably higher in Scotland than in the other countries of the UK - GBP 31 in Scotland, GBP 18 England, GBP 23 Wales and GBP 21 Northern Ireland (source: briefing by Centre for Cultural Policy Research, University of Glasgow).

United Kingdom/ 6. Financing of culture

6.3 Public cultural expenditure broken down by level of government

ENGLAND

Table 2:     Public cultural expenditure: by level of government, in thousand GBP, 2003-2004

Level of government

Total expenditure

% share of total

State (federal)

2 311 663*+400 655**
2 712 318

40.4%

Regional (provincial, Lnder)

Not applicable

Not applicable

Local (municipal)

3 344 000***+662 000 ****
4 006 000

59.6%

TOTAL

6 718 318

100%

Source:      Department for Culture, Media & Sport Annual Report 2005 http://www.culture.gov.uk/global/publications/archive_2005/DCMS_AR2005.htm
*                 REVENUE: Capital and revenue figures combined for the BBC World Service and the British Council, from HM Treasury Supplementary Budgetary Information 2005-06 p139.
**              CAPITAL: DCMS Annual Report 2005 p86.
***            REVENUE.
****          CAPITAL: Local authority current and capital expenditure figures (outturn) cover recreation, culture and religion. Public Expenditure Statistical Analyses 2005, p69.

SCOTLAND

Table 3:     Public cultural expenditure: by level of government, in thousand GBP, 2003-2004

Level of government

Total expenditure

% share of total

State (federal)

145 510*

37.5%

Regional (provincial, Lnder)

Not applicable

Not applicable

Local (municipal)

226 860** + 15 673***
242 533

62.5%

TOTAL

388 043

100%

Source:      Our next major enterprise... Final Report of the Culture Commission June 2005.
*                 Source: SE Cultural Policy Division, based on Grant-in-Aid letter to sponsored bodies.
**              REVENUE: Breakdown: 160 540 - Libraries, Museums & Galleries; 66 320 - Other culture and heritage services, includes entertainments.
***            CAPITAL: Breakdown: 12 043 - Libraries, Museums & Galleries; 3 630 - Theatres & Entertainment.
**&***    Cultural services represent just over 2.5% of total local authority expenditure.
N.B.           In the same year, the combined grant-in-aid to the Scottish Arts Council, Scottish Screen, the National Institutions (Libraries, Museums & Galleries) and Brd na Gidhlig totalled GBP 93.5 million.

WALES

Table 4:     Public cultural expenditure: by level of government, in thousand GBP, 2003-2004

Level of government

Total expenditure

% share of total

State (federal)

114 329*

76.05%

Regional (provincial, Lnder)

Not applicable

Not applicable

Local (municipal)

36 000**

23.95%

TOTAL

150 329

100%

Source:  from 2004 Assembly Budget: Information for Assembly Members:
*             The expenditure for 2003-2004 is provisional and not complete (to Oct 04). These figures should, therefore, be treated with caution. http://www.wales.gov.uk/keypubmrs/content/0422.pdf
**           13 May 2005 - Survey by the Arts Council of Wales and the Welsh Local Government Association: 18 out of the 22 authorities in Wales responded, saying they spent a total net GBP 29.25 million on the arts during 2003/04. This equates to a mean per capita figure of GBP 12.46 or a total GBP 1.63 million per authority.  When this figure is adjusted to take account of the non-responding authorities it can be estimated that the total net expenditure on the arts in Wales was GBP 36 million in 2003/04.

NORTHERN IRELAND

Table 5:     Public cultural expenditure: by level of government, in thousand GBP, 2003-2004

Level of government

Total expenditure

% share of total

State (federal)

92 200* + 6 600**
98 800

100%

Regional (provincial, Lnder)

Not applicable

Not applicable

Local (municipal)

Not available***

Not available

TOTAL

98 800

100%

Source:      DCAL: Priorities & Budget 2005-08.
*                 Outturn 2003-04 Expenditure.
**              Outturn 2003-04 Investment.
*&**         Includes Culture, Arts & Leisure.  Figures exclude EU Peace & Reconciliation Programme.
***            Local authority expenditure on arts and culture in 2000/01 was GBP 23 097 000.

