Report creation date: 14.10.2008 - 11:49
Countr(y/ies): Spain
Chapter(s): 1,2,21,22,23,24,241,242,243,244,245,246,3,31,32,33,4,41,42,421,422,423,424,425,426,427,428,429,4210,43,5,51,511,512,513,514,515,516,517,518,519,52,53,531,532,533,534,535,536,537,538,539,5310,6,61,62,63,64,7,71,72,73,8,81,811,812,813,82,821,822,83,831,832,84,841,842,9,91,92

Spain/ 1. Historical perspective: cultural policies and instruments

The development of democratic cultural policies in Spain can not been understood without an awareness of the long dictatorship period between 1939 and 1975. The victory of the Nationalists in the Civil War of 1936 to 1939 ushered in the dictatorship of General Franco. In a first period, academies and cultural institutions were purged, and many scientists and artists were exiled abroad. The Press Act of 1938 imposed censorship and state monopoly control over information. The single political party controlled a powerful press and propaganda machine. The official culture of Francoism combined fervent nationalism with equally fervent Catholicism. Its artistic predilection was for traditional styles. It appealed to Spain's imperialist past and expounded at great length on the brotherhood of the Spanish-speaking people. A goodMadrid, Monument of Felipe IV deal of the institutionalisation of regional cultures was undone, and the social use of Peninsular languages other than Spanish was pushed aside. "Evasion culture", comprising football, bullfighting, film, radio, popular fiction and gossip magazines, provided the government with instruments for social integration and the maintenance of political unawareness.

From the 1960s onwards, rigid press and education policies began to soften. The new Press Act of 1966 was a timid effort at deregulation. Provisions were made for the public funding of cultural activities and support was given to selective avant-garde projects such as the San Sebastian film festival, or Spanish participation in international art biennials. Despite this, however, economic and cultural developments opened a major divide between society's demands and what the regime had to offer. The expanding gap was filled by the recovery of the Spanish liberal-reformist tradition of the early 20th century, and with it, although often in opposition, by a new culture of critical consciousness among widening university and artistic circles.

Upon Franco's death in 1975, Spain was a much more modern and open-minded country than its political regime. Economic and educational development, together with the greater class equilibrium obtained after the 1960s, explains the relaxed approach adopted by Spaniards to the return of democracy and subsequent membership to the European Community. In 1976-7, the first governments of the restored monarchy introduced decisive reforms of the press laws. The Ministry of Information and Tourism was closed, the state-run newspapers were shut down or sold off, and Radio Nacional's monopoly on radio broadcasting ended. The Constitution of 1978 and the charters of regional autonomy set up under its aegis, initiated a period of freedom of the press and artistic expression, combined with greater state activity in disseminating culture and in giving full recognition to the cultural and linguistic diversity of Spain.

In 1977, the Ministry of Culture was established, being given the responsibilities formerly held by the Ministry of Education for the national heritage and fine arts. It also became responsible for film, theatre, music and dance policies, until then the responsibility of the Ministry of Information and Tourism. The Ministry stood by the principles of neutrality of the state in cultural issues and recognised the plurality of civil society. By means of international exhibitions, congresses, prizes and appointments, much of the cultural heritage silenced by Francoism was recovered, and the work of exiled artists and intellectuals recognised. The work of the Ministry, and fundamentally from many city councils, was decisive in developing the cultural infrastructure (museums, archives and libraries), in protecting the country's cultural heritage, and promoting new or existing cultural institutions (the National Orchestra, the National Ballet, the National Drama Centre, the National Classical Theatre Company, etc.)

As from 1982, different Socialist governments stressed the need for the state to be present in those areas where private initiative was likely to be lacking. In the initial phase, up to 1986, the central goal was to preserve the much-deteriorated historic and artistic heritage (Historical Heritage Act, 1985), renovate theatres and auditoriums, and subsidise artistic expression. It was found that the political aims and the gradual transfer of responsibilities to the regional authorities required that the Ministry be slimmed down and reorganised. It was in this period that the Ministry of Culture was given its operational structure, which has remained practically unchanged to this day (Decree of 24 April, 1985).

In a second phase, from 1986 to 1996, the authorities staged a series of events that brought their cultural policies to the foreground of public attention. They included the inauguration of museums and concert halls including: the Reina Sofía Museum and Art Centre, the National Museum of Roman Art of Merida, 1986; the Concert Hall of Madrid, 1988; the Valencia Institute of Modern Art and the Modern Art Centre of the Canary Islands, 1989; the Festival Hall of Cantabria, 1991; the Galician Centre of Contemporary Art and the Thyssen-Bornemisza Art Collection, 1993; the Museum of Contemporary Art of Barcelona and the Domus Museum of La Coruña, 1996. In addition, a number of major international events were held, which had a major cultural element, such as the Barcelona Olympics, the Seville Expo, the Fifth Centenary of the Discovery of America and the Madrid European Cultural Capital 1992. Plans were also made to promote the book publishing and the film industry. Cultural networks were established and efforts made to raise the level of professional expertise of artists and performers. Outside Spain, the world began to recognise the recovery in the confidence of Spanish art and culture and the authorities took steps to encourage this, culminating in 1991 with the establishment of the Cervantes Institute.

These were years of exuberant artistic activity and freedom of expression, in which Spanish artists brandished a dizzying array of political and cultural banners while their international colleagues were welcomed to join in. The number of exhibitions, concerts, festivals and summer schools responded to a deep-seated social need. The turnout for cultural events rocketed, while publishing, the music and film industries developed at breakneck speed. At the initiative of either the central or the regional authorities, major urban refurbishments were designed with museums, arts centres, and concert halls as their hubs.

This cultural explosion coincided with, and to a certain extent masked, the lack of real resources: very few public libraries; poor reading habits; indifferent conservation of cultural properties; the low standard of much artistic training. The decentralised structure of government often succeeded in recovering and strengthening regional cultural diversity but did not always bring about a broader participation in cultural events or improve the standards of artistic creation. The expectations raised by private television, introduced in 1988, were dashed by the banality of its content. The dichotomy of mass and avant-garde culture and the loss of the political function held by creativity in the days of the dictatorship soon became signs of the normalisation of Spanish culture after 1975.

The political regime enshrined in the 1978 Constitution did much to encourage the cultural activities of both the autonomous communities or regions and the municipal councils. The regions have been very active in caring for their heritage and building new and imposing amenities. In those regions with their own language, much cultural activity is directed at recovering and developing the sense of regional identity, particularly by means of statutory initiatives to protect these languages. The local administrations, responsible for the bulk of national expenditure for culture, were from the first democratic municipal elections in 1979 very active in the use of culture and in recovering the streets and squares as public agora.

In 1996, the incoming liberal-conservative government of the Popular Party merged the Ministry of Culture with that of Education in a new Ministry with a State Secretariat for Culture. Two different strategies could, in theory, support this decision: on the one hand, the creation of a Commission for Cultural Affairs which would promote culture as a priority area; on the other, the development of a closer relationship between educational and cultural policy. In its second term (2000-2004), the government added sports to the Ministry's responsibilities. Despite changes to the status of the State Secretariat for Culture, its organisational structure has remained remarkably unaltered since 1977.

The approach to cultural policy has been to ensure the cultural neutrality of the state and to recognise regional cultural diversity. While it may seem that an emphasis has been placed more on "looking after the heritage", artistic creation has not suffered as a consequence. The broad outlines of ministerial action remain the same: protection and dissemination of Spain's historic heritage; management of the great national museums, archives and libraries; promotion and dissemination of film, theatre, dance and music.

During the Popular Party's two terms in office (1996-2000 and 2000-2004), a large Investment Plan assisted the reform and improvement of auditoriums, museums, archives and libraries, and increased the public access to cathedrals, castles, religious buildings, industrial architecture and natural landscapes. New technologies entered the archives sector, and the Plan for the promotion of reading was part of an effort to increase cultural participation. A large portion of the Ministry's investment budget was allocated to Madrid's Paseo del Arte, including extensions of the Prado, the Reina Sofía and the Thyssen-Bornemisza museums. Other substantial investments were directed to the renovation of the National Museum of Art of Catalonia and the Royal Theatre Opera House in Madrid and the Liceu Opera House in Barcelona. Support to the film industry was expanded and consolidated by a new Cinema Act (Act 15/2001), now in revision.

The deregulatory tendency of the Popular Party's government led to efforts to involve the private sector in major cultural initiatives. Management efficiency and operational autonomy were the keywords in reorganising the Prado Museum and the Spanish National Orchestra and Choir (2003), and in setting up bodies such as the two state corporations for Spanish Cultural Action Abroad (SEACEX) and Cultural Commemorations (SECC). New tax legislation was adopted to stimulate private funding of cultural initiatives, such as the Sponsorship and Foundation Act of 2002.

The Socialist Party took office following the General Elections in March 2004 and has reorganised the government's ministerial structure (Royal Decree 1601/2004 on the Structure of the Ministry of Culture). The Ministry of Culture has again been established as a separate entity from the Ministry of Education, although it includes the same departments as the former State Secretariat for Culture: the Directorate-General for Fine Arts and Cultural Assets; the Directorate-General for Books, Archives and Libraries; and the Directorate-General for Cultural Cooperation and Communication. Other bodies, which previously depended on the State Secretariat, have an independent status and a certain degree of operating autonomy, although they remain under the umbrella of the new Ministry: the Prado Museum, the Reina Sofía Museum and Art Centre, the National Library, the National Institute of Cinematography and Audiovisual Arts and the National Institute of Music and Performing Arts.

Spain/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.1 Organisational structure (organigram)

DG:                  Directorate-General

SD-G:               Sub Directorate-General

AO:                  Autonomous Organisation (self governing public bodies dependent on the Ministry,
                        in which its director has the rank of General Director)

Regional Level - Autonomous Communities







Vice Department of Culture

Secretariat for Technical Affairs

D-G. for Cultural Assets

D-G. for Cultural Promotion

D-G. for Books, Bibliographic and Documental Heritage

D-G. for Museums


Education, Culture and Sports

Vice Department of Culture

Secretariat for Technical Affairs

D-G. for Historical Heritage

D-G. for Culture


Culture and Tourism



Secretariat for Technical Affairs

D-G. for Cultural Promotion and Language Policy

Agency for the Development of Communication and Cultural Projects


Education and Culture


General Secretariat

D-G. for Culture

D-G. for Language Policy


Education, Universities, Culture and Sports

Vice Department of Culture and Sports

Secretariat for Technical Affairs

D-G. for Books, Archives and Libraries

D-G. for Cooperation and Cultural Heritage


Culture, Tourism and Sports


General Secretariat

D-G. for Culture


Culture and Tourism

Vice Department of Culture

General Secretariat

D-G. for Historical Heritage and Cultural Assets

D-G. for Cultural Promotion and Institutions




General Secretary for Culture

D-G. for Historical Heritage and Museums

D-G. for Cultural Promotion

D-G. for Books, Archives and Libraries


Culture and Media


General Secretary for Culture and Media

D-G. for Cultural Cooperation

D-G. for Historical Heritage


Culture and Sports

Autonomous Secretary for Culture

Sub Secretariat

D-G. for Books, Archives and Libraries

D-G. for Valencian Heritage


Culture and Tourism


General Secretariat

D-G. for Historical Heritage

D-G. for Cultural Promotion


Culture and Sports


General Secretariat

D-G. for Creation and Cultural Diffusion

D-G. for Historical Heritage


Education, Culture and Sports


Secretariat for Technical Affairs

D-G. for Culture


Culture and Tourism

Vice Department of Culture and Tourism

Secretariat for Technical Affairs

D-G. for Books, Museums and Libraries

D-G. for Cultural Promotion

D-G. for Historical Heritage


Culture, Youth and Sports

Autonomous Secretary for Culture

General Secretariat

D.G. for Fine Arts and Cultural Assets

D-G. for Books, Archives and Libraries

D-G. for Cultural Promotion


Culture and Tourism


Secretariat for Technical Affairs

D-G. for Culture



Vice Department of Culture, Youth and Sports

Vice Department of Language policy

Directorate for Historical Heritage
Directorate for Cultural Promotion

Directorate for Linguistic Planning (Euskera)

Directorate for the Promotion of Euskera

Directorate for the Coordination of Euskera

Spain/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.2 Overall description of the system

The 1978 Constitution created a new administrative territorial division in Spain, with three administrative levels: central government, autonomous communities or regions and municipal councils. According to the areas of competence laid down in the Constitution, all three levels have general responsibilities for culture. It also separates central government responsibilities from regional responsibilities (see 5).

The Ministry of Culture is the body responsible for central government cultural policy (see 1). Both national and regional administrations have lightweight structures. The following sub-divisions make up the Ministry of Culture at the central government level:

This lean organisational structure is due to the fact that some cultural bodies (autonomous organisms) have an independent legal status (legal entities of public law) and a certain degree of operating autonomy (see 7.2). Such is the case for e.g., the Prado Museum, the National Library or the National Institute of Cinematography and Audiovisual Arts.

This is also the case in various regions, e.g.:

Spain is divided into seventeen autonomous communities or regions, which have broad powers in matters of culture. In particular, the Constitution gives them both management and normative control over those areas where public regulation of some kind is traditional: museums, libraries, performing arts, handcrafts, etc. National museums, libraries and archives remain under state control, although in most cases responsibility for operating them is delegated to the regions. The involvement of regional governments in cultural matters is greater in those communities that have their own language and culture, particularly the so-called "historic nationalities", i.e., those that first obtained administrative autonomy: Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country. Some communities -Andalusia, the Basque Country, and Castile-La Mancha - assign the administration of cultural affairs to a single Department, while others have opted for mixed bodies in which culture is administered jointly with education, tourism, publicly owned media and sport.

At the municipal level, the Local Regime Act 1985 gave city and town councils administrative powers over local heritage, cultural activities and amenities, and "leisure activities". The law states that population centres of over 5 000 inhabitants are obliged to provide library services and it allow the municipalities to promote "complementary activities to those provided by other government bodies and, in particular, those concerning culture". In practice, local authorities have almost unlimited power to promote cultural activities at the municipal level. Their proximity to the citizen and the political rewards of such activities explain the huge expansion of local cultural events up to the start of the 1990s. Today, the bulk of municipal spending is on culture (see 6).

Spain/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.3 Inter-ministerial or intergovernmental co-operation

In 2004 (R.D. 1194/2004, 14 May), with the reorganisation of the government's ministerial structure, the Culture Cabinet Committee responsible for overseeing inter-ministerial cooperation was abolished. Since then, the Ministry of Culture coordinates its activities in specific areas with the Ministries of Development, Environment and Industry, Tourism and Trade. They include programmes such as the "One Per Cent for Culture", set up jointly with the Ministries of Development and Environment, and the "Internet at Public Libraries" programme set up by the Ministry of Culture with the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade. Recently, to combat infringements of intellectual property rights, an inter-sector Commission was set up, associated to the Ministry of Culture, which has representatives from 11 ministries.

International cultural co-operation is carried out jointly by the Ministry of Culture, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. Both ministries are also present, in their own right, on the boards of independent bodies such as the Cervantes Institute or the State Corporation for Spanish Cultural Action Abroad (SEACEX).

The state is constitutionally mandated to arrange for cultural communication among the different regions "in collaboration with them". To do so, the central government set up a specific unit (Sub-Directorate General of Communication with the Autonomous Communities) under the wing of the Directorate-General for Cultural Cooperation and Communication of the Ministry of Culture. The unit's task is to cooperate with the regions in their cultural programmes, foster interregional communication in the area; to disseminate the wealth and range of the regions' cultural heritages; and exchange information about cultural policies. It is also responsible for ensuring that the cultural diversity of Spain's regions is fully appreciated abroad, a task that the unit carries out in co-operation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation and Spanish embassies and consulates around the world.

