Report creation date: 14.10.2008 - 11:47
Countr(y/ies): Slovenia
Chapter(s): 1,2,21,22,23,24,241,242,243,244,245,246,3,31,32,33,4,41,42,421,422,423,424,425,426,427,428,429,4210,43,5,51,511,512,513,514,515,516,517,518,519,52,53,531,532,533,534,535,536,537,538,539,5310,6,61,62,63,64,7,71,72,73,8,81,811,812,813,82,821,822,83,831,832,84,841,842,9,91,92

Slovenia/ 1. Historical perspective: cultural policies and instruments

The historical development of cultural policy in Slovenia has gone through extreme change. Four distinct periods of transition and development of cultural policy following World War II can be identified which also reflect the major ideological transformations of recent decades. The first three take place during the period when Slovenia was one of the six republics of the ex-Yugoslavia, while the last is connected with Slovenia as the independent democratic state.Ljubljana

As is true of most small countries, it was through culture that Slovenes constituted themselves not only as a nation but also as a state. It is from this special emphasis on culture, that the so-called "Slovenian cultural syndrome" was derived. Thus, it is not surprising that the starting point of the disintegration of Yugoslavia, in the eighties, was the Slovenian fear of jeopardising its culture, language and national identity, which was provoked by an attempt of the central government in Belgrade to unify national contents and subordinate it to the Serbian majority, through the mandatory core Yugoslav curriculum of literature and language. This fear united professionals, intellectuals and politicians, regardless of their ideological or political orientation.

The central role which culture played throughout Slovenia's history, created an atmosphere whereby artists had more "space" to develop their own projects and to organise themselves in independent associations even during the socialist regime. Although in the years following the Second World War, certain writers and a list of books were removed from public libraries, the state systematically supported the works of artists, recognising that they had a powerful and influential public voice and that they were useful in realising their propaganda campaigns. However, the state also "intervened" in their work through administrative measures, whenever it seemed necessary. The result of this dichotomy was on the one hand intellectuals engaged in self-censorship and on the other hand politicians that were forced to execute a form of tolerance. However, since everyone was living under the constant threat of criminal prosecution, the relationship between cultural policy and civil society during this period could be defined as a repressive tolerance. The state apparatus was particularly meticulous regarding Slovene literature published abroad by post-war political emigrants. Thus, one prominent writer was put in prison for importing such books without appropriate permits, even in the middle of the 1980s. Due to the preferential treatment of "progressive", "socialist" currents, two parallel cultural scenes evolved at the end of the 1970s / beginning of the 1980s; often in opposition to each other, with the established culture supported by authorities and alternative culture tolerated at the margins.

When most of Europe was creating centralised models for cultural policies during the 1950s and 1960s, Slovenia went through a process of decentralisation. Contrary to the "positive image" decentralisation has today, the lack of local money almost destroyed the institutional cultural network in Slovenia and the process was viewed by prominent artists as a facade and a manipulation in order to break cultural nationalism in all six republics of ex-Yugoslavia into harmless units and to enable, via the local level, easier control over "atomised" culture.

The development of cultural policy took a sharp turn at the beginning of the 1970s when Slovenia was granted more autonomy from the Yugoslav Federation in the area of culture. This era was otherwise known as the period of "self-management" when responsibility for cultural policy was delegated to the cultural communities, where it was debated and created by both producers and consumers of culture. Thus, in the field of cultural policy, political units (the republic and the local communities) were replaced by interest units (cultural communities). Local cultural communities (approximately 60) had a great deal of power in decision-making and resource allocation on the local level. According to the theory of polycentric development, the larger municipalities became cultural centres (ca. 25) and decentralisation remained a political orientation. However, at the same time, national culture finally obtained its place within the Cultural Community of Slovenia and, in the 1980s, a national cultural policy platform was created. Considered to be one of the most important periods in Slovene cultural policy history, the Cultural Community of Slovenia and 60 local cultural communities formed a strong administrative apparatus, which raised the level of cultural policy-making, empowered its place in society and created favourable conditions for cultural development. On the other hand, the system suffered from a lack of selectivity, capability to set clear priorities and to evaluate results. Slovenia's former self-management system experienced economic failure even before a political one. The system was jeopardised by all the characteristics of state corporatism, with poor respect for non-aligned groups, inefficient means of appeal against the state and aggressive state bureaucratic control. The self-management system came to an end in 1989, but the utopian nature of the self-management model was evident already in the middle 1980s, when an economic recession forced the state to take over the local funds for cultural institutions in order to preserve them. The weak points of corporatism, such as organisational sclerosis, rigidity of differences, perpetuation of inequalities, disregard of individualistic norms of citizen participation and a lack of responsibility, are still present as a long standing legacy of the self-management period.

Separate laws for each cultural activity were created as each was "of special social concern". The main difference between the Western European system of public service and the Socialist regulation in Slovenia is the following:

Only in the 1980s, did the state allow the possibility for private activities in the sphere of culture and the status of a freelance artist was introduced. Before the introduction of this status, there were only state artists to whom the state provided social security contributions. Similarly, the central artistic associations, which functioned as para-governmental organisations, were also budget-financed. The state in this manner controlled all the organisational forms. Nevertheless, the Association of Slovenian Writers evolved into a driving force for democratic change and independence.

After the death of the charismatic socialist leader Josip Broz Tito, the communist party started to lose its undisputed position. The authorities became insecure and at the same time apprehensive about democratic and social processes striving to achieve independence. They became aware of the actors fuelling these processes; originating mainly from the cultural field. Culture was certainly a cradle nurturing these processes.

The 1980s were, therefore, the golden years for the Slovenian cultural infrastructure and its artists: from the point of view of artistic freedom and societal financial support. It is, therefore, not a coincidence, that the sphere which mainly challenged changes, had problems coping with the fact that it would also have to change. Culture still finds itself in a stalemate. Nevertheless, changes are happening and most of them were brought by the local community reform, the public finance system, tax system and the civil service system.

The changes can be summarised as follows:

Slovenia began accession negotiations with the European Union in 1996 and became a member state in 2004. The harmonisation of legislation, and its implementation in the field of culture, began mainly in two areas: the harmonisation of media legislation with the European Television without Frontiers Directive and the introduction of VAT (in accordance with the 6th Directive of the EU) on books and audio-visual material. The latter has had a negative impact on Slovenia's culture industries. The question regarding the implementation of the Council Directive on Rental and Lending Right and on certain rights related to copyright, remains open. Slovenia's position is to maintain library compensation measures in all public libraries and not on authors' copyright. It was also necessary to amend legislation considered discriminatory for the citizens of EU Member states, i.e. in the field of employment, the establishment of business etc.

Since the first document was adopted in 2004 only this practice could not be listed within process of transition but more as current practice described in 3.1.

Slovenia/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.1 Organisational structure (organigram) 

Slovenia/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.2 Overall description of the system

In 1980, democracy was imitated through the system of self-management which turned itself into a closed cultural subsystem reflecting the corporative state.

After the abolishment of the self-management system in 1990, the responsibility for cultural policy was returned to public authorities. The socio-political governance structure was transformed into a representative democracy, where decisions are taken by elected politicians on the national and on the local level. Different interest groups, therefore, lost many of their rights to influence the cultural policy decision-making process; a privilege once enjoyed to a certain extent even in a one-party system. In the new system, the expert public also has an important role; however it is mainly an advisory one.