United Kingdom/ 6. Financing of culture

6.4 Sector breakdown

ENGLAND: Department for Culture, Media and Sport - Outturn

Table 6:     State cultural expenditure: by sector, in thousand GBP, 2003-2004

Field / Domain / Sub-domain

Direct expenditure*
(revenue + capital)

%
of total

Cultural Goods

 

 

Cultural Heritage

 

 

Architecture & the Historic Environment

349 073 + 12 550
361 623

13.3

Museums and galleries

310 034 + 63 041
373 075

13.8

Museums, Libraries & Archives Council

29 198 + 72
29 270

1.1

Libraries

435 314 + 5 402
440 717

16.2

Culture Online

778 + 661
1 439

0.1

Arts

327 710 + 2 208
329 918

12.2

Visual Arts (including design)

 

 

Performing Arts

 

 

Music

 

 

Theatre and Musical Theatre

 

 

Multidisciplinary

 

 

Broadcasting & Media

112 368 + 1 750
114 118

4.2

Books and Press

 

 

Books

 

 

Press

 

 

Audio, Audiovisual and Multimedia

 

 

Cinema

 

 

Radio

 

 

Television

 

 

Other

 

 

National Lottery**

359 843 + 276 951
636 794

23.5

Interdisciplinary

 

 

Socio-cultural

 

 

Cultural Relations Abroad:
British Council***

156 674 + 5 800
162 474

6

Cultural Relations Abroad:
BBC World Service****

189 143 + 31 000
220 143

8.1

Administration and research*****

41 528 + 1 220
42 748

1.5

Educational Activities

 

 

Not allocable by domain

 

 

TOTAL

2 712 318

100

Source:  Department for Culture, Media & Sport Annual Report 2005.
*             Includes money allocated to quasi-governmental bodies, such as the Arts Council.
**           This National Lottery figure includes arts and heritage only (these "good causes" receive 16.67% each of the total figure). Lottery income is derived from public gambling and so is not government public expenditure, although administered by government agencies.  In 2003/04 the total National Lottery fund for good causes was GBP 1 910 000 000.
***         British Council figure source HM Treasury Supplementary Budgetary Information 2005-2006, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Resource Budget Departmental Expenditure Limit.
****      BBC World Service figure source HM Treasury Supplementary Budgetary Information 2005-2006, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Resource Budget Departmental Expenditure Limit.
*****    Not allocable by domain; includes other areas such as Sport, The Royal Parks, Tourism, Other Gambling & Gaming Bodies, European Regional Development Fund allocations to culture and sport.

SCOTLAND: Scottish Executive - Grant in Aid

Table 7:     State cultural expenditure: by sector, in thousand GBP, 2003-2004

Field / Domain / Sub-domain

Direct expenditure
(revenue + capital)

%
of total

Cultural Goods

 

 

Cultural Heritage

 

 

Royal Commission on the Ancient & Historic Monuments

4 412

3.04

Historic Scotland

41 200

28.32

Scottish Museums Council

2 941

2.02

National Museums of Scotland

18 306

12.58

National Galleries of Scotland

11 885

8.18

Archives

 

 

National Library of Scotland

18 594

12.78

SLIC (Scottish Library Information Council)

160

0.10

Arts

 

 

Scottish Arts Council

44 162

30.35

Royal Fine Art Commission / Architecture & Design Scotland

340

0.23

Visual Arts (including design)

 

 

Performing Arts

 

 

Music

 

 

Theatre and Musical Theatre

 

 

Multidisciplinary

 

 

Media

 

 

Books and Press

 

 

Books

 

 

Press

 

 

Audio, Audiovisual and Multimedia

 

 

Scottish Screen

2 685

1.84

Radio

 

 

Television

 

 

Other

 

 

Cultural Policy

 

 

Interdisciplinary

 

 

Socio-cultural

 

 

Cultural Relations Abroad

 

 

Administration

 

 

Brd na Gidhlig (Gaelic Development Agency)

825

0.56

Not allocable by domain

 

 