In practice, the mechanisms for coordinating central and regional government activities on cultural matters have operated with different degrees of success. The Sectoral Conference on Culture met once in the third legislature (1986-89), twice in the fourth (1989-93) and in the fifth (1993-96) legislature, not once in the last two (1996-2004) legislatures, and six in the present one. When appointed in 2004, the new Minister of Culture aimed to launch a new phase of cultural communication and institutional dialogue between the central and regional governments, through the revitalisation of the Sectoral Conference on Culture.

Nevertheless, coordination between central and regional administrations is also exercised via specialised bodies such as the Heritage Council, the Museum Council or the Archives Council.

Recovering and preserving the national heritage is where combined action by the different levels of government has proven most fruitful. Spain is the second country in the world with the largest number of individual sites classified as "world heritage sites" by UNESCO. Since the beginning of the 1990s, there has been a proliferation of cooperation agreements at different levels of government mainly for major urban developments associated with the construction of prestigious cultural monuments / sites. One example took place in early 2006 when the Ministry of Culture and the Autonomous government of Castile-Leon signed an agreement to boost the development of the Ruta de la Plata (the Silver Road) as a quality cultural itinerary. Another example was initiated in July when the Ministry of Culture and the Autonomous governments of Catalonia, Balearic Islands, Valencia and Aragon reached an agreement for the constitution of the Archive Council of the Crown of Aragon.

As for relations among the regions themselves, the level of information and technical exchange is extremely low. Similarly, very little progress has been made in inter-regional and national-regional co-ordination to project Spanish culture internationally. The notable exception is the Ramon Llull Institute, promoting Catalan language and culture abroad. This is a body set up by the Catalan government, with cooperation from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation.

In terms of co-operation at the municipal level, aside from the abovementioned examples involving central and regional government and the councils of certain cities, mention should also be made of the assistance provided by certain regional governments for local townships. For example, the Island Councils of the Canaries and the Provincial Councils of some regions, mainly the Basque Country and Catalonia, have contributed to the development of inter-municipal cultural activities through museums, libraries, archives and local theatre tours. Municipal culture departments have also worked together with their colleagues responsible for urban development, education or tourism. Beginning in the 1980s, a number of cities initiated integrated development projects, covering urban development, education, welfare and tourism and culture, often with the support of European aid programmes for the reconstruction of city centres (Barcelona, Cadiz). Since Agenda 21 for Culture was approved on 8 May 2004, a growing number of Spanish cities and municipalities have adopted it at local government level. To promote the principles enshrined in the document, the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) has established a Working Group on Culture, which is chaired by the Councillor for Culture of the Barcelona City Council.

Spain/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.1 Overview of main structures and trends

Spain is involved in bilateral cooperation in the area of cultural exchange with many countries and has a growing number of new agreements designed to promote mutual understanding between the signatories. Spain has signed cooperation agreements in the areas of culture, education and science with numerous countries and, in order to monitor their development, it organises regular Mixed Commissions in which the corresponding executive programmes are defined. In Spain, the planning and coordination of these agreements and programmes is the responsibility of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. The Ministry of Culture is responsible for defining their cultural content and for management and follow-up. The legal instruments devised by these Mixed Commissions are the executive programmes of cultural cooperation, which are usually in force for two or three years, though, on occasion, for only one year. These programmes define the nature, content and calendar of the actions and exchanges that come under the Ministry of Culture's areas of competence.

Multilateral cultural cooperation is based, above all, on participation in the creation of cooperation agreements and programmes in the cultural environment inside the international organisations of which Spain is a member (see 2.4.3).

Spain/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.2 Public actors and cultural diplomacy

As is the case with most European countries, the promotion of Spanish culture abroad is a joint endeavour between the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation.

Within the Ministry of Culture, the Directorate-General for Cultural Cooperation and Communication, through the Sub Directorate-General for International Cultural Co-operation, is responsible for bilateral and multilateral programmes and treaties for promoting cultural exchange. It also monitors Spain's participation in international cultural organisations and co-ordinates the international activities of the various units and semi-independent bodies within the Ministry itself.

Co-operation activities in the field of the visual arts and participation in international forums and standing bodies for the protection and appreciation of cultural heritage are carried out by the Directorate-General for Fine Arts and Cultural Assets. These activities are facilitated either directly or, depending on the event, indirectly through the Prado Museum or the Reina Sofía Museum and Art Centre.

The Directorate-General for Books, Archives and Libraries promotes foreign awareness of Spanish writers by encouraging the translation of certain works. Under its auspices, the National Library takes part in various joint projects with the central libraries of other countries. The Institute of Cinematography and Audiovisual Arts looks after the promotion of the Spanish film industry abroad. In addition to its involvement in film co-productions, the Institute takes part in several European / international programmes.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation is responsible for foreign cultural activities through its Directorate-General for Cultural and Scientific Relations, which is part of the Spanish Agency for International Co-operation (AECI - see also 2.4.6). This unit also deals with cultural and scientific exchanges, including grants and scholarships, as well as Spain's international undertakings in this respect. It acts through Spanish embassies and consulates or through AECI centres on foreign soil.

The Cervantes Institute, the self-governing body set up in 1991, under the aegis of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, is entrusted with promoting the Spanish language and culture internationally, for which it has 67 teaching centres in non-Spanish-speaking countries. Representatives of the Ministry of Education and Science, and the Ministry of Finance, also sit on its board.

Cultural activities abroad also rely on institutions such as:

Cultural activities carried out abroad by the autonomous governments have increased significantly over recent years. The Valencian community has been one of the most active in artistic promotion. Andalusia emphasises cultural cooperation with its southern neighbour, Morocco. In 1992, the government of Catalonia set up the Catalan Consortium of External Promotion of Culture (COPEC), today part of the Institute of Creative Industries, to promote a Catalan presence in foreign markets. Those regions with significant numbers of overseas emigrants, notably Galicia, have encouraged exchanges, particularly in the area of music and dance. Communities bordering on Portugal or France often engage in cultural exchanges within the framework of EU regional policies and programmes. More and more communities are using cultural exchanges as spearheads for the promotion of trade and tourism.

To a lesser extent, some cities (or other bodies, such as universities) have contributed to international co-operation, often within the framework of the European Union (town twinning, Eurocities, Eurorégion Culturelle, ACRE, etc.), but also in an Iberoamerican context, with the Interlocal-Iberoamerican Network of Cities for Culture. In the last decade, some major cultural and urban regeneration projects involving the government at various levels have had major international impact: the Barcelona Olympic Games, the Seville Expo (1992); the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao (1997); Salamanca as European Cultural Capital (2002); the first Universal Forum of Cultures in Barcelona (2004); the Saragossa Expo (2008).

In the field of cultural education and training, the Ministry of Culture, through the Directorate-General of Cultural Cooperation and Communication, has also signed agreements with foreign institutions to promote Spanish culture abroad. An example of this type of agreement is those undertaken with foreign universities to promote the work of Hispanics in the respective countries. Annually, these programmes allow the joint funding of a series of projects and publications with the common aim of promoting Spanish culture abroad. Universities that participate in these programmes include those in the United States, Japan (via the "Baltasar Gracian" programme), the Philippines and Germany.

The Fulbright Scholarships have provided funding for Spanish arts students, in the US, since 1994.

The Ministry of Culture, through its Sub Directorate-General for International Cultural Cooperation, also manages a variety of programmes for training cultural professionals. Grants awarded for the training of specialists in various areas of culture in the Spanish-speaking countries already have a long tradition. The Sub Directorate-General also provides support for Spanish artists wishing to specialise abroad.

State policy for cultural promotion abroad is implemented through the programme entitled Cooperation, promotion and cultural diffusion abroad, run by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, Culture and Education and Science. In 2005, those Ministries allocated more than 95 million euro, mainly through the activities of the Cervantes Institute. Three quarters of this sum came from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In view of these figures, and bearing in mind the aims of the Institute, it is clear to see that the Spanish language is a key instrument in the promotion and diffusion of Spanish culture abroad. This strategy of promotion is reinforced by the activities of the Ministry of Education and Science which, though at a lower level, provides resources in support of language. For its part, the Ministry of Culture, which funds nearly 18% of the program, has a more varied range of objectives, mainly in the promotion of cultural activities.

The evolution of the resources made available over the 2002-2005 period, reflects the importance of cultural promotion abroad: these resources have grown 23% over the four years, compared with an increase in the state budget overall of 16.6%. Again we should stress the role of the Cervantes Institute which has been the major focus of Spain's cultural policies abroad - a fact that underlines the importance of language as a key asset in international markets.

Spain/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.3 European / international actors and programmes

The cultural activities related to international bodies range from participation in international meetings called by the organisations of which Spain is a member, to the evaluation and follow-up of the various agreements, programmes and activities, in the framework of these international bodies.

In the case of the European Union, of which Spain has been a member since 1986, the Directorate-General of Cultural Cooperation and Communication performs the following tasks through its Sub Directorate-General of International Cultural Cooperation: preparation for the meetings of the Council of Ministers of Education, Youth and Culture of the European Union; participation in the Cultural Affairs Committees (CAC); collaboration with the Directorate-General of Education and Culture of the European Commission; dissemination of the information produced by the European Union, in the area of culture, among the various units of the Ministry of Culture; participation in the management of the Programme Culture 2000, representing the Ministry on the Programme's management committee and follow-up; and dissemination of the activities and projects undertaken in the area of culture by the institutions of the European Union, in particular the European Commission and the European Parliament.

Other European programmes in which Spain participates are: in the cinema and audiovisual sector, the MEDIA Plus Programme (2001-2005), EURIMAGES, European Film Promotion and the European Audiovisual Observatory; and in the sector of heritage protection, Spain's participation in the European project HEREIN, the European Heritage Meeting and the Minerva Project.

Spain's cultural cooperation with UNESCO, of which Spain has been a member since 1953, involves the following tasks: coordination and liaison between the Ministry of Culture, the Spanish Embassy at UNESCO and UNESCO itself, with regard to the development of UNESCO's Conventions and Recommendations; preparation of the participation of the Ministry of Culture in the General Conference and the Inter-governmental Conferences, expert committees and other meetings at UNESCO; coordination and liaison between the National Cooperation Commission and UNESCO, and participation in, and follow-up and dissemination of, UNESCO's activities.

In the case of the Organisation of Iberoamerican States (OEI), of which Spain has been a member since 1949, the Directorate-General of Cultural Cooperation and Communication coordinates the participation of the Ministry of Culture at the Iberoamerican Conferences of the Ministers of Culture, in the framework of the Iberoamerican summits. In June 2005, the VIII Iberoamerican Conference of Culture was held in Cordoba (Spain), which culminated in the Declaration of Cordoba, a document that stressed the need to "promote and protect the cultural diversity that underpins the Iberoamerican Community of Nations", and to search for "new mechanisms of cultural cooperation between Iberoamerican countries able to strengthen the identities and the wealth of our cultural diversity and promote intercultural dialogue". At the same meeting, the Heads of State and government at the XV Iberoamerican Summit were urged to work together on the production of a Cultural Charter for Iberoamerica which would reinforce the common cultural space that defines all Iberoamerican countries. This Charter was finally adopted in November 2006 as part of the XVI Iberoamerican Summit.

The MARCO programmes organised by the Ministry of Culture and the OEI, which are currently underway, cover practically all of the cultural sectors. In the area of books, archives and libraries, there are the ABINIA (to develop national libraries in Iberoamerican countries), ADAI (to develop Iberoamerican archives and the formation of a Network of Iberoamerican Archives), RILVI (to develop an integrated book repertoire for sale in Iberoamerican countries) and PICBIP (to promote cooperation in the field of public libraries). In all these MARCO programmes, (ABINIA, ADAI, RILVI and PICBIP) the cultural sectors are promoted via grants for projects and the training of specialists. In the cinema and audiovisual sector, the most important programme is IBERMEDIA, which aims to establish an Iberoamerican audiovisual space by promoting the co-production and distribution of cinema and TV films in Spanish and Portuguese. In the area of fine arts and cultural assets, Spain supports the application of the"Qhapaq Ñan Trail" for inclusion in the World Heritage List. In the sector of performing arts and music, the IBERESCENA programme aims to create and consolidate a theatre and dance network in its member states, in the Spanish-speaking countries, via grants, subsidies and other means. Finally, in the area of intellectual property, the cooperation activities have centred fundamentally on training in copyright and similar rights, through the FIPI programme.

Since 1982, Spain has also been a signatory to the Andrés Bello Agreement, an intergovernmental organisation that works to achieve the educational, scientific and cultural integration of Bolivia, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Ecuador, Spain, Panama, Peru and Venezuela. The area of culture offers a number of programmes, notably We are Heritage, which aims to conceptualise, evaluate and disseminate natural heritage.

As regards the Council of Europe, of which Spain has been a member since 1977, the Sub Directorate-General of International Cultural Cooperation, in conjunction with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, is responsible for the follow-up and organisation of Spain's participation in the events that the Council of Europe sponsors, either directly or indirectly. The Ministry of Culture is currently responsible for implementing the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. On 28 April 2006, the government approved the text of the Convention and presented it to the Parliament for ratification. The instrument of ratification was deposited on 18 December 2006. On the 25th October 2006, it was approved and ratified by the King of Spain, one month later of being approved by the Senate.

Spain/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.4 Direct professional co-operation

The International Theatre Institute of the Mediterranean (IITM), set up in 1991, aims to promote the production of performing arts, and other cultural projects, that develop and represent Mediterranean culture in all its forms. It fosters cultural exchange and solidarity among Mediterranean peoples. The work that IITM carries out has led to the creation and maintenance of a network involving 24 countries: 15 in Europe, 6 in Africa and 3 in the Eastern Mediterranean. IITM's work has been recognised by UNESCO, which incorporated it in its Mediterranean Programme. It has also gained the sustained support of the European Commission and the Spanish Ministries of Culture and Foreign Affairs for many of its activities, and the support of the Autonomous Communities of Madrid, Andalusia, Valencia, Extremadura and Castile-La Mancha.

Spain/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.5 Cross-border intercultural dialogue and co-operation

One of the most important actors in the dialogue between the European Union and the other Mediterranean countries is the European Institute of the Mediterranean. This institute, based in Barcelona (Catalonia), is a centre for reflection and debate on Mediterranean societies, a think-tank specialising in Euro-Mediterranean relations and a promoter of cooperation. The Institute is led by a Governing Board, with the participation of the Government of Catalonia, the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and Barcelona City Council; a Board of Trustees, formed by companies, universities and institutions from civil society, and an Advisory Council made up of important Mediterranean personalities. The Institute promotes knowledge through research and study; carries out training and promotion activities; encourages the participation of civil society in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (also called the Barcelona Process, the main framework for political, economic, and social relations, as well as dialogue and regional co-operation, in the Mediterranean) and promotes Catalan and Spanish institutions in the Mediterranean; it promotes and participates in development cooperation projects; works in favour of Mediterranean networks; organises exhibitions and cultural activities; publishes books and periodicals and acts as an observer of the general situation in the Mediterranean. The Institute was set up by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation as the Coordinator of the Spanish Network of the Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation. This Foundation is the first institution created by the 35 countries of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, with the objective of improving reciprocal understanding and the quality of cultural dialogue between the two sides of the Mediterranean. The Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation encourages cultural dialogue, supports exchanges, cooperation and mobility, particularly among the young, and organises activities within the framework of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. Conceived as a "network of networks", the Anna Lindh Euro-Mediterranean Foundation comprises 35 networks from different countries. The Spanish network is formed by 32 members, representing organisations from civil society.