Slovenian cultural policy model is regulated by the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002. The title itself tells that the model is based on the presumption of public interest for culture which substance is defined in depth by sector specific legislation (see 5.3) and national and local programmes for culture while the Act itself gives the general framework for public support composed of cultural creativity, accessibility of cultural assets, cultural diversity, Slovene cultural identity and a Common Slovene Cultural Area (meaning the collaboration with Slovenes in neighbouring countries and abroad). The responsibility for public provision of cultural goods and services lays in the hands of state and local communities.

The state finances national public institutions, public programmes of NGO and projects, which are of importance to the whole of Slovenia.

Harmonious cultural development across the whole country known as poli-centrical cultural development is a basic cultural policy postulate for decades already. All municipalities have to take care of local cultural life but larger ones (25) have an additional obligation, as traditional cultural centres, to ensure the operation of those cultural institutions of broader importance (see 5.1.2). Until now state helped them by funding these institutions (40 - mainly theatres, museums and cultural centres) from the state budget, even though they are part of the municipal cultural infrastructure. However new Act on Local Finances (Official Gazette No. 123/2006) enacted that state shall stop their funding not later than on 1 of January in 2009 or when planned regions start to function. The legal provision for national recognition of cultural institution of broader importance as a basis for state funding remains but now only as a possibility and not anymore as a right (see 3.1, 4.3 and 7.1). With the planned establishment of regional level the role of larger municipalities will be replaced by regions (see 4.3). In order to assure common standards in the field of librarianship, museums, monument protection and archives these fields are regulated as uniform public services. Thus municipalities (210) have legal responsibilities for local museums and all public libraries as public services while monument protection and archives are primarily the responsibility of the state.

The formulation and implementation of cultural policies is an outcome of different procedures and interactions between the Ministry of Culture, Government, Parliament, the arm's length bodies, local governments (municipalities), cultural institutions, NGOs, individual artists and their associations.

The Ministry of Culture formulates proposals for the government, which then submits draft laws to the parliamentary procedures. After the last changes made in 2002, the main role is reserved for Parliamentary Committee for Education, Culture and Sport (working body comprised of deputies from all political parties of the Parliament). These changes in legislative procedure substantially reduced the role for the Ministry of Culture in this process.

The Ministry of Culture fulfils its responsibility for cultural policy formulation and implementation through:

The Ministry executes all of the above tasks in the fields of the arts, heritage, the national library and public libraries, culture of minorities in Slovenia and international cultural co-operation. It is also responsible for the media (audio-visual sector) and the press.

There are also two public funds, which function as arm's lengths bodies: the Film Fund of the Republic of Slovenia and the Cultural Fund of the Republic of Slovenia mainly for amateur cultural activities. On the basis of new Act on the Public Agency for the book (2007), another governmental body will be established in near future (see 5.3.4).

Civil society and experts can participate in the formulation of cultural policies in four ways:

The National Council for Culture and the Slovene Cultural Chamber were established to include the voice of the public (mostly artists) into the new policy process. While the Chamber has an open membership, the Council is appointed by the Parliament (7 members who are important public figures). Both have problems with their profiles. The Chamber exists more or less on paper only without any distinguished role so far. The Council is looking for more visibility since it is in the shadow of the Ministry of Culture due to its dependence on administrative ministerial support for its functioning.

Local communities are independent self-government bodies. Therefore they can adopt their own rules and procedures to execute their responsibilities for culture. If they don't use this discretion they have to follow mutatis mutandis the provisions for state authorities.

Slovenia/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.3 Inter-ministerial or intergovernmental co-operation

Responsibility for culture is divided among several governmental authorities. The main authority in charge of culture is the Ministry of Culture, which is also responsible for the media. Other ministries responsible for certain areas of cultural affairs include:

There are also governmental offices in the areas where the cultural aspect plays an important role: one is the Office for Slovenes Abroad, another is the Office for Nationalities, which offers assistance to Italian and Hungarian minorities and is in charge of special rights for the Roma community living in Slovenia.

It must be explicitly mentioned that almost all ministries with different policies like public finances (national budget, rules for allocation of public money, tax regulation..), public administration (public servants regulation and payment system), local self-government (local responsibilities for culture), interior affairs (visas, register of associations and foundations...), labour (working relations, pensions,..), social affairs (social cohesion issue, public works, unemployment benefit...) have very strong implications for culture. Thus Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture (Official Gazette No. 96/2002) explicitly states that other policies with implications for culture shall take cultural aspects into account. But the article has not yet been observed. It has become more and more clear that inter-ministerial co-operation in the field of culture is required, especially on issues such as the Slovenian language, the culture industries, heritage conservation etc. There are bilateral discussions between the different ministries to identify common policies; in 2006 the main co-operation activities are undertaken between the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Education and Sport (the school year of 2006/2007 was to be a Year of Culture, see more in 8.3.1). The most important point for inter-ministerial cooperation should be that the government, as a whole, is responsible for the National Programme for Culture, but in many ways this is still an aspiration.

In 2006, when the Ministry of Culture prepared a Report on the implementation of the National Programme for Culture (2004-2007), it was noticeable that the cultural activities of other ministries are not included at all. The Programme for the next period 2008-2011 is under preparation but concerned ministries are not involved in this procedure either which entirely preserves the sectoral nature of the document.

Inter-ministerial collaboration proved its importance during the tax reform in 2006 when the Ministry of Culture tried to introduce more tax incentives for investing in culture and more favourable treatment of income from artistic work (see 5.1.5).

In some areas, there is an established practise to involve the Ministry of Culture in the process of the preparation of sectorial strategic documents that have a cultural dimension too; for example, the Programme for Children and Youth 2006-2016, Resolution of the National Development Projects 2007-2023 and theDevelopment Plan and Policies for Slovenian Tourism 2007 - 2011.

In the last few years, some general mechanisms have also been introduced to facilitate co-operation among the different ministries in order to develop a more holistic approach to policy making. For example, the Single Programming Document as part of the State Development Programme 2007-2013 reveals the need for the incorporation of culture in different structural funds, mainly the regional development fund and social fund. 

Another example of inter-ministerial cooperation is the so called "targeted research programme". This a special instrument of the Ministry of Higher Education and Science, in co-operation with other ministries, which is intended to provide expert support to the ministries' strategic activities related to the implementation of Slovenia's Development Strategy 2006-2013. To this aim, the Ministry of Culture plans to commission cultural policy studies, in 2006 (budget of 54 000 euros), with the possibility of receiving an additional sum of 45% to 60% of this amount from the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology.

Slovenia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.1 Overview of main structures and trends

The main factor that influenced international cooperation in recent years is the accession to the EU, which changed the focus of international co-operation in Slovenia. As a result, the countries of the EU became the target when planning Slovenian cultural activities abroad, particularly the country holding the Presidency of the Council of Ministers of the EU. Special attention is devoted to the preparation of the Slovenian Presidency of the Council of Ministers of the EU in 2008, which comprises closer co-operation with Germany and Portugal.

One of the general aims of the National Programme for Culture 2004-2007 is to intensify the presence of Slovenian culture abroad and its enrichment with the achievements of worldwide cultures. In this context, three specific objectives are mentioned:

International cultural co-operation is fostered via:

Co-operation is fostered mainly in the fields of visual art, music, theatre, inter-media, libraries and publishing, in the film industry, amateur cultural activities, and cultural activities of different minorities, cultural heritage and archives.