TOTAL

145 510

100.00%

WALES

Table 8:     State cultural expenditure: by sector, in thousand GBP, 2003-2004

Field / Domain / Sub-domain

Direct expenditure

% of total

Cultural Goods

 

 

Cultural Heritage - CADW

7 561

6.6

Historical Monuments - RCAHM

1 740

1.5

(WA) Amgueddfa Cymru - National Museum Wales (2006-07)

24 477

21.4

Archives

 

 

National Library for Wales (2006-07)

11 506

10.1

Other Arts and Libraries

1 706

1.5

Arts

 

 

Culture Fund

49 877

43.6

Arts Council of Wales

2 137

1.9

Visual Arts (including design)

 

 

Performing Arts

 

 

Music

 

 

Theatre and Musical Theatre

 

 

Multidisciplinary - Millennium Centre for Wales

12 464

10.9

Media

 

 

Books and Press

 

 

Books

 

 

Press

 

 

Audio, Audiovisual and Multimedia

 

 

Cinema

 

 

Radio

 

 

Television

 

 

Other

 

 

Interdisciplinary

 

 

Socio-cultural

 

 

Cultural Relations Abroad

 

 

Administration

 

 

Welsh Language

2 861

2.5

Educational Activities

 

 

Not allocable by domain

 

 

TOTAL

114 329

100

Source:      From 2004 Assembly Budget: Information for Assembly Members (18/10/04): The expenditure for 2003-2004 is provisional and not complete. These figures should, therefore, be treated with caution. http://www.wales.gov.uk/keypubmrs/content/0422.pdf

NORTHERN IRELAND - Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure - Outturn Expenditure

Table 9:     State cultural expenditure: by sector, in thousand GBP, 2005/06

Field / Domain / Sub-domain

Direct expenditure
(revenue + investment)

% of total

Cultural Goods

 

 

Cultural Heritage

 

 

Historical Monuments

 

 

Museums

21 400 + 5 600
27 000

35.67

Archives

 

 

Libraries

27 793 + 5 412
33 205

43.86

Arts

10 832 + 50
10 882

14.38

Visual Arts (including design)

 

 

Performing Arts

 

 

Music

 

 

Theatre and Musical Theatre

 

 

Multidisciplinary

 

 

Media

 

 

Books and Press

 

 

Books

 

 

Press

 

 

Audio, Audiovisual and Multimedia

 

 

Cinema

 

 

Radio

 

 

Television

 

 

Other

 

 

Cultural Policy

 

 

ICC / Colmcille

18

0.02

North / South Body - Languages

4 599

6.07

Interdisciplinary

 

 

Socio-cultural

 

 

Cultural Relations Abroad

 

 

Administration

 

 

Educational Activities

 

 

Not allocable by domain

 

 

TOTAL

75 704*

100.00%

Source:      DCAL.
*                 The full breakdown by sector was not available.

United Kingdom/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.1 Re-allocation of public responsibilities

The UK did not have a Ministry of Culture until after the 1992 general election, when the Department of National Heritage (DNH) was established to bring together governmental activity on cultural policy. The DNH was given overall responsibility for the arts, museums, galleries, libraries, film, broadcasting, the press, sport, tourism, heritage and listed buildings, the National Lottery and the Millennium Fund. The DNH changed its name in 1997 to the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS). Following the 2001 general election, it assumed responsibility for horseracing, betting and alcohol licensing.

In 2002, the 10 independent Regional Arts Boards merged with the Arts Council of England to form a single arts development and funding agency which, from February 2003, became Arts Council England (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 1 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 2.2).

See http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 2 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 3 for details of structural changes in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

United Kingdom/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.2 Status/role and development of major cultural institutions

There have been no significant changes to the status of flagship cultural institutions in recent years (though there has been significant changes to the public agencies that help fund them and there are imminent changes in Wales on who is responsible for the allocation of their funds - see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 2 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 3). However, there has been a strengthening of the performance indicators and targets set by government or the funding agencies.