The Europa Diversa Network is a virtual organisation for people and institutions dedicated to understanding, discussing and developing cultural diversity within the framework of the new Europe. Among its founder members are: the Jaume Bofill Foundation, the European Institute of the Mediterranean, the Open University of Catalonia, the International Centre "Escarré" for Ethnic Minorities and Nationalities (CIEMEN) and the Interculture-UNESCO Association for the promotion of intercultural dialogue in Catalonia. The general objective is to contribute, from the perspective of Catalonia, to the construction of Europe in terms of cultural diversity. With this aim, Europa Diversa Network organises symposiums and seminars.

The Interarts Foundation (European Observatory for Cultural Research and International Cultural Cooperation), a cultural think tank and an observatory for cultural policies, aims to foster cultural dialogue and the exchange of expertise, devising strategies for creative cities and cultural entrepreneurs. Established in 1995, as an independent association through an agreement between Catalan authorities, the Council of Europe and international partners, Interarts combines the advantages of a versatile independent body with a strong international presence and commitment to the public domain. To meet its objectives, Interarts provides services that range from the provision of policy advice to public institutions and private entrepreneurs from the cultural sector, to the stimulation of international cultural cooperation through networks, agents and civil society, and rigorously applied research in fields such as Cultural Rights, Culture and Socio-Economy, or Cultural Governance.

The Three Mediterranean Cultures is a non-profit foundation which, in recent years, has become the international benchmark for dialogue and respect for achieving peace and understanding amongst the people of the world, thanks to the exceptional nature of the patronage and its cultural activities. The Foundation was established under the aegis of the Andalusian Regional Government and the Kingdom of Morocco, who in 1998 broached the need to create a forum to bring together the people of the Mediterranean. This proposal was favourably received by the international community, with the support of the Peres Centre for Peace, the Palestinian National Authority, and multiple Israeli and Euro-Mediterranean individuals and institutions committed to dialogue and peace. Since March 1999, when the Three Cultures Foundation was established, the three main priorities in its day-to-day activity and cultural schedule have been: co-operation within the Mediterranean region and between Andalusia and Morocco, the Middle East, and the European Union and the Mediterranean countries. The Foundation believes that Mediterranean co-operation is more important today than at any other time; hence, the ever-increasing co-operation between Andalusia and Morocco is one of the main areas of action for the Foundation. The Foundation has also become a valuable tool for dialogue and networking, capable of bringing together the current and future concerns of society regarding the Middle East region. The European Union, and its activities in the Mediterranean region, is the third area of action of the Three Cultures Foundation. The privileged relationship between the European Union and third party Mediterranean countries has made the Foundation into an instrument for political actions and project development within the scope of Mediterranean co-operation.

See also 2.4.3 and 4.2.3.

For more information, see our Intercultural Dialogue section

Spain/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.6 Other relevant issues

Much of the activity for the development of culture is channelled through the Spanish Agency for International Co-operation (AECI), created in 1988 to manage Spanish policy on international cooperation and development. The AECI is an autonomous body affiliated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation through the Secretary of State for International Cooperation. The agency is responsible for the design, execution and management of projects and programmes of cooperation for development, either directly, using its own resources, or via cooperation with other domestic or international bodies and non-governmental development organisations. To perform its work, the AECI has a large external structure, with 37 Technical Cooperation Offices, 12 Cultural Centres and 3 Training Centres in countries where the agency carries out its main cooperation projects. Among the agency's cooperation programmes of particular interest are, the Spanish Cooperation Heritage Programme, the Programmes of Regional Cooperation in Central America - addressed, for example, to promote sustainable tourism and education -, the Equal Opportunities Programme for Men and Women, the Indigenous Programme, and the Acerca programme - especially addressed to provide qualifications for the development of the cultural sector. The latest Master Plan for Spanish Cooperation 2005-2008 presents a major breakthrough in the treatment of culture as a dimension of development cooperation, which is evidenced by the desire for greater specificity and concreteness, in line with a new context on current trends of relationships among culture and development and a conceptual progress of organisms such as UNDP and UNESCO. In this framework, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation just introduced the first Strategy for Culture and Development of the Spanish Cooperation.

Spain has a long tradition of emigration. Today more than 1 500 000 Spanish nationals live abroad permanently. To cater for the needs of this group, Spain has a network of consular offices dependent on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, with 159 Consular Offices and Consular Sections at Embassies, and around 500 Honorary Consulates and Vice-consulates. The government recently approved the "Statute for Spanish citizens abroad" (Act 40/2006, 14 December 2006) which aims to guarantee the free exercise of constitutional rights and duties among Spanish nationals living in foreign countries, with equal status to Spanish residents, and to strengthen social, cultural, economic and linguistic ties with Spain and with emigrants´ countries and communities of residence.

Spain/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.1 Main elements of the current cultural policy model

Spanish cultural policy has undergone profound and rapid changes since 1977. The present model combines the determination of the state to foster culture, with a massive decentralisation of administrative tools, in accordance with the rules for the territorial government laid down in the Constitution of 1978. The current trend is now heading towards increasing the involvement of private enterprise and civil society in running the country's culture.

The desire of the state to participate in cultural activities is evident at all levels of government, central, regional and local. The state:

This tutelage goes hand-in-hand with a desire to attain the much-sought-after "European standard" in terms of cultural supply and demand.

The decentralisation of Spanish cultural policy operates on the basis of competition among the different levels of government. The central government holds exclusive responsibility for protecting cultural property against export, for creating legislation to protect copyright, and for overseeing the basic rules on freedom of expression, creation and communication, and regulating the means of communication (radio, television and the press) solely to the extent that such freedoms are threatened. At the same time it retains the ownership of certain major cultural institutions, such as museums, archives and libraries, even if their administration is sometimes delegated to the regions.

The regions led the radical decentralisation of cultural policy, in which three phases can be traced:

The high-water mark of decentralisation can be seen in the mid 1990s. From then on cities took on the bulk of responsibility for cultural promotion and dissemination, as is evidenced by the two European Capitals of Culture, Santiago de Compostela in 2000, and Salamanca, in 2002.

The only statutory obligation to which municipal authorities are subject is that of providing libraries where the inhabitants number more than 5 000. In practice, however, local authority involvement in cultural activities now accounts for over 50% of all public spending at all levels on culture. A distinction should be drawn between the bigger cities (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Valladolid, Bilbao, Seville, Oviedo, Salamanca, A Coruña, Santiago de Compostela), capable of funding major projects and activities, and the medium-sized and smaller towns, which must make do with providing the basics (libraries) and supporting patron-saint festivals and other strictly local events; the competitive model, on which responsibility for cultural affairs is based.

As a result of this experience a number of reforms are underway. In the last few years, as provision of cultural activities became more professional, efforts have been made to make support for culture more flexible, drawing from resources at all three levels of government. At the political level, liberals and some conservatives argue for a greater role for private enterprise in the organisation of cultural events. In terms of power, the Popular Party (1996-2004) questioned the existing model and set its sights on more popular participation in the configuration of collective symbolic production. This was the background to legislative changes (see 2 and 5) introduced in that period aimed at obtaining private funds for certain cultural activities.

Spain/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.2 National definition of culture

Nowhere is "culture" defined in cultural policy documents. As the Ministry notes in the introduction to one of its periodic reports on cultural legislation, "the concept of culture as expressed in the Constitution of 1978 is extremely loose and flexible".

From a technical standpoint, when collecting statistical information on different areas of cultural activity, the Ministry says, "the acknowledged European standard is used as the guideline telling us both which cultural sectors and sub sectors to include and how performance is to be measured [...] including the following: public libraries, public archives, artistic and architectural cultural properties, book and journal publishing, the visual, performing and musical arts, classical music and the audiovisual arts".

One source which defines the boundaries of culture is the Constitution of 1978. Articles 148 and 149 establish the scope of the areas of competence of the regional communities which are also reflected in the regional charters. In bilingual regions, recovery, conservation and promotion of the native language have been added.

See also 5.1.1 and 5.1.2.

Spain/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.3 Cultural policy objectives

The Constitution of 1978 entrusts the public authorities with specific tasks in the field of culture, noting that these duties are "essential attributes" before listing a number of areas which comes closest to a definition of the objectives of cultural policy (see 5).

To judge from the political statements of central and regional governments over recent years, together with the accounts of public spending on cultural activities, the main objectives of Spanish cultural policy are conservation and promotion of cultural heritage and, in second place, cultural creativity understood as cultural heritage in development.

If we analyse recent cultural policies in terms of the cultural policy principles defined by the Council of Europe (, we immediately see that promotion of national identity is not an explicit objective of the central government, although affirmation of a "shared" identity is implicit in numerous aspects of educational and cultural policy, particularly in terms of the dissemination of Spanish cultural policy abroad. The case is somewhat different among the autonomous regions, particularly with those having separate language environments where promotion of regional identity is the main vehicle for articulating cultural policy.

In terms of recognising diversity, the very way the Spanish state is organised territorially is an admission of the cultural diversity of the country. Linguistic and cultural plurality is expressly protected by the Constitution of 1978, both in the preamble and in its articles. It is equally guaranteed in the charters of the autonomous regions. Protection of diversity has therefore, so far, been interpreted by looking internally at the individual traits of the various cultures comprising modern-day Spain. Only recently, as a result of the dramatic increase in immigration, has recognition of another form of cultural diversity beyond national borders been included on the cultural policy agendas at regional and, especially, municipal levels, as another part of the social integration of immigrant groups.

Support for cultural creativity is articulated as an aim of cultural policy along three main axes: statutory protection of intellectual property and copyright; the teaching of creative arts; and specific measures to promote the work of creative artists themselves. One official publication of the Ministry of Culture admits that, "in any cultural policy, support for creativity is one of the essential but, equally, one of the most difficult objectives. The creative process is a highly personal affair involving the most intimate levels of personal consciousness; not somewhere the state can best wield its organisational powers. What the state can, and we believe should do is to create the right conditions ...". Applying this logic, measures to encourage cultural creativity, aside from grants, prizes and subsidised training, are to focus on patronage, "a facet of our society intimately linked with the creative process".

Access to culture is one of the prime objectives of recent Spanish cultural policy (see Articles 9 and 44 of the 1978 Constitution). Indeed, it is the main motive for public involvement in cultural affairs. However, generating demand, outside the sphere of mass culture, turned out to be somewhat more complex than initial enthusiasts would have had us believe. Equally, the democratisation of culture, understood as the citizens' right to have their say on how the cultural life of their communities is defined, leaves considerable room for development in the search for a fully rounded Spanish cultural policy.

Spain/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.1 Main cultural policy issues and priorities

The action of the central administration since 2004, with the political mandate of the Socialist Party, has focused on three central objectives: the acknowledgement of cultural diversity, the strengthening of co-operation and the consideration of culture as a tool for economic development and social cohesion.

However, the appointment of a new Minister of Culture at the beginning July 2007, six months before the end of the current term of government, suggests changes in government policy and action. Thus, the framework of the "Cultural Institution Modernisation Plan" (September 2007) envisages changes in governing mechanisms and in the management of "core" cultural institutions such as the National Library or the Reina Sofia Museum and Art Centre. In order to quell the unrest in various cultural sectors and overcome some of the obstacles that have emerged under the present government, the new Minister has established the following aims for the coming months:

Despite these central administration priorities, as we know, many of the responsibilities for culture in Spain lie with the regional authorities. Also, as in most developed countries, the local authorities assume a growing role in public cultural provision. The central government is, therefore, left with a limited scope of responsibility in terms of public policy making, though it has considerable weight in underlying policy through its constitutional mandate and its control of culture vis-à-vis foreign policy, not to mention its continued control over the best known and most influential cultural institutions.

Spain/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.1 Cultural minorities, groups and communities

Spain's transition to a democratic model has been based on the recognition of territorial cultural diversity. Understood in this sense, "territorial cultural diversity" becomes the reverse of "cultural minorities". The fact that the change from a country of emigrants to a country of immigrants is a recent phenomenon may help explain why a debate has yet to be held on a cultural policy for minorities, although some aspects of integration are now being touched upon regarding education, citizenship, customs, security, etc.

According to the Statistical Yearbook on Immigration (Ministry for Employment and Social Affairs), on 31 December 2006, the number of foreign residents in Spain was 3 021 808, an increase of 10.3% on the previous year. As regards the distribution by continent of origin, the largest group comprised those from Latin America (35.25%), followed by Africa (23.48%), nationals of European Union member states (21.88%), the rest of Europe (12.17%), Asia (6.55%), North America (0.6%) and Oceania (0.006%). According to country of origin, at the end of 2006, the largest immigrant community was from Morocco (543 721 persons), followed by Ecuador (376 233), Colombia (225 504), Romania (211 325) and the UK (175 870). As for its evolution over the previous year, the greater numerical increases have corresponded to the Moroccans (50 607 persons), British (26 799), Colombians (21 156), Romanians (19 191) and Ecuadorians (19 168).

The main aim of the government's immigration policy (implemented by the Secretariat of State for Immigration and Emigration) is to derive the maximum benefit for society as a whole. The policy applies to all foreigners resident in Spain, regardless of their nationality. The Forum for the Social Integration of Immigrants, a collegial organisation attached to the Ministry for Employment and Social Affairs, through the Secretary of State for Immigration and Emigration, was set up to aid the integration of immigrants who reside legally in Spain. According to Article 70 of Organic Act 4/2000, of 11 January 2000, on the rights and liberties of foreign nationals in Spain and their social integration, the Forum for the Social Integration of Immigrants is the consulting, informing and advising entity for Spain's national government and, when appropriate, for the autonomous regional and local governments in matters of immigration.

The cross-sectional nature of immigration has meant that various ministries (education, labour, health and social services, etc.) have drawn up specific regulations for the access of these groups to education, employment, health and accommodation. Of these projects, the most important is the Action Plan on Social Inclusion (2001-2003, 2003-2005, 2005-2006, 2006-2008) which stresses the need to aid the socio-professional integration of immigrant groups, especially women, who are often at a disadvantage. It also stresses the need to improve the quality of life in the gypsy community, which is threatened by social exclusion. With the general aim of promoting social cohesion and built with the maximum institutional and social participation, in February 2007 the government approved the Strategic Plan on Citizenship and Integration (2007-2010). Addressed to all of the population, autochthonous and immigrants, the Plan recognises equal rights and duties for everyone, equality of opportunities and respect for diversity. The Plan also wants to consolidate among immigrants a consciousness of belonging to the Spanish community. In that sense, the Plan is aimed to foster among immigrants greater understanding and respect for the common values of the EU, the rights and duties of residents in Spain, the official languages used in different Communities and the social rules of Spanish society.

One of the strictly cultural projects undertaken by the government in this field is the agreement signed by the Ministry of Culture and ten NGOs, in late 2004, to promote reading among immigrants living in Spain, in their own languages. Among the specific methods mentioned in the agreement, the most significant are the campaigns to heighten awareness in the immigrant population of the importance of reading, information campaigns to promote the use of libraries and other cultural services, reading workshops, artistic activities related to the world of books, and the use of the NGOs' cooperation networks.

In April 2006, the Ministry of Culture supported the creation of the Institute of Gypsy Culture, to support the community of gypsies, which has maintained its own identity in Spain since its entrance in the XV century. At present, this community represents a 1.5% of the Spanish population. The main aim of the Institute is to contribute to harmonious relations between the various groups and cultures present in Spanish culture, paying special attention to equality of opportunity and to combating discrimination on grounds of gender or race. The Institute also supports the development and promotion of gypsy history, culture and language in all its manifestations, and contributes to its dissemination through research, publications and the organisation of academic and cultural events.

The Network of Spanish Jewish Cities is a non-profit making public association with the goal of protecting all facets of Sephardic Heritage in Spain. Its members promote cultural and academic projects, sharing their experiences and organising events in Spain and abroad and designing policies of sustainable cultural tourism in their cities.