Slovenia co-operates on a bilateral level (mainly with European countries), on multilateral level (e.g. Middle European Initiative), participates in the activities of different networks (e.g. IETM, Junge Hunde) and the overall EU programs (e.g. Culture 2007, Media 2007, Minerva Plus) and those within structural funds (especially the European Fund for Regional Development). Moreover, Slovenia also takes part in the programs of the Council of Europe (e.g. Mosaic, Eurimages, Audio-visual Observatory, Europe- a common Heritage, European Heritage Network).

The main political document in this field is the National Programme for Culture 2004-2007 and the Programme of cultural promotion, before and during, the period of Slovenian Presidency of the EU.

Slovenia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.2 Public actors and cultural diplomacy

In 2005, the Sector for Promotion and International Co-operation was reorganised within the Ministry of Culture in Slovenia, with the aim to reinforce the engagement of this ministry in the area of general promotion of the Slovenian state and its culture abroad. At the multilateral and bilateral level, the International Cultural Relations Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs covers the most important policy priorities in this field. In line with the manifesto of the Slovenian government and in cooperation with the relevant ministries, the division's role in bilateral relations includes taking charge of drafting agreements and signing up to international umbrella agreements on culture, education and science and the related inter-governmental protocols and implementing programmes.

The Republic of Slovenia does not have cultural institutes or agencies, such as the British Council, the Institut Francais, the Instituto di Cultura Italiana and the Goethe Institute; which are all active in Slovenia. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs covers cultural relations with other countries and plays a major role in defining and coordinating Slovenia's foreign cultural policy. The idea of professional promotional activities abroad, in order to expand the cultural hinterland to the wider European arena, is an issue already in existence for years, but its form is still under discussion. For some decades it has been possible to send fine artists to international studios in Paris, and more recently the Ministry of Culture has acquired a studio in New York and a flat for artists in Berlin. Freelance artists can apply for a residency at these locations on an annual basis. The gallery space A+A was established in Madrid in the 1990s and ten years later transferred to Venice, where it functions as a site for the Venice Biennale as well as an exhibition space available for international projects.

The Ministry of Culture has annual or biennial calls for international presentations of art, to be presented at fairs and festivals. It also supports international events in Slovenia such as the Biennial of Graphic Arts, BIO, the Biennial of Industrial Design, the Forma Viva Open Air Sculpture Collection in Maribor, and the European Triennial of Slovene Small Sculpture. International platforms in the field of contemporary dance and theatre are also supported. Since 2003, the mobility of artists is supported through working stipends, competitions and awards, and residency schemes which are announced annually.

There are 47 international umbrella agreements on culture, education and science, currently signed by the Republic of Slovenia. The international umbrella agreements are generally enabling bilateral contacts in the field of scholarship exchanges, exchanges in the field of art and culture and introducing individuals to the languages and civilisations of other states. According to the new strategy, the umbrella agreements will be signed with countries with different political systems, such as Russia, China and other non European countries. The agreements will probably no longer be signed with EU member states; although neighbouring states are an exception.

In 2006, The Department for International Cultural Relations, of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, had a budget of approximately 230 000 euros in order to promote Slovenian culture abroad. The Ministry of Culture devotes an additional figure of double this amount, but this funding is limited only to those activities which cover cultural activities that are channelled by the ministry for promoting Slovenian culture abroad. International cultural cooperation by cultural organisations is considered a part of their regular activities and thus included in their regular public funding. This division makes it difficult to determine a total figure for expenditure in this field in Slovenia.

Slovenia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.3 European / international actors and programmes

Slovenia takes an active part in international organisations (UNESCO, Council of Europe, and EU) and is also closely involved in multilateral and regional associations and initiatives, such as the Central European Initiative, the Quadrilateral (Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary), the Adriatic-Ionian Initiative, the Central European Cultural Platform, the Alps-Adriatic Working Group, etc. Slovenia joined both the Anna Lindh Foundation and ASEF (Asian Europe Foundation) in May 2004, and has been successfully included in their activities. The Republic of Slovenia is cooperating in organisations and forums which include central European states (Slovenia, Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and Slovakia). The goals of the partnership are to distribute information and raise awareness of the cultural life in the participating Central European countries, the European Union and beyond, to exemplify the creative power and strength of expression of artists and to highlight the common cultural identity of Central Europe, within the context of European integration.

The Republic of Slovenia also cooperates within the Forum for Slavic Cultures. The goal of the Forum is to promote the development of cultural cooperation among all countries whose populations speak Slavic languages. The Forum can contribute to better understanding of the cultures of participating countries, through the exchange of information and knowledge and the direct dissemination of both these issues to the public, especially in the domains of language, literature, culture and art, education and communications. One of the most important plans is the publication of 100 Slavic novels. The Forum for Slavic Cultures could also facilitate the implementation of bilateral cultural agreements and programmes concluded between the participating countries.

The Ministry of Culture is responsible for implementing and monitoring the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. The importance of discussions carried out at UNESCO, with a view to adopting an international convention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions, was also stressed within ASEM / ASEF dialogue.

Slovenia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.4 Direct professional co-operation

The most intensive Slovenian actor in the international performing arts scene at the transnational level is Bunker, which has been active internationally since its formation in 1997. One of the biggest projects of this NGO is the annual Mladi Levi Festival that brings up to 15 foreign artists or groups to Slovenia, ranging from emerging young artists to already well established ones. The festival budget for 2006 is made up of one third support from Slovene public funds, one third from international sources (British Council, AFAA, Open Society Institute, Institut Ramon Llull, Pro Helvetia, European Cultural Foundation...) and one third from sponsors, donors and volunteers.

Slovene artists also tour all over the world (at least 10 to 20 guest performances every year). In the past year, the budget for touring has been reduced considerably. 10 years ago it was much easier to obtain travel funds from the Ministry of Culture.

Bunker is involved in the following international networks:

Networks are never a direct source of financing, but they offer a good base for establishing relationships with future partners. An example of this type of development originated from the D.B.M. network, when five partners decided to develop a project "Sites of Imagination", in the Mediterranean region. The project was granted funds from the EU Culture 2000 programme and will take place from May to October 2007. The partners are L´Animal a L´Esquena, L´Officina, Al Kantara, Carovana and Bunker.

For five years, the Junge Hunde network was a recipient of Culture 2000 funds that enabled all the members of the network to invest in emerging artists, organising accommodation, residencies, and educational training all across Europe.

An example of a successful international co-production is the latest performance of the group Betontanc. Bunker and the New Theatre Institute of Latvia co-produced the performance Show Your Face! created and performed by the Slovene theatre Betontanc and the Latvian theatre group, Each of the partners (Bunker and New Theatre Institute of Latvia) invested one third of the budget and the last third was invested by the Theorem network which is also funded by Culture 2000. The total budget was approximately 75 000 euros.

The Theorem network is a platform for a partnership dedicated to the fostering of collaborations in the performing arts on a European level, with a special focus on the co-operation and exchange between the "old", "new" and bordering EU countries. The main focus of the members' activity is European scale collaboration including: co-production and circulation of new theatre and dance works, exchange of information, common trips to European festivals, etc. The production Show your face! met the criteria and therefore was awarded the grant.