United Kingdom/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.3 Emerging partnerships or collaborations

At a regional level in England, there are now a considerable number of public, quasi public and some private sector agencies that are co-operating to develop regional economies, inward investment and further broaden social and cultural agendas. For instance the regional offices of Arts Council England (formerly the Regional Arts Boards), the MLA Regional Agencies and the Regional Cultural Consortia, whose task is to develop an integrated regional cultural strategy, could be expected to co-operate with the:

Cultural organisations and creative industries could be co-operating with commerce and industry through relationships with chambers of commerce, who organise trade visits overseas or so-called Business Links that can provide advice for cultural SMEs.

The government's requirement for Regional Cultural Consortia and local authorities to develop regional and local cultural strategies respectively provides, probably for the first time, the mechanisms for the government's broader cultural agenda to be met. In the past, national priorities could lose their impact because they were filtered through various national and regional agencies and tiers of governance that had their own agendas and priorities, whereas they too are expected to meet government objectives and targets.

Local Area Agreements are 3 year agreements setting out the priorities for a local area, agreed between the local area (local authority, Local Strategic Partnership and other key partners) and the government. Eighty six LAAs have been signed , with 63 still being negotiated. They are new ways of delivering local services - pooling funding streams to deliver cross-cutting outcomes, aligning targets across agencies and services, seeking new ways of working under four areas:

The Museums, Libraries & Archives Council (MLA) is working with the local government Improvement and Development Agency (IDeA) to develop web-based resources providing information and advice as to how museums, libraries and archives can contribute to successful LLAs, and also with DCMS to ensure that central policy takes the sector's interests and potential into account. MLA are also ensuring that the Comprehensive Performance Assessment, which assesses the performance of councils and the services that they provide for local people, includes indicators for cultural services including museums and archives, and has recently been successful in getting Museum Accreditation in as a new indicator.

In Northern Ireland, the Forum for Local Government and the Arts (FLGA) has been revived.  Originally formed a decade ago, it brings together the ACNI and the district councils to co-ordinate arts activity, build partnerships, raise awareness of the arts and act as a lobbying body for the sector within the local political arena.

Arts & Business runs a number of programmes that develop partnerships between culture and commerce. The Skills Bank, for example, helps business volunteers share their professional skills with arts organisations. The Board Bank helps arts companies to recruit board members from business. Arts@Work encourages partnerships that bring the skills, techniques and values of the arts into the workplace. Arts & Business New Partners is an investment programme that facilitates the injection of business sector finance into projects that encourage commerce and industry to try something new with the arts sector.

Similarly, in Scotland, a complex network of partnerships across and within sectors plays an important part in the delivery of cultural provision. The Commission appointed by Scottish Ministers to undertake the wide-ranging Review of Culture had a role to consider existing institutional arrangements and whether these deliver the best possible outcomes, in light of Ministers' objective to maximise culture's role in the life of the nation. The Review looked at the inter-relationship between the public, private and voluntary sectors.

In relation to the historic environment, Historic Scotland is working closely with local authorities and the voluntary sector to set up City Heritage Trusts. The Trusts are intended as a vehicle for the delivery of heritage policy. They will also complement wider efforts to promote cities as economic drivers, tourist attractions and a focus for services, culture and quality.

United Kingdom/ 8. Support to creativity and participation

8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

Support primarily comes through the Arts Council system or agencies such as the Crafts Council, or via support for projects from a few foundations such as the Gulbenkian Foundation and Esme Fairburn Foundation, or in the form of sponsored prizes. However, some artists' supplies are zero rated for Value Added Tax, as are books.

United Kingdom/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.1 Special artists funds

The government administers a Public Lending Right scheme, which remunerates writers for the number of loans of their books through public libraries. The fund totalled GBP 7.4 million in 2005-06, increasing to GBP 7.6 million in 2006-07. Payment is made according to the number of times an author's books are borrowed (the rate per loan has increased from 5.26 pence to 5.57 pence in 2005-06). Over 34 000 authors are registered for PLR. The maximum yearly payment an author can receive is GBP 6 600 from 2006-07, increased from GBP 6 000. In 2005-06, GBP 6.5 million was paid out to 18 500 authors.