In Spain, there are many actions that promote culture and artistic creation as an "instrument" for the social integration of immigrant communities and cultural minorities, and as a "bridge" between these groups and the host population. Among their various objectives, the following are most important:

Spain/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.2 Language issues and policies

The language issue is an important one in Spain by virtue of the recognition both in the Constitution of 1978 and in the regional charters of 6 communities: Catalonia, the Basque Country, Galicia, the Balearics, Valencia and Navarre. In these regions, the local language and Castilian coexist as official languages and a system of bilingual education operates (see also 5). This recognition is the cornerstone of Spanish cultural diversity. 

The challenges experienced since the initial recognition of "other Spanish languages" (Article 3.2 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978) fall into three broad categories. The first is in defining the borderline between linguistic and cultural policy, particularly with respect to intervention by the authorities in the culture industries of bilingual communities. The second problem relates to exchange between the different cultures within the state and the thin line between protection of the regional language by regional authorities and intervention to the detriment of the national official language. A third problem has arisen from the recent influx of immigrants, in deciding which language should be used to integrate them socially in the host country (see also 8.3.2).

Spain/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.3 Intercultural dialogue: actors, strategies, programmes

The Ministry of Culture in Spain has promoted intercultural dialogue and the defence of diversity in many international forums. In April 2006, the Ministry of Culture held the meeting "Europe for intercultural dialogue", with representatives of some thirty countries, with the aim of making intercultural dialogue a permanent process in Europe and an element present at all levels of action of the European Union. This meeting followed in the spirit of the Alliance of Civilisations, announced by the General Secretary of the United Nations, on the proposal of the President of the Spanish government. The meeting concluded with a Declaration of the Presidency, which expressed the reference points to bear in mind in this permanent process of intercultural dialogue, which must have the support of civil society and a flexible focus able to respond to the needs of cities that are becoming increasingly heterogeneous. With the aim of preparing the "European Year of ICD 2008", in March 2007 the central government approved the creation of a National Commission for the Promotion of Intercultural Dialogue (R. D. 367/2007, of 16 March 2007).

At the local level, Barcelona (Catalonia) celebrated the Universal Forum of Cultures in 2004. This vast international event, organised jointly by Barcelona City Council, the Autonomous government of Catalonia and the Spanish government, was structured around three central themes approved by UNESCO: cultural diversity, sustainable development and conditions for peace. To meet these aims, over the 141 days of the Forum, a huge variety of events were presented to illustrate the themes of the Forum: dialogues, exhibitions and plays, music, dance, puppets, pocket opera, cabaret, street parades, circus and films.

In the non-profit-making private sector, the cultural association Spanish Coalition for Cultural Diversity was established in 2004. This association was created with the aim of protecting and promoting the diversity of cultural expressions, encouraging dialogue between cultures and civilisations, reinforcing international cooperation and solidarity, and stimulating the diversity of cultural expressions and drawing attention to their value at both national and global level. Among its founding members, were the Spanish Society of Authors, Composers and Publishers (SGAE), the Federation of Spanish Audiovisual Producers' Associations (FAPAE) and the Federation of Artists in Spain (FAEE). To attain its goals, the association carries out the following activities:

For more information, see:
Database of Good Practice on Intercultural Dialogue and our Intercultural Dialogue section.

For more information on the government's National Strategy for the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue please see:

Spain/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.4 Social cohesion and cultural policies

In her interventions, the Minister of Culture in Spain stresses that the aim of cultural activities, both public and private, is to work towards social cohesion. The public projects launched in this area are above all aimed at cultural minority groups (see 4.2.1). Given their greater proximity to citizens, it is local governments that run most of the programmes aimed at promoting the social inclusion of immigrant groups: increasing their access to libraries, civic centres, the organisation of festivals, cultural workshops, and so on.

In Barcelona in 2006, for example, the process of updating the first Strategic Plan for Culture (approved in 1999) evaluated the implementation of one of its strategic lines: making culture a key element in social cohesion. In this evaluation, a particularly important role is played by libraries, as they provide access to culture and can help to break down the digital divide. Other positive aspects which should be mentioned are the approval of the Agenda 21 for Culture, the debates of Forum 2004 and the ongoing process of approval of a Letter of Cultural Rights and Duties. Among the areas in which progress has been only partial, and in which further work is required, are the role of the civic centres, the relation between education and culture, and the role of cultural associations.

Spain/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.5 Media pluralism and content diversity

Ever since 1977, when the Ministry of Information and Tourism was replaced by that of Culture, the government's responsibility for the media was separated from its responsibilities for culture. As of 2000 (with the passage of Decree 557), the media comes under the responsibilities of the Secretary of Telecommunications and Information Society of the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade. However, the National Institute of Cinematography and Audiovisual Arts of the Ministry of Culture continues to develop strategies to foster the cinema and audiovisual industries by subsidising certain production and distribution costs, and for building and renovating cinema theatres.

Legislation passed in 1983 allowed the autonomous communities to set up their own publicly funded radio and television broadcasting operations, which many of them proceeded to do, such as:

At the same time, the second TV channel of RTVE (Spanish Radio & Television) broadcasts some of its programmes in the languages of the different bilingual regions. The radio and television broadcasters owned and funded by the autonomous regions, though not always structurally linked to the regional departments of culture and language, are one of the pillars of cultural policy, particularly in the bilingual regions. Therefore, media pluralism is reduced in bilingual regions, while other ethnic groups and immigrants do not benefit from special programming. Growing immigration has led the public media to seek new formulas through which to make this new social reality more visible in broadcasting and to make television available and accessible to new citizens as a means of facilitating their integration. State-funded Catalan television was the first Spanish broadcaster to create a Diversity Committee. Its many aims include the multilingual subtitling of emblematic programmes, the adaptation of its broadcasting language, coverage of the daily lives of new citizens on Catalan channels and the broadcasting of programmes that are of particular interest to new citizens.

Since the beginning of the 1990s, national and regional state-funded TV broadcasting coexists alongside private television. The current proliferation of public and private channels, at national, regional and, more recently, local level, generates fierce competition for available advertising revenue. The massive deficits accumulated by government- and autonomous community-controlled broadcasting, together with the deterioration of their cultural content, have fuelled an ongoing debate on how publicly-owned broadcasting should be funded. Within RTVE, the radio side of the organisation has remained on the sidelines; not dependent on advertising revenues, the public service offered by its various channels (RNE, Radio Exterior de España, Classical Radio and Radio 3, Radio 5 Todo notícias) is of a good quality.

The media, owned and run by the government, are deemed to be public services that are obliged to respect the "political, religious, social, cultural and linguistic diversity [of Spain]". RTVE, the main "social means of communication", aims to be a paradigm of quality, plurality and cultural diversity. Today, 18.6% of programmes on RTVE 1 are considered cultural, 54.3% on RTVE 2, and in the two private TV channels, the proportions are 1.6% and 3.2% respectively.

See also 5.3.8.

Spain/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.6 Culture industries: policies and programmes

Though the concept of "culture industries" is not defined in documents of Spain's cultural policies, the term "cultural enterprises" does appear in the Ministry's statistics. "Cultural enterprises" are those organisations whose main economic activity is in the cultural arena, for example, libraries, archives, museums and other cultural institutions, and firms involved in cinema, video, radio and television and artistic performances. The term Cultural Enterprises is only a statistical definition; nevertheless, it is not so different from what the Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions understands by "cultural industries": industries producing and distributing cultural goods or services. These goods or services are considered as a specific attribute, use or purpose, and embody or convey cultural expressions, "irrespective of the commercial value they may have".

At regional level, with the creation in 2000 of the Catalan Institute of Creative Industries (20/2000 Act), the concept of "culture industry" covers the cultural productions from the audiovisual world, the press, the radio, the television, books, music, performing arts, visual arts or multimedia, and their distribution.

The latest data published by the Ministry of Culture, in the "Statistical Yearbook 2006", shows that the turnover of the Spanish culture industries in 2004 was approximately 35 billion. The most important are the publishing sector (8 billion), graphic arts and recording (8.6 billion), radio and television (6.5 billion) and the cinema and video sectors (3.9 billion). The number of companies, whose main economic activity was defined as cultural, reached exceed 60 000 in 2005, approximately 2% of all those recorded in the central company directory. As regards the number of employees, 86% of cultural enterprises in 2004 had between 0 and 9 employees, while less than 1% had more than 100.

One of the priorities of the current government is the development of an effective policy of support for the sectors in which culture industries are active. In the case of books, the priority is support for publication and translation, the publication of cultural magazines, support for activity abroad, and the dissemination of Spanish books (and Spanish literature) in America and elsewhere. This will be achieved by a presence at international book fairs and the production of new materials or the development of projects to promote the products of publishing houses. The book industry benefits from the Ministry's "cultural exception" policy, with fixed book prices and the Reading, Books and Libraries Act, recently passed, which foresees the creation of a Reading and Book Observatory.

A new promotion plan will soon be introduced for the cinema and audiovisual sector and it will have a legislative basis. Among the main measures adopted so far, are the increase in the endowment of the Protection Fund and the creation of the reciprocal guarantee company, which will allow firms in the sector to obtain funding. In order to promote the presence of European films in Spanish cinemas, the government has placed the quota system under firmer control and is providing support for independent distributors. In addition, from July 2005, television companies (in Spain they are television operators, and they can be public and private) have been obliged to invest 5% of their annual income in the production of European cinema and TV films (3% reserved for Spanish production). In the area of creation, with special repercussions for the music sector, the Ministry has two lines of action: the first is to update the legislation on intellectual property, and the second is to draw society's attention to the need to respect both cultural creators and cultural products. In the first line of action, the "Information Society Directive" (34/2002 Act) has been introduced and the Intellectual Property Act has been modified (23/2006 Act). In the second line, the "Anti-piracy Plan" was approved in 2005, to stop activities that infringe intellectual property rights.

There are four main challenges to the culture industries in Spain which need to be overcome:

In recent years, there have been many higher education programmes for professionals employed in culture industries. Catalonia was one of the first Autonomous Communities to cater for the sector. For some years now, the Pompeu Fabra University has offered a Master's programme in publishing and several postgraduate diplomas in: company management in the music industry; content management; management of cultural institutions, companies and platforms, and publishing. It also offers a postgraduate course in global publishing in Spanish and international publishing. The University of Barcelona has a postgraduateprogramme in show production and management and the Open University of Catalonia offers a postgraduate programme in management of the culture industries.

In order to promote the territorial reorganisation of the audiovisual sector and to build a centre of activity that would be competitive on an international scale, the Autonomous Community of Madrid promoted the Ciudad de la Imagen during the 1990s. In 2001, the Catalan Government and Terrassa City Council launched a similar project, Terrassa Audiovisual City, with the aim of converting this city into the driving force behind the Catalan audiovisual industry and a reference point for the industry both at home and abroad. The Catalan project is complemented by the project Parque Barcelona Media in the city's technological district - distrito 22@ - which was set up to reinforce the productive, cultural and research position of Barcelona and Catalonia. The Parque Barcelona Media, which is the result of collaboration between the Pompeu Fabra University, Barcelona City Council and the business group Mediapro, is a platform of audiovisual and communication facilities and services, in which private enterprises and the university work together in the same location.

Spain/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.7 Employment policies for the cultural sector

According to a recent study, culture represents approximately 3% of the GDP. The apparently growing weight of this "third sector" of the Spanish economy is reflected in the employment figures: the number of jobs in the cultural field rose from 397 600 in 2000 to 514 200 in 2005, an increase of approximately 30% in absolute terms. This increase is related to the development of cultural enterprises as producers of value added, with the capacity to absorb new technologies and qualified workers. In 2005, the cultural sector employed 2.7% of all workers. The number of jobs in "cultural professions" (e.g. artists, archivists, librarians, etc.) rose even faster, from 154 300 to 212 400, over the same period, as a result of the Ministry's policy in these sectors. Approximately 83% of workers in culture were employees in 2005: 67% of these had indefinite contracts and the other 33% had temporary contracts. It is equally true, however, that cultural employment, particularly in the entertainment field, is made up of a high proportion of unregistered workers which exist on the fringes of the mainstream economic system. As for civil service employment in this field, the main challenge today is to re-train local and regional officials and bring them up to speed on current trends in cultural policy-making.

Spain/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.8 New technologies and cultural policies

According to recent data from the National Statistics Institute (INE), the development of the Information Society in Spain is accelerating, after the implementation of the Plan Avanza. This plan, approved by the Council of Ministers in late 2005, is one of the strategic key points of the Government's National Reforms Programme set up to comply with the requirements of the Lisbon Strategy. The percentage of the Spanish population who regularly access the Internet rose from 45.4% in December 2005 to 48.6% in December 2006. The number of homes with Internet access has also risen from 37% to 41.1% in one year, while homes with broadband have gone up from 24.5% to 32.6% in the same period.

Nonetheless, some challenges remain to be addressed:

Important support schemes for artists working with new technologies are:

Spain/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.9 Heritage issues and policies

The challenges facing the current heritage policy are basically three, namely:

Two other issues relate to the current debate about Spain's cultural properties and how they are defined as such. This is part of an ongoing discussion about the term cultural property being extended to new fields such as contemporary history and industrial properties.

After the 2004 elections, one of the goals of the new Ministry of Culture was to improve the management of historical heritage, and to allow its integration in the knowledge society. The application of digital technologies and, above all, the availability of cultural heritage works to the general public via the Internet were, according to the Minister, the most democratic and economical way to disseminate culture. The Ministry is currently compiling a large database with images of museum collections, which will be generally available and which will be incorporated in the State Museum Digital Network. During 2007, the Spanish Ministry of Culture has worked to develop the Portal of Spanish Archives, a web-based database for the diffusion of national historical documentary heritage, and the Virtual Library of Bibliographical Heritage, which will be completed by the end of the year and will allow users to consult a wide range of online documents that form part of Spain's bibliographical heritage.

For more information, see
European Heritage Network: Country profile Spain

Spain/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.10 Gender equality and cultural policies

The issue of gender equality is clearly a major challenge for Spanish society which has been recently tackled in the 3/2007 Act. It establishes special recommendations for cultural policy making in recognising the duty of the authorities to implement the right of equal treatment and opportunities for women and men in all aspects related to the creation and artistic and intellectual production and their dissemination. The Act also provides for the implementation of active policies, translated into economic incentives, and the promotion of balanced participation of men and women in artistic and cultural public offering. In 2007 the Ministry of Culture has created the Portal Women in Culture, which contains resources related to activities, publications, grants, awards, scholarships, etc. leaded by women (see also

There are, however, many women working in the field of culture. To take libraries as an example, most librarians are women. Also, those responsible for cultural activities at different levels of the administration are mostly women. This is a longstanding trend resulting from the strong female presence in arts education and in specific training in cultural administration.

Gender barriers to cultural participation do not appear to be a problem.

Spain/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.3 Other relevant issues and debates

Information is currently not available.

Spain/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.1 Constitution

The 1978 Constitution, which restored parliamentary democracy in Spain, gave considerable prominence to cultural affairs. As can be seen in other Constitutions of its generation (those of Greece, Portugal, Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador), the "constitutional culture" of the Magna Carta of 1978 is the result of a process lasting throughout the twentieth century in which cultural concerns gained wider and wider acceptance as matters susceptible to constitutional regulation. An obvious precedent was the constitution introduced by the Second Republic (1931-1939), the first Spanish constitution to include culture as one of the realms of government intervention and, as such, as a legitimate field in which to establish public and citizen rights.