For the last three years, Slovenia is investing a lot of financial and human resources in the Balkan Express Network, which aims to encourage collaboration within the Balkan region. It is supported by the European Cultural Foundation.

Slovenia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.5 Cross-border intercultural dialogue and co-operation

Historic and geographical links put Balkans in the center of this topic while cross-boarder co-operation in general could be understood as an approach to the realisation of the Common Slovene Cultural Area where collaboration with Slovenes in neighbouring countries represents the main vehicle in building cross-border tights.

In the last years following activities concerning the participation in ICD related international or EU programmes can be identified:

There is no comprehensive strategy but only support for different individual national initiatives for ICD policies such as:

See 4.2.3.

For more information, see our Intercultural Dialogue section

Slovenia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.6 Other relevant issues

An important programme in the field of "culture in development" is the foundation "SKUPAJ", which is designed for children with psycho-social difficulties. The programme is divided into groups and its main goals are: helping children to overcome traumas, creating a healthy environment for children to learn, helping children to start building new lives and to regain trust in adults. The International Cultural Relations Division of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently implementing a pilot project in Kosovo, within the context of the OSCE. The project is introducing therapeutic elements through music and art classes. All of this work is combined with teaching children about their rights.

In 2006, the Government Office for Slovenes Abroad took over all responsibilities for supporting of cultural activities of the Slovenian Diaspora from the Ministry of Culture. Before this change in 2005, approximately one million euros was spent on cultural support for the diaspora. The largest sums went to their umbrella organisations and professional institutes such as publishing houses, theatres, and research institutes. The Office carries out projects related to the Slovenian minority in neighbouring countries (Italy, Austria, Croatia and Hungary) and Slovenian emigrants around the world (Argentina, Canada, Australia, Germany, Sweden...). The Office maintains contact with the Slovenian minority and emigrant organisations, promoting their cultural, educational, economic and other links with Slovenia and providing assistance with respect to their legal status. Financial support for programmes and projects involving Slovenes abroad, and for cooperation with them, is provided through public calls for tenders. The Office also co-finances tuition fees for Slovenian language courses in Slovenia, covers travelling expenses for participants from the Diaspora country, co-organises seminars for teachers and cultural animators of the Diaspora, supports activities for the preservation of archival materials of Slovenian associations and organisations abroad and confers acknowledgements to meritorious associations and individuals from the Diaspora. The Office is also responsible for monitoring and coordinating the activities of the ministries that are responsible for cooperation with Slovenes outside the Republic.

There are many important international cultural events in different fields which makes selection for support very problematic. Some of them are:

Slovene presidency of the EU

In the preparation for its Presidency of the EU (first half of 2008), Slovenia has announced cultural dialogue as one of the planned priority issues. Activities related to this priority are the opening of the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue (organised by the EU and Slovenia in Ljubljana), an Informal meeting of European common cultural points (with the main topic on intercultural dialogue between the SE Europe and the EU) and an international conference on "Europe, world and humanity in the 21st century" (dealing with questions on what Europe has to offer as its message in terms of its own humanistic tradition, in respect to the understanding of the basic problems of the globalising world and what can globalisation, which we do not yet fully understand, tell Europe).

Besides cultural dialogue, the Ministry of Culture has undertaken the following important topics:

Other planned sub-ministerial meetings for the first half of 2008 are: an international conference on "Cultural Heritage and Tourism" (discussing cultural heritage as a high quality sustainable tourist product and an important generator of economic advancement of the local population), an international conference on "Digital Cultural Contents" ( focusing on concerned strategies of the EU member states, as well as inter-operability of digital cultural contents recorded on media with museums, libraries, galleries, art and music, with emphasis on the e-cultural contents and potential new dossiers in the field of media), DLM (Document Lifecycle Management) Forum Meeting and Meeting of the European Board of National Archivists (EBNA) of the EU member states and the candidate countries (regular annual meeting with topic: improving the management of archived material and development of archiving services in the EU, with emphasis on the development of a recommended specification for the management and storage of electronic archives).

Slovenia/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.1 Main elements of the current cultural policy model

The democratisation of culture in Slovenia had already started in the 1980s. Therefore, the Slovenian cultural policy developed at an incremental pace during the process of transition in the 1990s. After the abolition of the self-management system, there was no explicit cultural policy in Slovenia with explicit objectives and / or priorities until the adoption of a new National Programme for Culture 2004-2007. But even afterwards no structural changes have happened.

According to both basic documents, the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act (2002) and the National Programme for Culture 2004-2007, the main elements of the current cultural policy model are:

The main elements of the allocation of state funds are:

Slovenia/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.2 National definition of culture

According to the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002 cultural activities are defined as all forms of creation, communication and conservation of cultural assets in the field of cultural heritage, literature, performing arts, music, visual arts, film, audio-visual arts and other arts as well as in the field of the new media and in the field of publishing, libraries, cinematography and in other fields of culture. In this practically unlimited framework, it is the task of The National Program for Culture to formulate the public interest and therefore define the scope of cultural policy.

Slovenia/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.3 Cultural policy objectives

The general objectives of Slovene cultural policy are determined by the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002. They are: supporting cultural creativity, access to culture, active participation in cultural life, cultural diversity, cultural heritage conservation and development of Slovene cultural identity together with the development of so called Common Slovenian Cultural Space, which includes Slovenian minorities living in neighbouring countries: Italy, Austria, Hungary and Croatia. According to this Law, further policy elaboration is left to the National Programme for Culture, defined as a strategic document for the permanent and integral development of Slovenian culture. The first one was adopted for the period 2004-2007 and underlined the following priorities: to preserve and develop the Slovenian language; to promote cultural diversity; to ensure access to cultural goods and services; to introduce direct support for artists; to encourage and promote cultural education in schools; to educate young people for cultural professions; to encourage the culture industries and major investments from business to culture; to implement information technology in the field of culture; to modernise the public cultural sector in order to achieve better efficiency, openness and autonomy; and to include NGOs in cultural services provision. Special attention is paid to restoration, actualisation and awareness of cultural heritage. This middle-term programme was developed and finally accepted in the last year of the mandate of the previous government and its minister of culture (2004).

At the end of October 2007, the government issued a draft of the next National Programme for Culture for the period 2008-2011, which has yet to be adopted by Parliament. The priorities are to support artistic creativity, development of the Slovene language, preservation and actualisation of cultural heritage, digitalisation, cultural education, cooperation among ministries to realise projects funded from the EU Structural Funds, new capital investments and integration of culture in the social and economic development of Slovenia. For information on the public debates surrounding this programme, see 4.3.

Culture, as a value in itself, is expected to have multiple effects on the economy and on social cohesion. In former times, culture was subject to political factors; nowadays it is subject to economic issues. The task of cultural policy is to balance the constitutive and the instrumental role of culture in society.

Finding equilibrium between contemporary creation and cultural heritage preservation is becoming an ever more sensitive question, since traditional values are attaining a stronger position in the patriotic development of the young Slovenian state under the right wing coalition.

Slovenia/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.1 Main cultural policy issues and priorities

Although culture on a declaratory level still enjoys some special attention, the new social climate means that it is pushed to the margins of political agenda-setting.