In 1980 there was a voluntary Exhibition Payment Right (EPR) scheme in England and Wales, which remunerated artists for the exhibition of their work in public galleries. However, responsibility for funding was devolved subsequently to the Regional Arts Associations and, when these were replaced by Regional Arts Boards in the early 1990s, the EPR schemes in five regions were dropped. By 1997 only two survived at a regional level in England and one in Wales. The European Directive on droit de suite came into force in the UK in 2006 and will ensure artists benefit from a percentage of the resale prices of their works of art.

The New Deal for Musicians (NDfM), which started in August 1999, aims to help unemployed musicians or young adults who are seeking a career in the music industry. It aims to help all types of artists (including instrumentalists, vocalists, composers, songwriters and performing DJs) to move into careers in the music industry, either as artists under contract, or as self-employed. NDfM is open to 18-24 year olds who have been unemployed for six months or longer, and people aged 25 and over who have been unemployed for 18 months or longer. Many of the people on the NDfM programme move on to allied roles in the music industry, such as managers or stage crew.

A few modest voluntary arrangements exist in various sectors, such as resettlement funds for retraining of dancers when their careers are coming to an end.

United Kingdom/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.2 Grants, awards, scholarships

The Arts Councils of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland administer a range of grants, bursaries, commissions and further training for artists and arts practitioners in the fields of dance, drama, literature, translation, music, opera, visual arts, photography, video, etc. Schemes range widely and include commissions, fellowships, artist's residencies, and travel assistance to facilitate networking or participation in overseas events, support for artists working with education or the community. Arts Council England provides much of this funding both nationally and via nine regional offices, through a single funding scheme called "Grants for the arts", which replaced a myriad of different funding schemes. The Crafts Council provides support for crafts people and the UK Film Council has supported filmmakers since 2000.

Arts Council England designated 2000/2001 "Year of the Artist", with a focus on individual creators and makers. It was the culmination of a ten-year programme designated to promote individual art forms such as dance and literature. 1 000 artists benefited from a range of commissions and residencies. The total budget for the Year of the Artist was about GBP 3.5 million.

In 2000, a report (The Creative Imperative) was commissioned by the Arts Council of Northern Ireland and The Irish Arts Council / An Chomhairle Ealaion to provide benchmark information about the impact of existing programmes of support for artists by the two Arts Councils and to make recommendations about future support of the individual artist. Among its many conclusions were that consideration be given to multi-annual grants; that training in business, financial and marketing skills be made available, and that there should be procedures for regular monitoring of the impact of the awards and for periodic review.

In Northern Ireland, the Arts Council in its five-year arts plan has given priority to extend opportunities for artists to develop their work and practice. Opportunities are available for commissioning new work across all art forms. In addition, a dedicated special funding programme has introduced new opportunities for artists to work on specific projects, for example, in the community, to pursue international opportunities or personal artistic development.

NESTA, the National Endowment for Science Technology and the Arts, is working to transform the UK's capacity for innovation. They invest in all stages of the innovation process, backing new ideas and funding new ventures that stimulate entrepreneurship.

For information on the Clore Leadership Programme see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.7.

United Kingdom/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.3 Support to professional artists associations or unions

Unions in the arts are not directly supported by government or the arts funding agencies. However, Arts Council England supports a number of visual artists associations and services. These include Visual Associations, which provides information about contemporary artists through the AXIS on-line database (http://www.axisartists.org/), AN (the Artist's Information Company) which provides information for artists to enable them to develop their practice and employment, inIVA (the Institute of International Visual Arts), which supports the work of artists from other countries whose work is outside the main canon of arts criticism and teaching, and the Contemporary Art Society, which for many years purchased work from contemporary artists and craftspeople to donate to museums. In the field of literature, support has been given to bodies such as the Federation of Worker Writers, the National Association of Writers in Education and the Arvon Foundation for writers and artists' residencies. The UK Film Council also supports a number of associations related to film, including the Production Guild of Great Britain and UK Post, a new trade association representing the UK film post-production sector.

A number of Sector Skills Councils (SSCs) are also supported, such as Skillset and Creative & Cultural Skills. SSCs are licensed by the Secretary of State for Education and Skills, in consultation with Ministers in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, to tackle the skills and productivity needs of their sector throughout the UK.