Culture appears in the 1978 Constitution as one of the main spheres of government action. The importance attached to culture is made clear in the way various tasks are entrusted to the constituted authorities in guaranteeing cultural processes, i.e., the creation, transmission and protection of culture. The Constitution states that culture is a right of all citizens and is to form part of the presiding principles of social and economic policy. The Constitution entrusts the public authorities with specific tasks in the field of culture.Access to culture is one of the prime mandates of the Constitution (see Articles 9 and 44). Another important mandate is linked to the protection of the historic, cultural and artistic heritage (Article 46).

Linguistic and cultural plurality is expressly protected by the Constitution, both in the preamble and in its articles (Article 3.2). It is equally guaranteed in the charters of the autonomous regions.

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5.1.2 Division of jurisdiction

The 1978 Constitution adopted a decentralised model of national administration which is neither regional nor federal but a mixture of the two. It outlines the "State of the Autonomies", and established seventeen autonomous communities (plus two cities having autonomous status, Ceuta and Melilla) as intermediate territorial political entities on which the Constitution confers ample power of self government.

Culture is depicted as a major defining element having a quasi structural importance in the territorial division of the state. The autonomous communities are defined as adjacent provinces sharing "common historic, cultural and economic characteristics" (Article 143). According to this definition, culture makes up the nucleus of the powers of the autonomous governments: the state "shall consider the promotion of culture a duty and an essential function and shall facilitate cultural communication between the Autonomous Communities, in collaboration with them" (Article 149.2). Local authorities are regarded as territorial entities governed by the principle of common goals (Article 137); their interests, too, are deemed to have a "cultural" dimension.

The allocation of roles and responsibilities for culture among the different territorial public authorities is based on a single principle, in the sense that it contains rules differing from those applied in other constitutional areas. The main difference resides in that the fulfilment of obligations can be made on a concurrent, parallel or, as it has also been called, "twinned" basis. Instead of the incluius unius, exclusius alterius principle that normally governs the allocation of administrative responsibilities, in this case, the fact that one authority is given a job by no means prevents another authority, at a different level, from taking upon itself precisely the same task. The Constitutional Court made this abundantly clear in a ruling (STC 49) in 1984:"...any consideration of culture leads us to the conclusion that it falls within the competence of both central and regional governments and possibly at other levels; wherever a community exists, it has a culture over which representative public authorities may exercise their authority beyond purely technical administrative matters to enter the realm of what may broadly be described as fostering culture".

This so-called "concurrent" principle, as far as fostering culture is concerned, in no way impedes the existence of demarcation lines with respect to specific cultural institutions. The Constitution defines which areas are the exclusive terrain of the central government (Article 149.1): the defence of Spanish cultural, artistic and architectural property against export or wanton removal; state-owned museums, archives and libraries, whether or not their administration is delegated to the autonomous communities; legislation on intellectual property and copyright; the principles to be applied by the press, radio and television and, in general, all means of communication owned by public authorities not resulting from initiatives taken by the regional communities in the exercise of their powers. Article 148 establishes which cultural responsibilities the regions may assume: handicrafts, museums, libraries, archives, conservatories for music of special interest to the region and architectural property, also of special interest to the community.

See also 2.2.

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5.1.3 Allocation of public funds

There is no legislation for the allocation of public funds for culture. This is a matter decided by the Ministry of Culture.

The Royal Decree 1601/2004 establishes that the State Secretariat of the Ministry of Culture is responsible for producing and processing the annual draft report of the departmental budget, coordinating the preparation of the budgets of public institutions and their consolidation with those of the department, analysing and processing modifications, and monitoring the budget. Act 6/1997 lays down that the General Administration of the state, and therefore the Ministry of Culture, is responsible for the effective allocation and use of public resources, and for the control of management and the results.

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5.1.4 Social security frameworks

Initially artists and creative workers were classified under a special category for the purposes of social security (2133/1975 Decree). Ten years later, by virtue of Decree 26/1985, they obtained the same rights and obligations as all other workers. Performing artists and bullfighters were then grouped together under a special heading within the general social security system. Another Decree (2621/1986) made specific provisions for income averaging in view of the considerable monthly fluctuations in artists' income as well as a provision regarding the possibility of early retirement for performing artists in an effort to compensate them when they reached an age when they could no longer perform.

Authors, on the other hand, are considered self-employed workers. Again, efforts were made to establish a fair level of disability insurance and a retirement plan considering the fluctuations in their annual income. Chapter 5.3.9 provides information on the various ways of providing tax relief for authors.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

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5.1.5 Tax laws

There are tax exemptions available for institutions from the "third sector", i.e., foundations, associations considered to be of public interest, international development and aid agencies, and non-profit making bodies falling within the terms of 49/2002 Act, entitled the Act on Tax Exemptions for Non-profit making Organisations and on Sponsorship. This piece of legislation establishes detailed exemptions on national and local taxes including rates, local duties levied on businesses, and the municipal tax charged on capital gains from the sale of urban property (This paragraph refers to NGOs). Individuals and companies can also claim an income tax exemption on the amount of money donated to certain organisations such as those mentioned above (this paragraph refers to individuals and companies which invest and donate to NGOs). Regional cultural institutions, public universities and university colleges, the Cervantes Institute, the Ramon Llull Institute and other bodies set up to promote regional languages have similar tax breaks and can benefit from donations.

The amount of VAT charged on certain cultural goods and services is lower than the standard rate (37/1992 Value Added Tax Act). Even though they are supposed to be harmonised with EU regulations concerning VAT, goods such as books, newspapers and magazines pay a "super-reduced" VAT rate of 4%, while art objects, antiques and collectors' items traded among EU countries pay the "reduced" levy of 7%, as do tickets to the theatre, cinema, circus, museums, zoos and sports events. Services produced by actors and performing artists also pay the "reduced" levy of 7%, whereas services produced by writers, composers or visual artists, related to authors rights, are exempt from VAT. Other cultural goods and services, such as CDs or DVDs, pay standard VAT at 16%.

In addition, artists benefit from a tax exemption on important literary or scientific prizes (Article 7.1 of the 40/1998 Income Taxes Act and Article 10 of the Decree 214/1999 approving the Income Tax Regulations).

Spain/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.6 Labour laws

Spanish law has no general labour law covering artists or cultural workers. There are, however, a number of regulations affecting artists as producers of culture. They include, for example, labour regulations covering people working in public entertainment. The current Workers Charter passed in 1980 contains special provisions for performing artists, expanded upon in greater detail in a Decree of 1985 (1435/1985 Royal Decree). This decree establishes a non-exhaustive regulation of the content of labour relations, considering only those aspects that can be treated in the same way in all artistic sectors and leaving the development of the rights and obligations to collective negotiation between the parties to this special relation. At the state level, there are also collective agreements referring to actors and film producers (since 1990), graphic arts and publishing-houses (since 1997), film distributors (since 1997), and audiovisual production. At the level of the Autonomous Communities, collective agreements have been signed in Catalonia, Madrid, Galicia, the Balearics, La Rioja and Navarre.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section.

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5.1.7 Copyright provisions

Rules governing intellectual property in Spain were based for many years on the 1879 Act, and the jurisprudence it generated over the following 100 years. In 1987, it was superseded by a new 22/1987 Act, designed to bring copyright legislation up to date, improve the rights it covers and close the loop-holes left open by the nineteenth-century legislation, particularly the difficulties arising from the lack of reference to an author's ongoing property rights over an original work (droit de suite). Ten years later, the 1/1996 Legislative Decree had to undergo numerous amendments to bring it into line with EU legislation. This 1996 decree assembled all current rules on intellectual property, pertaining to both artistic and scientific works, and included authors' economic rights, moral rights and droit de suite. The new social and economic situation and especially the challenge of providing more effective protection to creators, permitting the peaceful dissemination of their creations by culture industries, and guaranteeing the whole of society's access to a plural cultural offer, led to the new Law on Intellectual Property approved in July 2006.

Among the objectives of the new Intellectual Property Act (23/2006 Act) are the simplification and clarification of the obligations of the debtors for the use of the creations; the increase of transparency in the management of these rights; the introduction of flexible mechanisms for solving conflicts, and the redefinition of the role of the various levels of government with competence in the field. The objectives of the new Minister of Culture (July 2007) include the establishment of a fair and balanced compensation for limited private copying and the creation of an Intellectual Property Commission aimed at reducing the high degree of litigation involved in the management of authors' rights.

The Intellectual Property Act (23/2006 Act) obliges copyright societies to set up welfare and support services for "authors, performing artists or cultural workers", either themselves or through third parties. Societies are to spend 20% of their copyright fees on such services. Some companies, such as the SGAE, the VEGAP and AISGE have set up special foundations to fulfil these obligations. These are the Author Foundation, the Foundation Art and Law and the AISGE Foundation.

There are currently eight collecting societies in Spain which are authorised by the Ministry of Culture: SGAE, the Spanish Society of Authors Composers and Publishers; CEDRO, the Spanish Reproduction Rights Centre; AGEDI, the Association for the Management of Intellectual Rights; AIE, the Artists and Performers Society of Spain; VEGAP, Visual Management Entity of Plastic Artists; EGEDA, Audio-visual Producers' Rights Management Association; AISGE, Artists, Interprets, Management Society; and DAMA, Audiovisual media Author's Rights.

Although copyright legislation is the exclusive domain of the central government, the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Catalonia, Extremadura, Galicia, La Rioja, Madrid, Murcia and Valencia have some local administrative powers to run their own registries under the aegis of the state-run coordinating committee of the central copyright register (Registry of Intellectual Property).

See also 8.1.1.

Spain/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.8 Data protection laws

Personal data protection is currently regulated by the Data Protection Act 15/1999. The Spanish Data Protection Agency was created in 1993 to guarantee citizens the right to know who may have access to their personal data and for what purpose and to provide a platform for exercising the rights of access, alteration, cancellation and opposition. The regional data protection agencies for Madrid, Catalonia and the Basque Country were created in 1997, 2002 and 2003 respectively, and institutional collaboration now takes place between the General Data Protection Register and the regional file registers. Regulations concerning data protection have a clear impact on the way cultural services (libraries, museums, theatres, etc.) market themselves to potential users/audiences through the type of data requested for membership or information about activities, etc.

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5.1.9 Language laws

Attempts to regulate multilingualism in Spain have generated many rules and regulations in the regional government level and on occasion in central government. The cornerstone of the entire structure rests on the 1978 Constitutional dictum (Article 3.1) that Castilian is the official language of the state but that the "other Spanish languages" share the same official status in their respective communities, as stated in their Charters (Article 3.2). This legal construct was designed based on the idea that Spain's linguistic diversity is a manifestation of "wealth" and an item of "cultural heritage" as a value in its entirety. This means that the 1978 Constitution was designed to respect and protect the diversity of the system as a whole, not merely its constituent parts.

The language of the 1978 Constitution and the various regional charters has opened the door to a flood of regional legislation on language, including that of the Basque Country (10/1982 Act), Galicia (3/1983 Act), Valencia (1/1983 Act), Catalonia (1/1998 Act) and Navarre (18/1998 Act). However, this has not prevented the central government, in the exercise of its powers, from regulating how the co-official status of regional languages works in such practical spheres as education and schools, access to public services, local administration, the courts, the health authorities and road signs.

These legal provisions and their implementation have generated numerous disputes taken first to the ordinary courts and then to the Constitutional Court which, by its jurisprudence, has slowly established a framework for how two languages co-exist as official. The relevant Constitutional jurisprudence (more than 25 sentences) are the Sentences 82, 83 and 84 of 26 June 1986, passed in response to Bills submitted to the central government on the normalisation of the Basque, Catalan and Galician languages. According to these Sentences, Castilian, as the official language of the country as a whole, cannot be cast as a rival to the regional languages given that both the regional and central governments are equally obliged to respect and protect the multiple languages of Spain.

In the specific case of the cultural sector, Catalan legislation (Act 1/1998 on Linguistic Policy) establishes language quotas for licensed radio and television broadcasting. In order to promote the composition, performance and production of Catalan music, radio and television broadcasting companies also have to guarantee that music programmes will provide adequate exposure to songs performed by Catalan artists, which must account for at least 25% of the material broadcast.

Spain/ 5.2 Legislation on culture

There is no overall legislation for culture in Spain. The only Act establishing the scope, operation and governing structure is the Royal Decree 1601/2004 on the Structure of the Ministry of Culture (see 1).

Spain/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.1 Visual and applied arts

The Historical Heritage Act of 1985 introduced two significant means of supporting the visual arts. One was handing over artworks to the Treasury in lieu of taxes, a form of taxpaying which has since gained some popularity: it is estimated to have increased funding for national heritage by euro 93.7 million since 2002. Although regional cultural institutions did not initially benefit from this measure, the same system of tax collection is being slowly introduced at the regional and municipal levels.

The second measure is the so-called "cultural one per cent", a reference to the one per cent of all public works budgets to be paid to the state to finance the conservation and enhancement of the country's heritage or to "foster artistic creativity". Between 1986 and 2006, the Ministry of Development earmarked euro 400 million for the "cultural one per cent". So far, however, the bulk of this money has been spent on the heritage and very little on artistic creation.

Spain/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.2 Performing arts and music

Music and the performing arts comprise a cultural sector that has long been the subject of official sponsorship (funding and intervention) of one sort or another. Responsibility for this support is now held by a self-governing public body set up in 1984 on an arm's-length basis, the National Institute of Music and Performing Arts (INAEM), whose director is appointed by the Minister and whose activities are governed by a decree issued in 1996. It is responsible for fostering the performing arts and the activities of the following institutions: the Zarzuela Theatre, the National Ballet, the National Company of Dance, the Centre for the Diffusion of Contemporary Music, the Concert Hall of Madrid, the Spanish National Orchestra and Choir, the Spanish National Youth Orchestra, the Documentation Centre of Music and Dance, the National Classical Theatre Company, the Centre of Theatre Documentation, the National Drama Centre and the Technological Centre of Performing Arts. At present, the new Minister, nominated in July 2007, is working on the conversion of the INAEM into the National Agency of Music and Performing Arts. This change will mean higher level of autonomy and flexibility in management, which will allow a specific regime of human and economic resources, as well as greater flexibility in selecting personnel. Within these legislative and regulatory measures in performing arts and music, the Ministry of Culture also promotes the creation of the State Council of the Performing Arts and Music, as a ministerial adviser body, which will seek to channel the participation of music, dance, theatre and circus sectors, and their coordination with the Central Administration of the State. This will seek to create a space for reflection and exchange of views able to collect the aspirations and proposals of the principal actors and recipients of cultural policies.

The autonomous regions also pursue policies designed to foster music and theatre. They include the Galician Institute of Music and Performing Arts (1989) and the Valencian Institute of Performing Arts, Cinematography and Music.

There is no relevant legislation for the performing arts and music in Spain.

Spain/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.3 Cultural heritage

Article 46 of the 1978 Constitution directs the authorities to "guarantee the preservation and to promote the enrichment of the historic, cultural and artistic heritage of the peoples of Spain and of the property of which that heritage consists". The text goes beyond "conservation" to include the "enrichment" of cultural property. Acting upon this principle, the Parliament approved the Historical Heritage Act of 1985, a piece of legislation that broke new ground in heritage protection policy.

The dual purpose of the 1985 Historical Heritage Act was to ensure compliance with the 1978 Constitutional mandate that enables the autonomous communities to pass their own regional laws on the same subject, as mandated by their own Charters. However, the 1985 Historical Heritage Act was challenged by various regions on the grounds that the central government also had responsibilities in this field. The Constitutional Court, while dismissing the anti-constitutional claim, admitted that cultural properties were surely part of the national heritage of the whole country and therefore the two levels of government should work together. In practice, this meant that most communities introduced their own legislation anyway: Basque Country (7/1990 Act); Castile-La Mancha (4/1990 Act); Andalusia (1/1991 Act); Catalonia (9/1993 Act); Galicia (8/1995 Act); Valencian Community (4/1998 Act); Madrid (10/1998 Act); Balearic Islands (Act 12/1998); Canary Islands (4/1999 Act); Extremadura (2/1999 Act); Aragon (3/1999 Act); Asturias (1/2001 Act); and Castile-Leon (12/2002 Act).