However, the new minister has not proposed any changes of National Programme for Culture 2004-2007 during the three years of his mandate in spite of the fact that this programme was adopted in the last year of the mandate of previous minister and that he has legal basis to do that legitimately. The National Programme for Culture document is very broad and indefinite, which allows almost unlimited discretion in action. He has put the focus of his policy on media legislation and raising funds for media pluralism. In this context, amendments were made to the Mass Media Act (Official Gazette No. 35/2001, 62/2003, 113/2003, 123/2004 and 60/2006) and a new Radiotelevizija (RTV) Slovenia Act (Official Gazette No.96/2005) was adopted.).

The Ministry outlined the positive consequences of the Media Act as follows:

Funding for the media increased from 1.87% of the national budget for culture in 2004 to 3.59% in 2005 and 3.12% in 2006.

The Ministry also outlined the positive consequences of the RTV Act as follows:

At the end of October 2007, on the 3rd anniversary of the Government, the Ministry of Culture presented the following activities in the area of culture:

Slovenia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.1 Cultural minorities, groups and communities

The Slovenian Constitution recognises three minorities: Hungarian (6 243-0.32%), Italian (2 258-0.11%), and Roma (3 246-0.17%). There are also "new minorities" - namely groups from former Yugoslavia - which do not have the status of official minority, but enjoy their cultural rights as citizens: Croats (35 632-1.81%), Serbs (38 964-1.98%), Bosnians (21 542-1.10%), Macedonians (3 972-0.20%), Albanians (6 186-0.13%) and Montenegrins (2 667-0.14%), who migrated when the war broke out in the ex-Yugoslavia or were already established in Slovenia when the country declared its independence in 1991. This data on the "new minorities" was taken from the 2001 census. More factual estimates indicate that they actually represent an even larger percentage, from 7% to 9% of the whole population. The legal basis for their rights is Article 61 of the Constitution, which states that each person shall be entitled to freely identify with his / her national grouping or ethnic community, to foster and give expression to his / her culture and to use his / her own language and scripts. The legal basis for the policy is also found in the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002 (Article 65), which defines that the state can finance programmes intended for the "cultural integration of minorities and immigrants" and "the needs of blind, deaf and other groups of population with special needs". In 2007 the German speaking community received its recognition on the basis of bilateral agreement on Culture, Education and Science between Slovenia and Austria. Traditional autochthonous minorities, Hungarians and Italians enjoy collective rights (bilingual education and administration, parliamentary representation, etc.), laid out in Article 64 of the Constitution. The Roma minority is catered for by a separate Article, which indicates that the "status and special rights of the Romany community living in Slovenia shall be regulated by law" (Constitution of Slovenia, Article 65). In 2007 this law has been finally adopted. The Roma Community Act (2007) defines the scope of special rights of the Roma Community, the jurisdiction of state authorities and the local community authorities in exercising those rights, and the organisation of the Roma community in order to implement their rights and obligations as set out by the Act. Self-Governing Ethnic Communities Act defining the special rights of Italian and Hungarian minorities was adopted in 1994 already Romany communities have their own town councillors in the municipalities where they live (19 of 210 municipalities).

In 2005, a special working group on the transversal issue of cultural rights, with members from different ministerial units, was established. Its main task is to discuss individual questions from the field, to give advice to the heads of units and to monitor the implementation of international conventions dealing with cultural rights.

In 2006, the cultural programmes of minorities were identified as a sub-programme in the national budget for culture, which is divided into for separate areas: Cultural activities of the official minorities; Cultural activities of the Roma population; Cultural activities of other ethnic minorities (i.e. "new minorities"); and a Programme for blind and deaf people.

This transparency shows, very clearly, that from a total budget of 100 000 euros in 2006, official minorities, together with the Roma population, received around 80% of the budget, while other minority groups receive 20%. Official minorities are entitled to structural funding (for their institutions and regular activities), while all others compete for project money via public tenders.

On the other hand, the Ministry of Culture is the most active of all ministries in attempting to form a special model on the protection of cultural rights of all minorities, which is a result of combining theoretical and practical experiences originating from particular issues and their needs. The model is a result of the recognition that an active intervention on the part of the government in complex social situations is necessary in order to facilitate positive intercultural and interethnic relationships. The model also includes constant evaluation and improvements to achieve actual, and not only formal, equity for participation in cultural life. The problem of money for "new minorities" remains outstanding. This is especially the case since the lack of policies for "new minorities" in the other fields raises the feeling that cultural policy measures are suppose to compensate them.

Besides the Ministry of Culture, additional project funding is provided through the national Public Fund for Cultural Activities. In the year 2006, ca 27 000 euros was allocated for the:

Table 1:     Print media for minority groups in Slovenia, 2003


Minority group

Name of owner or controlling organisation

Founding year


La Voce del Popolo


Union of Italians


4 000 in Croatia and Slovenia



Institute for Information


1 800

Romano Them


Union of Roma





Association of Serbs of Slovenia





Bosnian Cultural Association of Slovenia


2 000

Source:      Tania Gosselin: Minority Media in Hungary and Slovenia, Peace Institute, Ljubljana 2003

Table 2:     Broadcasting for minority groups in Slovenia, 2006


Minority group

Name of owner or controlling organisation

Founding year


Italian Television Koper


RTV Slovenia


9.5 hours / day

Radio Capodistria


RTV Slovenia


24 hours / day

Hungarian Lendava Studio Programme


RTV Slovenia


30 minutes / 4 times per week

Muravideki Magyar Radio


RTV Slovenia


13 hour and 15 minutes / day

Studio D

(Novo mesto)


Private company Krater


30 minutes per week-

Romskih 60 on Radio Murski Val


Private company Podjetje za informiranje


60 minutes per week

Source:      RTV and private broadcasters.

By the end of 2007, Roma people will get their own transmission on public broadcasting station - channel SLO1.

Citizenship participation is guaranteed on the highest political level for both official minorities - each has its representative in the Parliament, with the same responsibilities as other deputies. In accordance with Self-Governing Ethnic Communities, Article 3 (Official Gazette RS, No. 65/94), the minorities' representatives:

See also 4.2.3.

Slovenia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.2 Language issues and policies

The official language in Slovenia is Slovene. In those municipalities where Italian or Hungarian national communities reside, Italian and Hungarian are also official languages. Programmes planned for minorities (see 4.2.1) also contain support to projects linked to the development of their languages. Public television has special programs intended for all officially recognised minorities. In Slovenia the problem of language pluralism is not publicly exposed. However, Slovene is a language spoken by only 2 million people and it needs to be preserved and developed, therefore special care and language policy is undertaken.

The legislative procedure to adopt Public Use of the Slovene Language Act in 2004, which gives a legal basis for linguistic policy, showed that in different societal sub-systems (economy, education and science) the protection of Slovene is considered as a barrier for development. The current status of Slovene as the language of communication in scientific research and academic instruction at Slovenian universities reflects the global problem of the relationship between national languages and English in science and academia.

The range of normative measures is therefore restricted and the weight of linguistic policy will have to stand on positive measures, which are linked to financing different linguistic programmes, projects and structures dealing with language.

The Ministry of Culture has a special department for the Slovenian language with numerous concrete tasks:

In 2007, the National Programme for Language Policy was adopted as the main instrument predicted by Public Use of the Slovene Language Act (see also 4.1) at the occasion of the European Day of Languages on the 26 September. The Ministry of Culture presented a booklet on Slovenian as a European language, which was prepared in co-operation with the European Parliament, the Information Office for Slovenia, the Representative Office of the European Commission in the Republic of Slovenia and the Government Office for European Affairs. The core of the booklet is based on the history and present-day dimensions of the Slovenian language, its many dialects and development of the written language, its official status and the use of modern social and technological processes and of course its grammatical features. The initiative for the publication came from the Ministry of Culture's Sector for the Slovenian Language, as informing the Slovene and foreign publics about the Slovenian language, the language status of Slovenia and the language policy and culture is one of the primary goals of the Resolution on the National Programme for Language Policy.