The Creative Imperative: Report on Support for the Individual Artist in Ireland recommended that there should be greater financial support for artists' associations both in Northern Ireland and the Republic so that they can develop an advocacy role.

United Kingdom/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation

8.2.1 Trends and figures

Table 10:   Attendance at cultural events in Great Britain, % share of resident population aged 15 and over, 1986-2004

Field

'86/87

'91/92

'96/97

'98/99

'99/00

'00/01

'01/02

'02/03

'03/04

Cinema

31

44

54

57

56

55

57

61

65

Plays

23

23

24

22

23

23

24

24

25

Art galleries / exhibitions

21

21

22

21

22

21

22

24

24

Classic music

12

12

12

11

12

12

12

13

13

Ballet

6

6

7

6

6

6

6

7

7

Opera

5

6

7

6

6

6

6

7

7

Contemporary dance

4

3

4

4

4

4

5

5

6

Source:      Target Group Index, BMRB International; Cinema Advertising Association.
Note:         The figures are based on Census data compiled by the Office of National Statistics and refer to the percentages of the total population aged 15 and over in Great Britain

ENGLAND

Table 11:   From the Taking Part Survey - % participating / attending arts activities / events during the past 12 months

Attendance / participation in arts activities / events

Percentage

Participation in arts activities:

Ballet

1

Other dance (not for fitness)

8

Sang to an audience or rehearsed for a performance (not karaoke)

4

Played a musical instrument to an audience or rehearse for a performance

3

Played a musical instrument for your own pleasure

11

Written any music

3

Rehearsed or performed in play / drama

2

Rehearsed or performed in opera / operetta

1

Painting, drawing, printmaking or sculpture

13

Photography as an artistic activity (not family or holiday "snaps")

9

Made films or videos as an artistic activity (not family or holiday)

2

Used a computer to create original artworks or animation

12

Textile crafts such as embroidery, crocheting or knitting

13

Wood crafts such as wood turning, carving or furniture making

5

Other crafts such as calligraphy, pottery or jewelery making

5

Bought any original works of art for yourself

7

Bought any original / handmade crafts such as pottery or jewelery for yourself

16

Read for pleasure (not newspapers, magazines or comics)

63

Bought a novel, or book of stories, poetry or plays for yourself

45

Written any stories or plays

3

Written any poetry

4

Attendance at arts events:

Film at a cinema or other venue

53

Exhibition or collection of art, photography or sculpture

21

Craft exhibition (not crafts markets)

16

Event which included video or electronic art

4

Event connected with books or writing

5

Street arts (art in everyday surroundings like parks, streets or shopping centres) or circus (not animals)

14

Carnival

18

Culturally specific festival (for example Mela, Baisakhi, Navratri)

5

Play / drama

22

Other theatre performances (for example, musical, pantomime)

25

Opera / operetta

4

Classical music concert

8

Jazz performance

6

Other live music event

24

Ballet

4

Contemporary dance

2

African people's dance or South Asian and Chinese dance

2

Other live dance event

4

Source:      Taking Part: The National Survey of Culture, Leisure and Sport, 2005/2006, Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
Note:         It should be noted that these particular estimates are from the first nine months of the survey; mid-July 2005 to mid-April 2006 and are provisional.  This is because the final weights will not be applied until the full year has been gathered; in the interim period, temporary weights have been applied.  As the estimates are based on interviews achieved over a nine month period, given the timescale of the data and the nature of the activities, certain estimates may be influenced by this seasonality.

The Taking Part Survey was commissioned in July 2005 and is a new survey which collects a variety of information by interviewing adults aged 16 or above living in private households in England; see the Taking Part website for more information http://www.culture.gov.uk/Reference_library/Research/taking_part_survey/

Older data is available from Arts in England: attendance, participation and attitudes 2003, which presents the findings of a study of attendance, participation and attitudes to the arts in England amongst 6 025 people aged 16 and over. The study, which is the fourth in a series commissioned by Arts Council England, was carried out by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) between September 2003 and January 2004.