These laws follow a more "anthropological" interpretation of cultural heritage, leaving the traditional architectural canons employed in the nineteenth and part of the twentieth centuries behind. The protective system employed by these laws is implemented via a series of administrative measures (prohibitions, fines, conservation orders, bans on sale or export, etc.), combined with incentives, such as the so-called "cultural one per cent", a levy on the cost of all public works which is used to help defray the cost of conservation. Legislation of both the central government and the regional authorities establishes various ways of defining heritage property, usually based on two categories. On the one hand, this includes the assets of cultural interest, and on the other hand, those properties included on a general inventory list of national interest. An important element of both the national and regional laws is the link made between cultural property laws and legislation for urban development.

Cultural institutions such as museums and archives are regulated by the Historical Heritage Act of 1985, which gives a brief definition of such bodies and the terms under which they are set up, administered and coordinated, together with how people can use their services. The 1985 Historical Heritage Act is complemented by a series of nationwide enabling regulations governing such matters as specialist arms length institutions. It also includes a series of rules, applying to specific institutions such as the Prado Museum, the Archaeological National Museum, the Museum of America, the Museum of the Alhambra, the Reina Sofia Museum and Art Centre, the National Museum of Anthropology, the Museum of Roman Art, the National Museum of Decorative Arts , the National Museum of Ceramics and Sumptuary Arts , the National Sculpture Museum, the National Museum of Science and Technology, as well as the state-run archives (National Historical Archive, the General Archive of Simancas, the Archive of the Indies, the Archive of the Kingdom of Aragon).

As far as regional legislation is concerned, the dominant trend is to approve individual laws for museums and archives independently of national heritage legislation. Regions which have their own museum legislation include: Andalusia (2/1984 Act), Aragon (7/1986 Act), Catalonia (17/1990 Act), Castile-Leon (10/1994 Act), Murcia (5/1996 Act), Madrid (9/1999 Act) and Cantabria (5/2001 Act). Regions with their own laws for public archives are: Andalusia (3/1984 Act), Aragon (6/1986 Act), the Canary Islands (3/1990 Act), Murcia (6/1990 Act), Castile-Leon (6/1991 Act), Madrid (Act 4/1993 Act), La Rioja (4/1994 Act), Catalonia (13/2001 Act) and Cantabria (3/2002 Act).

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5.3.4 Literature and libraries

Libraries are regulated by the Historical Heritage Act of 1985, which gives a brief definition of these bodies and the terms under which they are set up, administered and coordinated, together with indications on how people can use their services. The 1985 Historical Heritage Act is complemented by a series of nationwide regulations governing such matters as specialist arms length institutions, with specific details on, for example, state-owned libraries and how books are to be loaned.

As far as regional legislation is concerned, the dominant trend is to approve individual laws for libraries independently of national heritage legislation. The Communities with their own library laws are: Andalusia (8/1983 Act), the Valencian Community (10/1986 Act), Aragon (8/1986 Act), Castile-Leon (9/1989 Act), Castile-La Mancha (1/1989 Act), Galicia (14/1989 Act), Madrid (10/1989 Act) La Rioja (Act 4/1990 Act), Murcia (7/1990 Act), Catalonia (4/1993 Act), Extremadura (6/1997 Act) and Cantabria (3/2001 Act).

In June 2007, a new Act for Reading, Books and Libraries was approved, which establishes a new legal framework for the area in concordance with the regulations on taxation and intellectual property. The aims of the new Act are threefold: to promote reading, to defend cultural diversity in order to provide mechanisms which guarantee a plural supply of publishing companies and bookshops, and to adapt the book concept to changes facilitated by new technological changes(see also 4.2.6 and 5.3.7).

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5.3.5 Architecture and environment

Information is currently not available.

Spain/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.6 Film, video and photography

There is ample legislation on film and the audiovisual arts, two sectors that successive governments have tried hard to encourage, both from the production and consumption sides. The regulations, amended at regular intervals over the years, reveal two basic trends: a growing appreciation that films can be of genuine cultural value and a realisation that there is little separating film and the audiovisual arts, traditionally categorised as different art forms. The latest amendment to the Promotion of Cinematography and Audiovisual Sector Act in 2001, includes three objectives in the opening articles, namely: the promotion and encouragement of the production of works of cinematography and visual arts by Spanish producers or by those of the member states of the European Union and the Common European Economic Space; the creation of favourable conditions for their production and distribution; and the conservation of cinematographic and audiovisual property.

It was originally intended that the new Cinema Bill would appeal the so-called "screen quota" obliging a certain percentage of European films to be shown in cinemas regardless of demand. Following opposition from the film industry, the law was enacted, leaving the quota in the document, however, adding that if, within five years of its introduction, the government should so wish, it is fully entitled to modify or even eliminate the quota (which it has not done). Currently, a new Bill is been discussed in the House of Commons, which is planned to be approved before the end of the legislature. The Bill introduces tax incentives to the production and states that the "screen quota" will be accounted for showings, and not for days. It also establishes the creation of a fund to assist cinematography in regional governments with its own languages. This will be funded between the regional governments and the central administration, and its management will depend on the respective autonomous executives. In any case, there is a strong opposition with the new bill and surely there will be changes in the Congress.

Central government cultural policy on film is the responsibility of the National Institute of Cinematography and Audiovisual Arts (INCAA), a body set up in 1984 and governed by a decree passed in 1997. Some of the regions have adopted legislation of their own designed to encourage the film industry. The Catalan Linguistic Policy Act of 1998, for example, sets out measures designed to promote Catalan-language films, and provides the possibility for the regional government to introduce screen and distribution quotas to ensure such films are exhibited to the public. Another piece of regional legislation established the Catalan Institute of Creative Industries, a body designed to develop and monitor compliance with initiatives introduced to foster the Catalan language and culture (Article 3.j). To the same end, the Galician Audiovisual Act was passed in 1999. In Andalusia, a series of measures were also introduced and designed to encourage and protect the audiovisual arts.

These initiatives, by either central or regional governments, met with strong opposition initially, but were resolved in the Constitutional Court, which established the concurrent character of cultural responsibilities. The following rulings are relevant: STC 49/1984, on regulations concerning special venues for screening films; STC 143/1985 on cinema inspections; STC 153/1985 on regulations governing the issue of cinema tickets; STC 157/1985 on a register of film companies; STC 87/1987, on classification of films and audiovisual materials; STC 106/1987, on the protection of the Spanish film industry; and STC 153/1989 on film co-productions.

Spain/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.7 Culture industries

The administrative framework that covers the culture industries is slowly but steadily moving towards deregulation, together with a specific move to bring the cinematographic and audiovisual sectors under the same administrative umbrella (see also 5.3.6).

Book publishing had been the subject of a specific piece of legislation in 1975, the so-called Book Act. Among other things it introduced the fixed book price. This was partly relaxed in 1998, when booksellers were entitled to offer a discount of as much as 12% on the official retail price of primary and secondary schoolbooks and related teaching aids. In 2000, all price controls on schoolbooks were lifted. This double system of fixing book prices and making schoolbooks free of charge has been included in the new Act for Reading, Books and Libraries passed in June 2007. Besides the establishment of this double system of prices, the new Act, which replaces all previous regulations, envisages the creation of an Observatory of reading and books, the inclusion of royalties for loan librarian, following the rules of the European Union, the promotion of creators and the support for the publishing industry. Various schemes for encouraging book reading have been explored at both central and regional government levels, such as the campaign to encourage reading carried out by Madrid's regional government in 1999, the Andalusian agreement on the promotion of books in 2001, and the law on books approved by the Valencia Autonomous Community in 2002. Copies of all new publications have to be placed in an official deposit, for purposes of conservation, in accordance with legislation dating back to 1972.

The sound recording sector received government support through the Anti-piracy Plan in 2005 and the new Intellectual Property Act in 2006.

Chapter 5.1.5 provides information on tax rates for cultural goods and services.

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5.3.8 Mass media

In 1980, the Radio and Television Statute (4/1980 Act) was passed, which defined the fundamental role of the State Radio and Television networks and the presence of Spanish Television with its two channels. Legislation passed (46/1983 Third Channel Act) in 1983 allowed the Autonomous Communities to set up their own publicly funded radio and television broadcasting operations (see also 4.2.5). Later on, in 1988, through the 10/1988 Private Television Act, the audiovisual spectrum was opened up to private initiative with a basically commercial aim.

Since the beginning of the 1990s, national and regional state-funded TV broadcasting has coexisted alongside private television. Today's proliferation of public and private channels, at national, regional and, more recently, local level, generates fierce competition for available advertising revenue. The massive deficits run up by government- and community-controlled broadcasting, together with the deterioration of their cultural content, have fuelled an ongoing debate on how publicly owned broadcasting should be funded. Within RTVE (Spanish Radio & Television), the radio side of the organisation has remained on the sidelines; not dependent on advertising revenues, the public service offered by its various channels (RNE, Radio Exterior de España, Classical Radio and Radio 3, Radio 5 Todo notícias) is of a high quality.

The media, which are owned and run by the government, are deemed public services obliged to respect the "political, religious, social, cultural and linguistic diversity [of Spain]". RTVE, the main "social means of communication", aspires to be a paradigm of quality, plurality and cultural diversity. Today 18.6% of programmes on RTVE 1 are considered cultural, 54.3% on RTVE 2, and, in the two private TV channels, the proportions are 1.6% and 3.2% respectively.

Recently, under the State Radio and Television Act (17/2006 Act), the RTVE public institution was replaced by the RTVE Corporation, a state corporation with special autonomy. The new law aims, on the one hand, to provide a legal framework for public radio and television that guarantees their independence, neutrality and objectivity, and establishes organisational structures and a model of funding that enables them to carry out their mission as a public service. On the other, it aims to reinforce the role of Parliament and foresees the supervision of the Corporation's activity by an independent audiovisual authority. The Corporation must promote territorial cohesion and Spain's linguistic and cultural diversity; broadcast international radio and TV channels that disseminate the languages and cultures of Spain in other countries; support the social integration of minorities and cater for social groups with specific needs; promote knowledge of the arts, science, history and culture; and produce audiovisual digital and multimedia material in the languages of Spain, as a contribution to the development of Spanish and European culture industries.

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5.3.9 Legislation for self-employed artists

There is no specific legislation for self-employed artists in Spain. There are, however, a few tax provisions available for self-employed artists related to income tax deductions, income averaging, company tax benefits and reduced levels of value-added tax (see 5.1.5 and 5.1.7).

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

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5.3.10 Other areas of relevant legislation

Associations and foundations have long been involved in cultural activities.


Article 22 of the Constitution upholds the right to associate as a fundamental right. A recent Act (1/2002) amended the former Association Act of 1964. The approach of the new legislation is to cover both the right to associate and the outcome of such association, i.e., the resulting organisation. The aim was to create a new "umbrella law" covering all those organisations lacking specific regulation. Therefore bodies such as political parties, trade unions, management associations, religious bodies, sports federations and consumers' organisations were excluded.

Almost all associations have cultural aims of one description or another, occasionally of a private nature, but mostly public. In fact, the law makes a commitment to culture one of the main requirements for an association to be allowed to call itself "publicly useful", an essential requisite for several advantages, notably tax breaks. The regions are allowed to give this status to associations operating mainly within their boundaries, provided they are registered in a database which is co-ordinated by the national register of associations. Some regions have approved their own laws of association: the Basque Country (12/1988 Act), Catalonia (7/1997 Act); and the Canary Islands (4/2003 Act).


Following the restoration of democracy, foundations were initially regulated by Act 30/1994 on the Foundations and Fiscal Incentives for private participation in activities of general interest, a law that finally abolished the limitations on such bodies. It was superseded by the Foundations Act (50/2002), which simplified the procedures and removed the controls imposed by the state on foundations via the "protectorates".

The new Act 50/2002 lists the kind of cultural objectives required by a foundation seeking to acquire a general interest status. This represents a significant departure from the traditional ban in Spain on personal or family trusts, i.e., settlements designed to benefit individuals or their descendants. This legal prohibition is waived when parties to the foundation undertake to conserve cultural property and, in particular, open it to the public under the terms of the Historical Heritage Act of 1985. Again, the powers to approve the status of such foundations are also given to the regions, resulting in the creation of both a central foundation register and regional foundation registers. Various regions have introduced their own legislation: Galicia (7/1983 Act), Basque Country (12/1994 Act), Navarre (10/1996 Act), the Canary Islands (2/1998 Act), Madrid (1/1998 Act), Valencian Community (8/1998 Act), Catalonia (5/2001 Act) and Castile-Leon (12/2003 Act).

Aside from the third sector, one of the latest trends in cultural legislation relates to the growing attention being placed on the "protection of culture from criminals". This derives from the Constitution of 1978, which states (Article 46) that, "Offences committed against this [historic, cultural and artistic] heritage shall be punished under criminal law". Spain's Criminal Code, approved in 1995, regulates against crimes committed to the nation's cultural heritage (Articles 321 to 324) as well as violations to the Copyright Law (Articles 270 to 272). It also stipulates that any wanton destruction or cause of destruction of property of social or cultural value to the community is considered a crime (Article 289).

Spain/ 6. Financing of culture

6.1 Short overview

The 1978 Constitution established a decentralised administrative structure on three levels, central government, regional government (with 17 regions and two autonomous cities), and local administration (8 108 municipalities, plus provincial municipal councils and other local bodies).

In 2004, the total public expenditure on culture at all three levels was euro 4 753 million, approximately 0.57% of the Spanish GDP.

The majority of public cultural expenditure comes from the local authorities, 56.2%. Then the regions 27.9% and, lastly the central government with 15.7% (see also 6.3). This shows the decentralised nature of the Spanish model, in which territorial authorities assume most of the responsibility for culture.

By level of government, in 2004 central government spent on culture euro 749.9 million. In terms of allocation, heritage conservation took the largest share, nearly 50%, followed by performing arts and music with 15.3%. Cultural relations abroad and diffusion took a share of 16.2% of the central government funding, and film and audiovisual 5.8%.

In 2004, regional and municipal authorities combined spent a total of euro 4 003.4 million, of which more than two thirds was spent by the municipal authorities (66.7%) and one third by the regional powers (33.2%). The regions spending the highest amounts of these combined figures were Catalonia (16.7%), Andalusia (13.8%), Madrid (11.4%) and Galicia (10%). By sector, the regional authorities concentrated most of their resources on cultural heritage (27.6%), followed by performing arts and music (19.9%). Of the remaining 53%, a significant share (32.12%) was allocated to interdisciplinary expenses (for cultural promotion, diffusion and cooperation, or linguistic policy).

Over the four-year period 2000-2004, the total public expenditure on culture at all three levels increased, in real terms, by 32%.

We should also mention the tax breaks awarded to individuals and corporations. In 2003, tax relief amounted to euro 704 million, mostly in the form of exemptions and rebates on Value-Added Tax (see 5.1.5). In contrast, company tax and income tax relief accounted for less than 25% of taxable profits. This situation is due to the lack of a tradition of sponsorship in Spain and to the presence of regulations that do not encourage these practices.

Finally, the Household Budget Continuous Survey of 2004 provides figures on private spending for culture. In 2004, Spanish households spent an average of euro 652.7 per year on cultural goods and services, 3.63% of their total expenditure. By categories, most of the cultural spending was on newspapers and magazines (20.9%), followed by books (11.8%) and services (cinema, theatre, concerts) at 11.5%.