Slovenia/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.3 Intercultural dialogue: actors, strategies, programmes

Slovenia adopted special policy on this issue due to European Year of Intercultural Dialogue in 2008. This doesn't mean that a process of encouraging an open and complex cultural environment for creativity hasn't been already an integral part of Slovene orientations in various fields, such as culture, upbringing and education, foreign and internal policies. This aspect is included in various laws and regulations, and similarly various campaigns on the level of ministry policies and on the level of implementation of national and EU legislation, in both its binding and non-binding aspects. But these policies got the label of intercultural dialogue only when National Strategy for Implementing European Year of Intercultural Dialogue was adopted.

The following ministries and national bodies are involved in inter-ministerial cooperation concerning the implementation of the strategy: Ministry of Culture as coordinating body, Ministry of Education and Sport, Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Internal Affairs, Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs, Office of the RS for European Affairs and the Government Public Relations and Media Office.

National strategy for implementing European year of intercultural dialogue adopted in 2007 defines the following aims of common and individual ministerial policies in terms of intercultural dialogue:

The following examples focus on intercultural dialogue as something beyond collective rights of minorities, Italian and Hungarian and Roma population:


The cultural programmes for "new minorities" are based on The Resolution of the National Programme for Culture 2004 -2007 adopted by National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia in 2004, the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002 and the Act of Establishing the Republic of Slovenia Public Fund for Cultural Activities (Official Gazette No. 1/1996 and 22/2000).

There are two fields of cultural activities, in particular, where intercultural dialogue comes to the fore:

There are three main public actors responsible for implementing the programmes to promote intercultural dialogue: the Ministry of Culture and the Office for Nationalities, which provide most of the financial support and the Republic of Slovenia Public Fund for Cultural Activities, which organises cultural events and educational activities for minorities on the national, regional and local level (see also 4.2.1). The Public Fund is also a cultural network which enables multidirectional interactions between cultural societies of majority and minority cultural groups or societies and local communities, through 58 offices. In this way, the Public Fund is also the link between governmental administration, local communities and cultural societies or institutions from various ethnic groups as the main players on intercultural dialogue.

On the "civil" side, there are approximately 55 active societies and associations of "new minority" groups and about 60 from "constitutional minorities". With the support of local governments or the office of the Public Fund, these associations have two major priorities:

Beside these activities, there are also some civil society organisations, such as the Peace Institute, which organise round tables, seminars, workshops, panel discussions, and which supports scientific research in this field.


Since 2000 active citizenship education and civic culture have been included in primary education.

The topic of intercultural dialogue is included in different subjects such as Slovenian language, social sciences, geography, history, and foreign languages. On the level of optional subjects the topics that deal with interculturality and tolerance are included in the syllabi of the subjects such as Philosophy for children, Religion and ethics and Civic education.

The Elementary School Act (1996) provides legal basis for:

For the implementation of this strategic document annual national action plans will be provided.


The Office for Youth, a body within the Ministry of Education and Sport, monitors the situation of the young people and implements the measures in the field of non-formal education, leisure time and participation of young people in society. There is a space for intercultural dialogue aspect in its programme to promote social integration, personal growth and autonomy by establishing a network of information centres throughout Slovenia. Through co-financing numerous organisations that work with the young or deal with youth questions, the office can bring more attention to intercultural dialogue issues. 

For more information, see:
Database of Good Practice on Intercultural Dialogue and our Intercultural Dialogue section.

For more information on the government's National Strategy for the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue please see:

Slovenia/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.4 Social cohesion and cultural policies

Slovenia signed the Jim-Joint Inclusion Memorandum of the European Commission programme on social inclusion in 2002. In 2004, the National Action Plan on Social Inclusion (2004-2006) was adopted. It falls primarily under the competence of the Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs. The first annual report on the implementation of the Plan was delivered in 2005 and shows that activities described in 4.2.1 and 4.2.3 are considered as a vehicle for social inclusion. They are looked at from another aspect and selectively. From this point of view, the most important role in this field is played by approximately 4 000 cultural societies and associations. It is reported that 19 000 euros was spent on them by the Republic of Slovenia Public Fund for Cultural Activities. Activities include: educational programmes for the elderly and youth, special meetings and festivals of performing groups, choruses, folklore dancing, creative writing, fine arts for the elderly, contemporary dance, chorus singing, theatre and puppets, and film and video for the young people. These programmes are carried out on the local level, where they are supported by local communities and also on the national level, with joint financing from the Ministry of Culture. In 2004, the Fund harmonised its programming with the school calendar for the first time and provided additional money for equipment for the youth cultural centres located throughout Slovenia. There are 40 of these centres which were included in different projects The Association of Families organises every year on the International Day of Families free admission to galleries, museums and theatres. In 2005, special funds were allocated for blind and deaf people (100 000 euros) for publishing in Braille scripture (25 000 euros) and for other technical infrastructure (40 000 euros).

The Third Age University of Slovenia is a voluntary educational movement, aimed at those over the age of 50, mostly retired people, but also for older workers who are unemployed. It has been established to provide access to culture and education for the elderly and to contribute to their changing social and economic position. The Third Age University encompasses, at present, 35 universities all over the country. Each Slovenian university organises study circles, lectures, and some of them also have summer universities, educational camps, study trips, etc.

The Third Age University has both educational and social goals. It has recently introduced two new fields of research and activity pertaining to all adults, regardless of their age, namely dyslexia in adults and burn-out as a result of non-reciprocal relationships at work or in private life. Objectives are:

Slovenia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.5 Media pluralism and content diversity

The organisation and ownership structure of the media sector

The information presented below is based mainly on the report: Television Across Europe - Slovenia, prepared by dr. Marko Milosavljevič, Open Society Institute, Budapest 2005.

In the past few years media pluralism has been one of the most political issues of all government activities in Slovenia. In 2002, a category for media was introduced in the national budget for the first time (0.53%), in 2005 this percentage was raised to 3.59%. See also 4.3.

In Slovenia, five terrestrial television channels (all broadcasting in Slovene) can be viewed by more than 75 per cent of the population: SLO1, SLO2, Pop TV, Kanal A and Prva TV. Other television channels cover local and regional areas. Twenty channels are transmitted only through cable systems. Foreign channels are available through cable and satellite; some, such as National Geographic, Discovery, Hallmark and HBO, broadcast their programmes with Slovenian subtitles, as local affiliates of the trans-national channels.

The public broadcaster, RTV Slovenia, includes Television Slovenia, Televizija Slovenija and Radio Slovenia, Radio Slovenija. There are four public service television channels: SLO1 and SLO2 are national channels, and Television Koper / Capodistria and Television Maribor (Tele M) are regional channels. In 2007, a Parliamentarian programme started transmission by satellite and cable, with plans to be transformed into SLO 3 in 2008. There are 35 commercial television channels, owned by 31 television stations (data valid for the year 2004).

Table 3:     National television channels, 2006




(per cent)

Output (hours / week)


Revenue source




T, C, S




L-F / Adv.