Survey carried out by the Office for National Statistics (ONS): http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/documents/publications/artsinenglandsum_phpdOUlh8.doc

Table 12:   Attendance by ethnicity at various arts events, in %, 2005/2006

Arts Events

Attendance

White

Asian

Black

Mixed ethnicity

Chinese and other ethnic groups

All

A film at a cinema or other venue

53

58

48

54

57

53

Play / drama

24

10

11

15

12

22

Carnival

17

16

29

22

11

18

Street arts (art in everyday surroundings like parks, streets or shopping centres) or circus (not animals)

14

10

12

11

11

14

Exhibition or collection of art, photography or sculpture

22

12

11

18

20

21

Craft exhibition (not crafts market)

16

6

6

6

6

16

Culturally specific festival (for example Mela, Baisakhi, Navratri)

4

32

9

13

17

5

Other theatre performances (for example musical, pantomime)

27

10

10

16

13

25

Event connected with books or writing

5

5

6

4

6

5

Event which included video or electronic art

4

4

3

4

6

4

Base

15 681

1 212

800

256

221

18 170

Source:      Taking Part: The National Survey of Culture, Leisure and Sport, 2005/2006, Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
Note:         It should be noted that these particular estimates are from the first nine months of the survey; mid-July 2005 to mid-April 2006 and are provisional.  This is because the final weights will not be applied until the full year has been gathered; in the interim period, temporary weights have been applied.  As the estimates are based on interviews achieved over a nine month period, given the timescale of the data and the nature of the activities, certain estimates may be influenced by this seasonality.

Visitor figures to London galleries dropped by over a quarter following the July 2005 bombings (data from The Arts Newspaper). Major London galleries reported an average 26% reduction in admissions e.g. National Gallery figures dropped by 46% in the first week of August 2005, compared to the same week last year

Table 13:   % attending historic environment sites, 2005/2006

Type of historic environment site

Percentage

A city or town with historic character

51

A historic building open to the public (non religious)

36

A historic park, garden or landscape open to the public

38

A place connected with industrial history (e.g. an old factory, dockyard or mine) or historic transport system (e.g. an old ship or railway)

19

A historic place of worship attended as a visitor (not to worship)

26

A monument such as a castle, fort or ruin

36

A site of archaeological interest (i.e. roman villa, ancient burial site)

16

A site connected with sports heritage (e.g. Wimbledon) (not visited for the purpose of watching sport

4

Total (visited at least one type of historic environment site)

69

Source:      Taking Part: The National Survey of Culture, Leisure and Sport, 2005/2006, Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
Note:         It should be noted that these particular estimates are from the first nine months of the survey; mid-July 2005 to mid-April 2006 and are provisional.  This is because the final weights will not be applied until the full year has been gathered; in the interim period, temporary weights have been applied.  As the estimates are based on interviews achieved over a nine month period, given the timescale of the data and the nature of the activities, certain estimates may be influenced by this seasonality.

Table 14:   Visits to historic properties in England - trends in percentages by type, 1991-2003

 

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

Castles (65)

94.3

102.3

108.3

111.4

106.5

104.0

96.5

97.0

99.9

Gardens (51)

99.8

105.1

113.9

114.8

113.5

109.9

116.2

125.3

132.9

Historic Houses (180)

100.3

100.1

109.1

113.7

112.4

108.3

101.3

115.1

119.7

Historic Monuments (36)

93.8

93.7

96.5

103.3

105.2

105.2

86.1

94.6

90.8

Other Historic Properties (25)

98.1

94.8

95.6

90.1

88.7

84.7

83.7

83.4

89.2

Visitor / Heritage Centres (11)

144.8

164.9

172.7

186.7

207.0

196.7

189.2

203.3

193.1

Places of Worship (16)

91.4

89.3

83.1

83.8

68.2

65.9

59.8

60.0

60.6

TOTAL (384)

96.4

97.5

100.0

102.2

96.1

93.0

87.2

92.7

94.5

Source:      VisitBritain / English Heritage - Heritage Counts 2004: The State of the Historic Environment in England.
Note:         Index Numbers 1990 = 100 and number in brackets is number of sites used to estimate data for 1990 to 2002. 2003 is based on increase in number of visits over 2002 for each type of site for all sites.