Spain/ 6. Financing of culture

6.2 Public cultural expenditure per capita

Total public culture expenditure per capita in 2004 was euro 110. Public expenditure on culture accounted for approximately 0.57% of the Spanish GDP in the same year.

The per capita expenditure of the central government (in 2004) amounted to 17.4 euros, and that of the autonomous and local governments was 30.8 and 61.9 euros respectively.

The per capita figure varies widely from region to region. Using the consolidated regional and municipal totals for 2004, the autonomous community spending the highest amount per capita was Navarre (euro 73.7), followed by Castile-Leon (euro 48.8) and Galicia (euro 48.8). At the lower extreme, were the Canary Islands (euro 17.2) and Balearic Islands (euro 11.9).

Over the last five years for which data is available (the 2000-2004 period), the evolution of per capita public expenditure on culture was very positive. Overall, the expenditure grew in real terms by 23.9%. By levels of government, local government had the highest growth (32.9%), followed by autonomous governments (15.6%) and finally by central government, which recorded a more moderate growth (11.2%). As for the absolute values mentioned above (see 6.1), the increase in per capita expenditure is lower due to the marked growth in the population. Finally, the greater proximity of citizens to local governments leads the latter to invest more resources in this sector.

Spain/ 6. Financing of culture

6.3 Public cultural expenditure broken down by level of government

Table 1:          Public cultural expenditure: by level of government, in thousand euro, 2000-2004

Level of government





Per capita



Per capita

Central government

560 712



749 900



Autonomous regions

951 693



1 329 338



Local government

1 663 787



2 674 148




3 176 192



4 753 386



Source:      Ministry of Culture, 2007.

The data in table 1 shows a high level of decentralisation in public spending on culture. As we saw in 6.1, the territorial governments (autonomous and local) account for more than 80% of government spending in the sector.

The evolution over the five years under consideration is highly significant, representing in real terms a total growth of 32%. According to levels of government, local government has the highest growth (41.8%), followed by autonomous governments (23.2%) and finally the central government (18%).

Spain/ 6. Financing of culture

6.4 Sector breakdown

Table 2:     State cultural expenditure: by sector, in thousand euro, in %, 2004

Field / Domain / Sub-domain

Total expenditure

% share of total

Cultural Goods and Services

446 013


Cultural Heritage

353 639


Historical Monuments

150 086



188 751



14 803



40 560



51 815



121 224


Visual Arts

3 270


Performing Arts

117 954


Music and dance

87 163


Theatre and others

30 791



57 525



13 666



43 859



125 138


Cultural promotion and cooperation

37 629


Cultural Relations Abroad

83 583



3 926



749 900


Source:      Ministry of Culture,2007.

The central government spends almost 50% of its resources for culture on the historic and artistic heritage sector, since its area of competence covers mainly the large museums and national monuments. The second largest area of spending is performing arts and music, with 15.73%, and with a clear predominance of music, since the central government is responsible for the national and lyric orchestras. In third place, are the resources allocated to cultural diffusion and cooperation at home and abroad, which is particularly important in a country with a high level of internal decentralisation and a firm international commitment to Latin America. Finally, cinema production (5.85%) concentrates a large part of the resources on support for the culture industries.

The allocation of central government resources among different cultural sectors has remained more or less equal during the last four years.

Table 3:     Regional cultural expenditure: by sector, in thousands of euro, in %, 2004

Field / Domain / Sub-domain

Total expenditure

% share of total

Cultural Goods and Services

504 551


Cultural Heritage

366 579


Historical Monuments

165 607



147 866


Archaeological site

32 784



20 322



40 545



97 427



302 144


Visual Arts

38 304



36 686






1 122


Performing Arts

263 840



93 925



28 086


Theatre and Musical Theatre

132 706



9 123



62 445



26 378



36 066



28 917









6 117



427 039


Cultural promotion and cooperation

139 667


Cultural Relations Abroad




194 097


Linguistics policy

66 354



26 242


Not allocable by domain

33 159



1 329 338


Source:      Ministry of Culture, 2007.

The sectors in which the Autonomous governments are most active are historical and artistic heritage (27.58%) and the performing arts and music (19.85%), which, together, they receive approximately 50% of public spending on culture. The volume of spending on heritage is due to its high symbolic value and its importance as a public asset in the development of cultural tourism. In the case of performance arts and music, their local importance means that the proportion of public funding is higher. As for the rest of the sectors, interdisciplinary spending predominates (32.12%), with significant sums allocated to cultural promotion, diffusion and cooperation and to language policy. In any case, there are large divergences between the various Autonomous Communities.

Spain/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.1 Re-allocation of public responsibilities

In recent years, the outsourcing of public services has spread to the direction and management of cultural organisations. The management of both new cultural services and existing services that had been under direct governmental control have now been passed into the hands of external companies or groups. This gradual process is part of a wider trend towards the delegation of public management of a variety of services to external organisations.

In the specific area of culture, the process begins with the creation of public contractors (public culture foundations or committees, as well as specialised public companies) to accelerate management processes and provide greater flexibility in subcontracting and management of income. At the same time, many secondary services with little cultural impact are outsourced (catering, security, cleaning and even the marketing of goods or services). As a result of the limits placed on staff costs, the interest in obtaining specialised services at competitive rates, or the erosion of internal structures linking public ownership and public management, more and more services forming part of the cultural administration have been outsourced. During the first phase of this process, publicly owned cultural organisations subcontract secondary services with a high degree of cultural content to external providers (almost all museums and exhibition centres now have external educational and monitoring services). This is followed by the definitive transfer of all management tasks. The process now extends as far as community centres, municipal arts centres, galleries and exhibition halls, archaeological sites, concert halls, theatres and even museums.

Spain/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.2 Status/role and development of major cultural institutions

From a historical perspective, Spain's leading cultural institutions can be divided into three groups depending on their origins: national institutions, institutions set up by civil society, and institutions that emerged during the period of restored democracy. National institutions have been linked with the state from the outset and most of them are in Madrid (Prado Museum, Royal Theatre, National Library, etc.). The second type can usually be traced to the cultural aspirations of the bourgeoisie at specific moments in history, particularly in those cities having a strong industrial base, for example, Barcelona, Bilbao, Oviedo, etc. Typical illustrations would be the Liceu Opera House in Barcelona or the Campoamor Theatre in Oviedo. Lastly, there are initiatives undertaken over the last 20 years at various levels of government, such as the construction of several major cultural spaces, the majority outside Madrid, thereby promoting cultural decentralisation.

National institutions depend entirely on the central government for funding, although boards of governors are allowed considerable leeway in decision making. A significant number of the other cultural institutions in the country are financed and self-managed under agreements between different levels of government. This inter-institutional co-operation promotes coherence in regional development strategies and, indirectly, encourages greater self-management in day-to-day running of the institutions.

In recent years, various national and regional institutions have introduced changes in the procedure for appointing directors. With these changes the government hopes to improve the objectivity, professionalism and transparency of candidate selection. The pilot experience of the Prado Museum has been extended to other institutions, such as the National Library and the Reina Sofia Museum and Art Centre through the new "Cultural Institution Modernisation Plan", approved in September 2007.

Encouraging self-management is also aimed at increasing resources through private sector funding. Greater management control goes hand-in-hand with greater budgetary responsibility. Fundraising also encourages a much greater degree of co-operation with local business circles, and enables local administrators to gain experience with innovative and modern management techniques.

An illustrative example of this approach can be found in the new administrative status of the Prado Museum (the Prado Museum, 46/2003 Act). The museum is now a "special" public institution, meaning that, under Spain's continental legal system, it can engage in transactions governed by "private law", i.e., it is no longer solely bound by the dictates of the "public law" under which government and government-funded bodies are normally administered. This will make it much easier for the Prado Museum to adapt to changing times and changing practices in the art world. In particular, it will allow it to raise its own funds, including 50% of its running costs (before it was allowed to raise funds for only up to 27% of its running costs).

An equally good example is the Barcelona Contemporary Art Museum or MACBA. It is now run by a public consortium comprising the Barcelona City Council, the government of Catalonia, and the MACBA Foundation which is made up of private-sector companies and its purpose is to raise funds to buy works for the museum; works which the Foundation will own.

Spain/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.3 Emerging partnerships or collaborations

From a legal standpoint, the distinction in Spain between sponsorship and patronage is reasonably clear on paper: sponsorship is regulated by the General Advertising Act (34/1988 Act) and patronage by the Act on Tax Exemptions for Non-profit making Organisations and on Sponsorship (49/2002 Act).

Aside from household expenditure on cultural goods there are very few figures available on private-sector capital funding of culture. All we know is that culture is the leading recipient of patronage and the second recipient (after sport) of sponsorship.

An important and interesting phenomenon is that of the Cajas de Ahorro or savings banks, non-profit making financial institutions which have been involved in funding cultural activities for a long time. According to 2002 figures, savings banks gave euro 476.2 million to cultural initiatives, over half of the budget of the Ministry of Culture and approximately 40% of the amount spent on culture by the autonomous regions. In 2002, 44.5% of the money was spent either on cultural activities or on upgrading, protecting or conserving cultural property. A significant part of this money is earmarked for projects run by the foundations set up by the savings banks themselves.

In Spain there is a general consensus that the role of the "third sector" in funding culture and cultural activities will increase with time. Strictly speaking, the third sector only includes non-profit making organisations. In its broader sense, however, it covers the entire social economy.

The bodies that best represent the spirit of the third sector are, without doubt, the associations. Despite the lack of hard evidence, two apparently contradictory observations can be made: the level of involvement in voluntary associations is low, around 35%, only 5% in the case of cultural or artistic associations; but the number of active associations is amazingly high (175 689 registered in 1997, of which 64 772 came under the heading of "Cultural or ideological"). Areas in which voluntary associations are most active are folklore and cultural property. More recently, associations have been springing up around cultural institutions, for example, the "Friends of the xxx Theatre", "Friends of the xxx Museum", etc.

Foundations also play an important role. Those linked to savings banks and those set up to finance specific cultural institutions are the most important. For details on associations and foundations, see 8.4. For information on their legal status see 5.3.10.

The cultural sector is characterised by its complexity, in which it is hard to define exactly the role played by each of the operators: public, private or "third-sector". At the same time, some common definition is necessary if agreement on policy objectives at different levels of administration is to be reached. Suffice to say that in Spain there is an expanding common ground for a meeting of minds between public and private operators, as evidenced by the following examples:

Spain/ 8. Support to creativity and participation

8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

Specific methods of providing support to creativity in Spain are mainly given to the visual arts. Resources are available for exhibitions and for the acquisition of artworks through funds made available to public museums. Regional and local authorities hold competitions and provide prize money, and retain ownership of the winning entries (see also 5.3.1). There are also subsidies and commissions for symphony orchestras (distributed by the Centre for the Diffusion of Contemporary Music) and for the performing arts, for both national and overseas tours (distributed by the National Institute of Performing Arts and Music).

The Ministry of Culture, in co-operation with the Spanish Agency of International Co-operation (AECI) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, develops various programmes designed to promote contemporary Spanish artists and their art works worldwide (see also 2.4). They provide support for up-and-coming artists to participate in major international biennials.

Another central government institution which plays a significant role in providing support to emerging visual artists is the Youth Institute (INJUVE), which reports to the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs. The Institute holds a number of annual exhibitions and administers international tours, festivals and programmes with travel and work grants. There are various subsidies available from other government departments such as the Directorate-General for Cultural Cooperation and Communication (Ministry of Culture), the Directorate-General for Scientific and Cultural Relations (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation), and the Carolina Foundation, among others.

At the regional and local levels, support for artists comes from the culture departments of regional governments, provincial assemblies and town councils. In the bilingual regions, support for artists is seen as an integral part of promoting the regional language. The cultural programmes of these autonomous communities are based on generic policies for encouraging local culture industries. One-off events, such as the European Cultural Capital in Salamanca 2002, the "Design Year" 2003 in Catalonia, the Universal Forum of Cultures 2004 in Barcelona, and the commemoration of the "Quixote Year" 2005 in the Castile-La Mancha community, do much in the way of promoting and disseminating local creativity.

Spain/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.1 Special artists funds

There are very few specific funds for artists in Spain. One important example is the Cinematographic Protection Fund administered by the National Institute of Cinematography and Audiovisual Arts (ICAA) to protect and support the Spanish film industry. In 2007, the fund will allocate approximately euro 67 million. Although the Fund subsidises primarily companies, aid that provides to scripts or shorts can be considered aid to individual artists.

The recent Intellectual Property Act (23/2006) extends the rights of authors on digital supports, from CDs to MP3 players. Nonetheless, the long debate on the reform of the law has been marked by a clear conflict of interests between authors, producers, distributors, radio and television companies (they are television operators and can be public or private) and consumers' associations.

After a long litigation with the Court of Justice of the European Communities and with a strong opposition, the new Act for Reading, Books and Libraries modifies some aspects of the Intellectual Property Act (23/2006) in establishing a levy on the loans made by cultural organisations (such as libraries, museums, archives, etc.). Libraries will have to pay euro 0.2 for each book copy acquired for loan, with an exemption solely for public libraries of municipalities of less than 5 000 inhabitants (52% of the total of public libraries in Spain) and those integrated in educational institutions. Payment to the authors will be completed through the copyright societies.

See also 8.1.

Spain/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.2 Grants, awards, scholarships

The most common tools for providing support to artists and creators in Spain are prizes and grants. At the national level, the main body responsible for these awards is the Ministry of Culture, via its Directorates for Fine Arts and Cultural Assets, for Books, Archives and Libraries, for Cooperation and Cultural Communication and the National Institutes of Music and Performing Arts (INAEM) and Cinematography and Audiovisual Arts (ICAA).

See also 8.1.

Spain/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.3 Support to professional artists associations or unions

There is no stable government support for artist associations or unions. They can apply for annual subsidies channelled through sector-specific aid programmes but there is no set standard for budgetary provisions or other statutory subsidies.

Spain/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation

8.2.1 Trends and figures

The "Statistical Yearbook 2006", published by the Ministry of Culture in 2007, provides information on cultural consumption and participation (figures on cultural consumption come from the Continuous Household Budget Survey, carried out by the National Statistics Institute and, on participation, from the Survey of Habits and Cultural Practices in Spain, carried out by the Ministry of Culture and the Spanish Society of Authors, Composers and Publishers).

Cultural consumption

In 2005, Spaniards spent euro 10.4 billion on cultural goods and services; 3.6% of their total expenditure. This figure has continued to rise significantly since 2000, when it amounted to euro 6.98 billion. Overall cultural spending, between 2000 and 2005, grew by 49% compared to the 16.6% rise in the Consumer Price Index over the same period. Cultural spending amounted to euro 242.7 per capita in 2005. By categories, home-based activities dominated cultural spending, especially home entertainment (euro 103.6) and reading (euro 70.3), which together accounted for 71.2% of cultural spending. In the home entertainment category, spending on computers ranked highest (euro 27), followed by the rental of cable and satellite services (euro 22.7) and television equipment (euro 17.9). Other cultural spending categories include attendance at cultural events such as cinema, theatre, opera, dance, and so on, which accounted for 11.7% of cultural spending. Within this category, spending on cinema was greater (euro 17.3) than spending on theatre (euro 4.9) or dance performances (euro 4.8).

Between 2000 and 2005, home-based activities made significant gains in the total spending on culture. Categories showing an upward trend are Internet connection fees (from 0.4% in 2000 to 7.2% in 2005), the purchase of photographic equipment (from 0.7% in 2000 to 2.3% in 2005) and the rental of cable and satellite services (from 7% in 2000 to 9.4% in 2005). Other cultural spending categories which rose significantly were attendance at museums, libraries and parks (from 0.6% in 2000 to 2.6% in 2005), opera, dance and musical performances (from 1.8% in 2000 to 2% in 2005) and the purchase of books (from 10.6% in 2000 to 11.2% in 2005).