T, C



Sports, Series, Documentaries

L-F / Adv.


Pop TV


T, C



Series, Movies, News


Kanal A


T, C



Series, Movies


TV 3


T, C



Series, Documentaries


Source:      Broadcasting Council

Abbreviations:     Adv. = Advertising, L-F = Licence fee and other state supports, C = Cable, S = Satellite, T = Terrestrial., Tech. pen. = Technical penetration.

The public service broadcaster, Radio Slovenia, has eight channels. These are: Radio Slovenia 1, 2 and 3, Radio Koper, Radio Maribor, Radio Capodistria (for the Italian-speaking minority), Pomursko-Hungarian Radio (for the Hungarian-speaking minority) and Radio Slovenia International. There are 73 other radio channels of special importance. The second channel of TV Slovenia, SLO2, provides complementary programming. SLO2 is event-oriented, broadcasting mostly sports, documentaries, and arts. SLO1 lays great stress upon its informative role and reaches virtually all of Slovenia's television households, while SLO2 reaches 97 per cent of these households.

Below is an overview of the quotas imposed on television and radio channels of special importance:

Channels (local, regional or student) defined as having special importance for their communities must provide local and regional content (news, current affairs and culture), or content dedicated to students.

Anti trust measures to prevent media concentration


Potential investors have to receive permission from the Ministry of Culture if they intend to acquire 20 per cent or more of the proprietary shares or the voting rights in newspaper, television or radio companies. The Mass Media Act (2005 latest amendment) which was adopted in 2001 has been supplemented in 2005 in a way to be more precise and demanding regarding the provisions about ownership control and quotas. It foresees that the Ministry must consult the Agency for Post and Electronic Communication, the Securities Market Agency, the Competition Protection Office and Broadcasting Council, before ruling on such requests.

The Mass Media Act provides for some market transparency: by the end of February each year, broadcasters must publish their basic ownership data in the Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia. For every owner in possession of more than 5 per cent of the broadcaster's proprietary shares or voting rights, they must disclose the name and surname of the individual, or the name and location of the company. The names of the managers must also be disclosed. The Ministry of Culture enters this ownership data into the Media Register, which is publicly accessible.

Cross-media ownership

In accordance with the Mass Media Act, owners can be involved in either radio or television broadcasting, but not in both. The owner of a radio or television channel can control up to 20 per cent of the shares or voting rights at a daily newspaper and vice versa. There are no limits regarding cross-media ownership of magazines, radio or television channels. Advertising agencies cannot own or control more than 20 per cent of the shares or voting rights of a radio or television channel. Telecommunications companies cannot own a radio or television channel.

The share of domestic vs. imported media programmes

Public TV

The EU "Television without Frontiers" Directive is, to a certain extent, mirrored in Article 92 of the Mass Media Act, which lists the following requirements for RTV Slovenia:

Table 4:     The structure of TV Slovenia's broadcasts, 2006


Hours aired

% of total

Total (excluding advertising, television sales and trailers)

11 735


Type of production

In-house and commissioned production - first run

3 512


Other production - first run

3 016



5 207


Source of works

Original Slovenian works

7 257


US works



European works

3 368





Source:      RTV Slovenia.

Private TV

The Mass Media Act only stipulates that 20 per cent of the commercial stations' daily broadcast time must be produced in-house or on the behalf of the broadcaster. In-house works, of at least 60 minutes' duration altogether, must be shown between 18h00 and 22h00 hours each night. Two per cent of the stations' annual broadcast time must consist of films of Slovenian origin or other works from the field of literature, science and art.

Quotas of Slovenian music

The prescribed share of Slovenian music to be broadcast daily by radio or television programmes is 20%. This percentage is 40% in the case of national radio and television programmes and 25% for radio and television channels of special importance.

The main debates in the context of EU competition policies

The idea of prohibiting (mostly or totally) advertising in public service broadcasting, so that commercial stations would have the advertising market to themselves, is constantly vivid, especially in the times of changing media legislation However, as the number of homes with televisions in Slovenia is small - only 600 000 (out of a population of 2 million) - compared to more than three million in Austria or 3.8 million in the Czech Republic - it seems unrealistic to expect that public service broadcasting could finance itself only from license fees.

Type of support provided by the government for the production and distribution of local content

Television and radio channels "of special importance", in accordance with the Mass Media Act, receive, inter alia: preferential treatment when applying for broadcasting frequencies; lower prices for copyright; and free distribution by cable operators, where possible. They can also receive funds from the state budget, particularly the Ministry of Culture, for specific projects, such as arts, news, documentaries and so forth.

Arts and culture programmes

There are regular programme series with cultural or artistic content (as a part of a central information programme or in the form of magazines, documentaries etc) broadcast from SLO 1 - Public TV. The share of these programmes, in total broadcasting, is approximately 5% (the figure is not precise because of different methodologies and definitions of such programmes).

Specific training programmes

There are many specific training programmes for journalists concerning intercultural dialogue and diversity of views, organised mostly by the Peace Institute and the Slovene Association of Journalists. Recently, the Peace Institute organised a series of seminars in cooperation with the British Embassy in Ljubljana, on themes such as multicultural societies and the media, the position of the Roma people in the Media, as well as the media and social / ethnic minorities.

Slovenia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.6 Culture industries: policies and programmes

There is no specific definition of the cultural industries in Slovenia. The presentation of the scope of the cultural industries in Slovenia follows the Business Register of Slovenia and its categorisation of business activities. Table 5 contains estimated data on the size of the cultural industries in Slovenia.

Table 5:     Estimates on the size of the cultural industries in Slovenia, 2005

Sort of cultural activities


of units

Number of





Publishing of books


 1 149

 9 441 666

 5 454 583

 5 191 666

Publishing of newspapers




1 551


153 258 333


5 610 833


6 466 666

Publishing of periodicals



 53 287 500

 6 987 500

 1 341 666

Publishing of phonograms






11 287 500


4 704 166


456 250

Other publishing



 13 641 666

 3 733 333

 1 179 166

Film and video production






65 366 666


37 241 666


11 795 833

Film and video distribution






2 850


-5 604 166


462 500




 15 912 500

 16 016 666

 -2 841 666



 3 041

 34 704 166

 8 720 833

 1 287 500

Press agencies



 3 120 833

 395 833

 77 083

Fairgrounds / entertainment






4 258 333


10 706 416


202 083

Other entertainment activities






4 191 666


1 337 500


139 583

Zoos and botanic gardens






579 166




2 083


1 813

8 303

466 875 000

194 960 416

13 964 583

Source:      Analysis of the of the impact of the potential introduction of a flat tax rate in Slovenia, Aleš Vahčič, Faculty of Economics, Ljubljana, 2005, commissioned by the Ministry of Culture

Audiovisual culture

The Slovenian state allocation for audiovisual culture, in 2005, was 5.13 million euros or 3.5% of the national budget for culture. There are around 50 producers and three film studios in Slovenia. In 2005, four features and one co-production were funded with public money (Slovenian Film Fund). As a member of the EU, Slovenia participates in the community programme for the development of the audiovisual sector, "Media Plus". Furthermore, Slovenia is a member of the Council of Europe Film Fund for European co-production Eurimages. The Slovenian Film Fund also participates in a film network, "Central East European Cinema Network". The purpose of both memberships, Eurimages and CEE Cinema Network, is to encourage the development of the Slovenian audiovisual sector. To achieve this goal a public tender for distribution and exhibition of European and art cinematographic work and a public tender for audiovisual production play an important role. Both public tenders are administered within the Ministry of Culture. The first public tender has a base in the Law on Funding of the Special Programmes in the Field of Culture while the second is based on the Mass Media Law (see 4.2.5).