CADW recorded 1.1 million visits to 127 historic sites in Wales for 2003. Historic Scotland recorded 2.95 million visits to the 70 staffed historic properties from April 2004 - March 2005.

SCOTLAND

The Scottish Arts Council's 2004 survey on arts participation and attendance in Scotland surveyed almost 3 000 adults. Key findings were that the majority of the population (75%) had attended an arts or cultural activity in the past year, and around two-fifths (39%) would consider attending an arts or cultural activity that they have never been to before, indicating potential demand. Two thirds (67%) of adults in Scotland had participated in some type of art or cultural activity in the past year, the most popular being reading books. About half (49%) of Scots adults indicated that they were "very or quite" interested in arts and cultural events generally, a slightly higher percentage than recorded in the 2001 (45%) and 1998 (44%) surveys (n.b. the attendance and participation data are not strictly comparable to similar data collected in previous years due to a change in the definition used). Other highlights include:

Additional sampling was undertaken among specific under-represented groups in order to provide information relating to Scottish Executive targets; for example, the table below shows the summary arts attendance and participation among eight underrepresented groups:

Table 15:   Levels of attendance and participation during previous 12 months, in %

Group

Attendance
in last 12 months

Participation
in last 12 months

Scottish adults

75

67

Minority ethnic communities

70

60

Residents of deprived areas

67

52

Disabled people

50

58

Women

75

69

Residents of rural areas

75

69

People aged 16-34

87

65

People aged 65+

52

61

In addition, an estimated 72% of children aged 5 to 15 attended or participated in arts or cultural activities during the previous 12 months. Full results and commentary regarding attendance and participation amongst underrepresented groups are available in Volume 2 of the Taking Part Arts Attendance, Participation and Attitudes in Scotland 2004. The Taking Part report can be found on the Scottish Arts Council website: http://www.scottisharts.org.uk/1/information/publications/1002308.aspx

Being Young in Scotland 2005, a survey of 2 150 11-16 year olds and 1 028 17-25 year olds by MORI for the Scottish Executive Education Department and YouthLink Scotland revealed:

WALES

Table 16:   Arts attendance - percentage of adults in Wales that attended different types of art forms once a year or more often, 2004

Art form

Percentage

Cinema

53%

Other live music

40%

Plays

28%

Art galleries

24%

Musicals

23%

Classical music

11%

Jazz

9%

Opera

7%

Literary event

6%

Contemporary dance

5%

Ballet

5%

Source:      Arts Attendance, Participation and Public Attitudes to the Arts in Wales - ACW / Beaufort Welsh Omnibus Survey November 2004 http://www.artswales.org.uk/publications/publication.asp?id=293
Base:         All adults (1 011 interviews conducted of participants aged 16+).

The Arts Council of Wales' largest ever survey of 7 000 people's attitudes to the arts, Arts in Focus (2005), revealed that four out of five people in Wales support public funding for the arts, the same proportion attend arts events and over three-quarters believe that arts and culture make Wales a better place to live. Other findings include:

Source: http://www.artswales.org.uk/publications/publication.asp?id=293

Northern Ireland

In 2005, Arts Council Northern Ireland released the findings of its first dedicated survey of attendance at, participation in and attitudes towards arts and culture since the early 1990s (Arts and Culture in Northern Ireland Baseline Study 2004). The survey was carried out amongst 1 293 adults aged 16 and over. The report reveals that: 73% of adults attended at least one arts or cultural event in 2004; men were more likely to cite "lack of interest" as a reason preventing them from participation or attendance than women (32% to 22%), whereas women were more likely to identify family commitments / children as barriers. 80% of those interviewed believed their lives were enriched by arts and culture, and supported government spending on the sector (http://www.artscouncil-ni.org/news/2005/new05092005.htm). The main findings are presented below:

Table 17:   Percentage Attending Events in the last 12 months and four months, 2004

Event

Last 12 months %

Last 4 months %

Film (cinema, arts centre, festival)

54

55

A carnival of circus

7

4

An Arts festival

6

3

A community based festival

14