Participation rates

By far the biggest audiences for cultural content are television viewers (approximately 98% in all periods considered in Table 4: 1990, 1997-1998, 2002-2003 and 2006-2007), followed by newspaper readers (74% in the last period,2006-2007) and radio listeners (60% in the last two periods, 2002-2003 and 2006-2007). More than a half of Spaniards surveyed in 2002-2003 and 2006-2007 reported going to the cinema in the last year. Cultural activities ranked lower in overall participation rates include: attendance at dance, opera and lyrical opera (zarzuela), which remain among the interests of a minority. In 2006-2007, only 5 % of the population indicated that they attended a dance performance at least once a year; 3% went to the opera and 2% to a zarzuela performance.

With respect to changes between 1990 and 2006-2007:

Table 4:     People who in the last year made or attended certain cultural activities in Spain, in % of total population, 1990-2007






Activities heavily subsidised by the state






Opera performances















Concerts of classic music




















Cultural centres





Activities without large public subsidies






To read books not related to the profession or studies





To read press (at least once monthly)





To watch videos daily





To watch television





To listen to the radio daily





Personal computer (frequently)





Internet (at least once daily)





Source:      Ministry of Culture, several years

In 2005, the Permanent Immigration Observatory, attached to the Ministry for Employment and Social Affairs, published a study entitled "Consumption and leisure of Latin American immigrants in Spain". Dividing the population by groups, the main leisure activities of adult women were cinema, the circus (with their children) and local institutional events. They also watch Spanish television dramas and series, news programmes and debates. Among young adults, those who are studying buy books and music and make the most of free events such as exhibitions, debates, book presentations, etc.). In general, they listen to a great deal of music on the radio, read the news on the Internet, and young women buy women's magazines. Adolescents have clearly defined cultural interests: they listen to "top forty" type radio programmes and listen to music with MP3s; those who have the Internet download music and films; they know the TV programme schedules and they go to the cinema to see the latest US film releases. To conclude: the study shows that once they have gained a minimal level of stability, immigrants participate actively in consumption and leisure, and also their desire for integration is fundamentally a desire to raise their consumption, in terms of both quantity and quality.

Spain/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation

8.2.2 Policies and programmes

One of the main objectives of the Ministry of Culture is to encourage cultural participation, which it hopes to achieve through initiatives such as the Plan to encourage reading, the integrated museum plan and the programme of subsidies for promoting the performing arts and live music performances. There has not yet been any evaluation of these programmes, however, they do seem to have contributed to the increase in cultural consumption levels, as indicated in 8.2.1.

The main initiatives to foster participation in culture at the regional level are those based on the building or restoration of performing arts institutions over the last twenty years as part of the National Plan of Rehabilitation of Theatres and Concert Halls. However, such institutions are distributed very unequally across the regions. Contemporary arts centres built in recent times and some symphonic orchestras also carry out activities aimed at generating new concert- or exhibition-goers by means of introductory programmes for potential enthusiasts.

The Youth Institute and its replicas at the regional level distribute the Euro<26 card, which gives youth discounts of between 10% and 100% on tickets for museums, theatres, cinemas and music festivals. There are also discounts available for pensioners and students, usually provided by local authorities, including free entrance to museums and discounts on cinema and theatre tickets.

There are a number of school programmes undertaken by the main cultural institutions, many of them set up by the National Centre of Information and Educative Communication (CNICE), which also develops specific programmes on the Internet to introduce younger audiences to the visual arts, literature and music. Most of the co-operation between schools and cultural institutions, however, is facilitated by the regional authorities.

Spain/ 8.3 Arts and cultural education

8.3.1 Arts education

When the Ministry of Culture was created it was assumed that education and culture required different approaches. However, over time, the budget allocations, trained personnel and progressive levels of schooling, demonstrated that education was considered as one of the main contributors, albeit indirectly, to cultural policy in the broader sense.

The main problems facing artistic education are:

Since January 2005, following the introduction of state legislation governing undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, definite steps have been taken to implement a two-cycle system as envisaged in the Bologna process. What is now needed is for degree courses to be programmed within the framework of an educational plan that places students centre stage, and which provides them with general, multidisciplinary skills developed in the undertaking of activities that go beyond the traditional curriculum. These courses should incorporate ambitious programmes of work experience and project work so that students can make a valuable contribution to society. All in all, these changes give plenty of scope for universities to build on their individual research and teaching strengths and to develop their own distinctive quality in the fields of training and education. The process, which started with pilot schemes in some areas and in both cycles, is now official in postgraduate courses. The first programme of official master degrees was launched during the academic year 2006-2007.

In November 2005, the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade, through the State Secretary for Telecommunications and Information, launched the Plan Avanza to promote Research and Development. The most important measures in the Plan were "Internet in the Classroom" and "Providing ITC, Connectivity and Support for Educational Centres". The programme "Internet in the Classroom", in which the Ministry of Education and Science also participated, and which was carried out in collaboration with the Autonomous governments, aims above all to reinforce and complement the policies of support for non-discriminatory development of the Information Society in the educational environment.

Spain/ 8.3 Arts and cultural education

8.3.2 Intercultural education

From the academic year 2007-2008, "Education for citizenship and human rights" is part of the general school curricula. With strong opposition, from families with children in religious schools and the Catholic Church, the new subject, focussed on the improvement of reciprocal understanding and the promotion of tolerance, is being applied to primary and secondary levels by the Ministry of Education and Science. Families with children in religious schools and the Catholic Church think that the state can not introduce a compulsory subject whose principal goal is the moral upbringing of students. The imposition of a matter of this nature would conflict with the right to freedom of education of parents.)

There are intercultural education programmes at the national and regional levels. At the national level, the Resource Centre for Attention to Cultural Diversity in Education (CREADE) is a Ministry of Education and Science (MEC) project, which is designed to respond to the concerns of professionals in the educational and social spheres with regard to cultural diversity and all its implications. It aims to provide a place for dialogue and reflection, where people involved in education in its broadest sense can find reference material, educational material, ICT tools, bibliographies, experiences, research and, in general, resources for educational action or social intervention from an intercultural perspective. Along with its work collating and processing information and resources on intercultural information, and maintaining and updating its portal, CREADE organises other important lines of action: Supporting research into intercultural education through the organisation of prizes and grants for research; creating a Study Committee to identify and analyse good educational practices; carrying out case studies; analysing legislation and educational policies; formulating initiatives and developing projects; providing guidance and training for educational centres and working teams; and publishing materials and resources of interest to the educational, social and cultural spheres. As well as this general programme, the Ministry of Education and Science runs other intercultural education projects such as:

At the regional level, there also exist numerous initiatives related to the intercultural focus of education, the reception of immigrant pupils, the implementation of organisational and curricular measures, linguistic and cultural support, attention to immigrant families and training of teaching staff.

For more information, see our Intercultural Dialogue section

Spain/ 8.4 Amateur arts, cultural associations and community centres

8.4.1 Amateur arts

Amateur cultural activity is very difficult to measure and the statistics available are few and far between. A large part of pop musicians come under the heading of amateurs, along with many visual artists. The Yearbook on Performing Arts, Music and the Audiovisual Industry for 2005 (published by the Spanish Society of Authors, Composers and Publishers) estimates that amateur theatre accounted for roughly 31% of total stage performances, attended by 23.1% of total theatre-goers. Receipts from amateur theatre performances accounted for 2.4% of total theatre receipts. The vast majority of amateur activity is offered free of charge and is promoted by town councils or non-profit making associations or clubs.

Spain/ 8.4 Amateur arts, cultural associations and community centres

8.4.2 Cultural houses and community cultural clubs

The Third National Volunteer Plan 2005-2009, an initiative of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, contains a series of strategic points aimed at improving voluntary activities in Spain; albeit without specific reference to cultural activities.

Cultural associations are governed by the Rights of Association Act of 2002 (1/2002 Act), which is valid for all associations. Under this law, associations can benefit from a variety of incentives, particularly those declared as being of public interest. Aside from the incentives listed in the 1995 ministerial order on cultural voluntary work, nationwide associations can apply to general subsidy programmes organised by the Ministry of Culture. At the regional and local levels, cultural associations do not specifically feature in the budget allocations of the government, although they can apply for a variety of promotional grants and aid offered by regional cultural departments and, to a lesser extent, by regional youth institutes.

Mention should be made of the neighbourhood associations, which play a key role in bringing people into contact with culture. Of the 2 516 neighbourhood centres currently in operation, most operate on the principle that they are the container into which their volunteer staff can bring the content (= meaning that they are to be used as venues for a broad range of cultural projects).

Spain/ 9. Sources and Links

9.1 Key documents on cultural policy

Bonet, L. / Dueñas, M. / Portell, R.: El sector cultural en España ante el proceso de integración europea. Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, 1992.

Bustamante, E. (coord.): Comunicación y cultura en la era digital. Industrias, mercados y diversidad en España. Barcelona: Gedisa, 2002.

Fernández Prado, E.: La política cultural: qué es y para qué sirve. Gijón: Ediciones Trea, 1991.

Fundación Autor: La política cultural en el municipio. El respeto a los derechos de propiedad intelectual. Madrid: SGAE, 2002.

Fusi, J. P.: Un siglo de España. La cultura. Madrid: Marcial Pons, 1999. 

García, M. I. / Fernández, Y. / Zofío, J. L.: The Culture and Leisure Industry in Spain. Its contribution to GDP (1993-1997). Madrid: SGAE / Fundación Autor, 2000. 

García, M. I. / Fernández, Y. / Zofío, J. L.: La Evolución de la Industria de la Cultura y el Ocio en España por Comunidades Autónomas (1993-1997). Madrid: SGAE / Fundación Autor, 2001.

García, M. I. y Zofío Prieto, J. L.: La dimensión sectorial de la Industria de la Cultura y el Ocio en España (1993-1997). Madrid: SGAE / Fundación Autor, 2003. 

Garcia Jimenez, J.: Radiotelevisión y política cultural en el franquismo. Madrid: CSIC, 1980.

Gomà, R., Subirats, J. (coord.): Políticas públicas en España. Contenidos, redes de actores y niveles de gobierno. Barcelona: Ariel, 1998.

National Institute of Cinematography and Audiovisual Arts: Spanish Cinema: Annual Report. Madrid: Ministry of Culture, 2006.

Jimenez-Blanco, M. D.: Arte y Estado en la España del siglo XX. Madrid: Alianza Editorial, 1989

Ministry of Culture / SGAE: Survey of Cultural Habits and Practices 2006-2007. Madrid: Ministry of Culture, 2007.

Ministry of Culture: The economic value of culture in Spain. Madrid: Ministry of Culture, 2007.

Ministry of Culture: Statistical Yearbook 2006. Madrid: Ministry of Culture, 2007.

Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport: Culture in Spain: The Story in Figures, 2002. Madrid: Ministry of Culture, 2002.

Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport: Culture in Spain: The Story in Figures, 1995. Madrid: Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, 1995.

Ministerio de Hacienda: Presupuestos de las Comunidades y Ciudades Autónomas. Madrid: Secretaría General Técnica, varios años.

Ministerio de Hacienda: Presupuestos Generales del Estrado. Madrid: Secretaría General Técnica, varios años.

National Statistics Institute: Household Budget Continuous Survey. Madrid: National Statistics Institute, several years.

Pérez-Rioja, J. A.: Las casas de cultura. Madrid: Asociación Nacional de Bibliotecarios, Archiveros y Arqueólogos, 1971. 

Prieto de Pedro, J.: Cultura, culturas y constitución. Madrid: Congreso de los Diputados, Centro de Estudios Constitucionales, 1993.

Rubio Aróstegui, J. A.: La política cultural del Estado en los gobiernos socialistas: 1982-1996. Madrid: Ediciones Trea, 2003.

Spanish Society of Authors Composers and Publishers: Anuario de las Artes Escénicas, Musicales y Audiovisuales. Madrid: 2006. 

Timoteo, J. et al.: Historia de los medios de comunicación en España. Periodismo, imagen y publicidad (1900-1990). Barcelona: Ariel, 1986.

Spain/ 9. Sources and Links

9.2 Key organisations and portals

Cultural policy making bodies

Ministry of Culture

Directorate-General for Fine Arts and Cultural Assets

Directorate-General for Books, Archives and Libraries

Directorate-General for Cooperation and Cultural Communication

National Institute of Cinematography and Audiovisual Arts (ICAA)

National Institute of Music and Performing Arts (INAEM)

Ministry of Education and Science

Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation

Cervantes Institute

Ramon Llull Institute

Carolina Foundation

State Corporation for Spanish Cultural Action Abroad

State Corporation for International Exhibitions

Casa de America

Casa Asia

Autonomous Region of Andalusia

Autonomous Region of Aragon,599&_dad=portal30&_schema=PORTAL30&cuerpo.est=ITPG_CT_INICIO

Autonomous Region of Asturias

Autonomous Region of Balearic Islands

Autonomous Region of Basque Country

Autonomous Region of Canary Islands

Autonomous Region of Cantabria,33442&_dad=interportal&_schema=INTERPORTAL

Autonomous Region of Castile-Leon

Autonomous Region of Castile-La Mancha

Autonomous Region of Catalonia

Autonomous Region of Extremadura

Autonomous Region of Galicia

Autonomous Region of La Rioja

Autonomous Region of Madrid

Autonomous Region of Murcia

Autonomous Region of Navarre

Autonomous Region of Valencia

Professional associations

Association for the Mass media Investigation

Association of Authors of Theatre of Spain

Association of Composers and Authors of Music

Association of Cultural Magazines of Spain

Association of Directors of Scene of Spain

Association of Professional Musicians

Musical Producers of Spain

Professional Association of Writers of Spain

Spanish Association of Companies of Restoration of the Historical Heritage

Spanish Association of Managers of Cultural Heritage

Spanish Association of Museologists

Spanish Association of Music Publishers,com_frontpage/Itemid,1/lang,en/

Spanish Association of Musical Documentation

Spanish Association of Publishers Guilds

Spanish Confederation of Associations of Archivists, Librarians, Museologists and Information Specialists

Spanish Federation of Audio-visual Producers

Spanish Federation of Friends of the Museums

Spanish Federation of Societies of Archivistic, Librarianship, Documentation and Museology

Grant-giving bodies

BBVA Foundation

CaixaGalicia Foundation

Caja Madrid Foundation

Caixa de Catalunya Foundation

Juan March Foundation

"La Caixa" Foundation

Mapfre Foundation

Ramón Areces Foundation

Santander Central Hispano Foundation,,20000_1_55,00.html

Telefónica Foundation

Vocento Foundation

Winterthur Foundation

Cultural research and statistics

Andalusian Institute of the Historical Heritage

Centre of Cultural Training and Resources

Complutensian Institute of Musical Sciences of Madrid

General Society of Authors and Publishers (SGAE)

Interarts Foundation, Observatory for Cultural Policies

Library of the Spanish Filmoteca

National Statistics Institute

Network of Centres of Documentation of the Ministry of Culture

Observatory of Galician Audio-visual

Resources of Music and the Dance in Spain

Results of the General Media Study

Service of Documentation of the Spanish Heritage Institute

SGAE Report on habits of cultural consumption

SGAE Survey on habits and cultural practices in Spain

Spanish Society of Information and Documentation

SGAE Yearbook on the performing, musical and audio-visual arts

Statistics of the Ministry of Culture

Statistics on theatre collection of Madrid and Barcelona

Culture / arts portals

Communication Portal of the UAB's Institute of Communication

Latin American Portal of Cultural Management

Portal of cinema


The Council of Europe/ERICarts "Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 9th edition", 2008