Publishing of music

The Ministry of Culture promotes the enrichment of musical archives through new publications and audio recordings of top Slovene composers and performers on CD, video-cassette and on DVD. This makes Slovene music more accessible to listeners at home and abroad and creates a musical heritage for the next generation. The Ministry's subsidies support publications which reveal both the tradition (yearly co-operation with the Slovene Academy of Sciences and Arts in the publication of at least two expert transcriptions of old Slovene musical masters, together with comments and performing instructions) and the contemporary (publication of at least 40 scores a year in co-operation with the Society of Slovene Composers and private publishers).

The Ministry's most frequent contractual partner regarding the publishing of non-commercial CDs is the Založba kaset in plošč RTV Slovenija (publisher associated with the Slovene national radio and television), whereby approximately 15 CDs are produced annually. The Ministry works to a lesser extent with private publishers. The main criteria for the Ministry to grant subsidies in the area of musical publishing are top quality, notable success and appearance on non-commercial radio and television stations or on international concert stages, Slovenian origins and first publication of archive music scores.  Special attention is paid to musical reviews and professional publications. It has also become traditional for the Ministry of Culture to subsidise portraits of individual Slovene composers on CD (5 a year). Increasingly, various societies also appear as publishers, this being their supplementary activity. In 2005, the Ministry of Culture subsidised the publication of 38 CDs, 47 scores and 2 musical journals.

In 2004, the Slovene Music-Information Centre of Slovenia was established. The centre is a basic information point for access to information on Slovenian musicians, music, musical heritage and contemporary activities. In addition to providing information, the purpose of the Centre is to promote Slovenian music to Slovenes and to an international public and to provide access to musical material. The Slovene Music-Information Centre should become an important lever for the development and usage of digital contents and possibilities that are provided by the Internet. In 2006, the Centre was accepted into the International Association of Music Information Centres (IAMIC). In 2008 Slovenia will be presented as the principal guest at the World's Music Market Midem in Cannes. The Ministry of Culture earmarked 220 000 euros for this event.

Publishing of books

The Ministry of Culture also supports activities in the book field by co-financing programmes and projects. Until 2002, the majority of state aid was devoted to the publishing of books in the fields of literature and humanist studies, non-commercial journals in the areas of art, culture and magazines for the young, and to a lesser extent also to projects in the areas of reading culture, promotional projects, literary festivals and international activities.

In 2003, the Ministry first published a call for applications for support of bookshop programmes, namely programmes in the field of reading culture, promotion of authors and promotion of bookshops. Those bookshops which can apply must offer a variety of literature from the fields of belles-lettres and humanist studies, whose trade is created mainly by the sale of books, and which implement programmes by which reading is popularised etc.

The measure received wide support among the professional public. In 2004 the Ministry has introduced a special budget item to support a bookshop network, and funds for it have been doubled (400 000 euros in 2004, 315 000 euros in 2005 and 318 000 euros in 2006).

Likewise in 2004, some new forms of support were introduced in the field of books, which are envisaged by the National Programme for Culture. One of these is the campaign "an original Slovene picture book for each newborn". Via this programme the Ministry pursued two aims: to draw attention to the importance of "family reading" and the importance of the book as an accompaniment of mankind from the cradle onwards; and to provide targeted support to contemporary creativity and the publication of original picture books.

Direct measures of the Ministry of Culture for the support of publishing are:

In 2004, 4 460 book titles were published; 335 of which received state subventions. In 2005, the Ministry allocated 4.5 million euros to publishing, or 3.10% of its budget. Another 1.14 million euros was allocated for publishing activities in other cultural fields such as museums, minorities, Diaspora, etc. In 2006, the share of publishing in state budget for culture was 3.22% while other sources represented 1.22 million euros. Particular attention, within direct measures of the Ministry of Culture, relates to one of the main general cultural policy objectives, i.e. "accessibility of cultural goods". Publishers, in other words, can sell subsidised book titles at subsidised retail prices, i.e. prices are set according to a special scheme and subsidises are taken into account in calculating the retail price. This means that subsidised books are sold at reduced prices. Another priority is support for international activities, both co-financing the translation of Slovene authors into foreign languages - translators from other countries can also apply to the Ministry's public calls for applications- as well as coordinated international promotion of Slovene literature abroad (e.g. literary festivals, book fairs).

The priority theme which has been the subject of public calls for tenders and appeals in 2004-2006 is "developing a reading culture at all age levels". The Ministry, also in cooperation with other ministries, is thus attempting to encourage a systematic and harmonised approach of all actors which encourage a reading culture and to increase the extent of their programmes.

There are also other ministries and public agencies that fund some publishing activities in their respective fields (research, education, minorities, sport, environment, European affairs...), which received more than 9 000 euros in 2005.

Concerning training and education programmes for cultural industry professionals, there is a special study programme for publishing at the Faculty of Arts, University of Ljubljana. The Association of Publishers and Booksellers of the Slovenian Chamber of Commerce and Industry has developed regular training activities with the aim to inform, educate, share experiences and discuss topics from the field. The major event in this regard is the Publishing Academy, which has taken place for the past 6 years during the annual Book Fair in Ljubljana.

Slovenia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.7 Employment policies for the cultural sector

According to the data of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia in the year 2004, there were 10 519 persons employed in the cultural sector (8 114 were employed in the public or private sector and 2 405 self-employed). This corresponded to 1.34% of the labour market.

The number of people employed in the cultural sector increased from 4.02 persons per 1 000 inhabitants in 1997, to 5.24 persons per 1 000 inhabitants in 2002, and 5.27% in 2004.

Slovene cultural policy aims to increase the level of self-employed in the cultural sector. In the last couple of years, new permanent jobs in public cultural institutions have been restricted and that is why it is necessary to find more flexible ways to employ the best human resources. The Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act (2002), offers a legal basis for the gradual transition from permanent to temporary employment. This means that more and more people will be hired on a temporary basis rather than for indefinite periods in full time positions.

The share for salaries of employees in public sector is constantly increasing, the consequence is, that the amount of financial sources for programmes and activities of public institutions is decreasing. Therefore, public institutions cannot fulfill their mission. Furthermore, fixed costs are increasing (material costs). The amount of financial resources is not increasing proportionally. Therefore, in the future the amount of employees will have to decrease. Although there are statistical data for the last 20 years, based on 2 different methodologies, we can confirm that funds for salaries have increased from 40% to 70% of all funds used by public institutions.

In 2003, the Salary System in the Public Sector Act was adopted. The Law imposes a unified system of salaries of all civil and public servants. The main reason for passing the Law was to unify the salary system that has become unclear, because of different amendments enforced in various fields (i.e. health, judiciary). The implementation of the Law demands larger amounts of financial resources for salaries in public cultural institutions, however, the amount of budget resources did not comparably increase. This is the main reason for the increase in the amount of financial funds for salaries in public institutions. The system of public servants automatically increases the necessary means on behalf of regular promotions and has no incorporated mechanisms for adjusting personnel policy to programme needs or capabilities.

Slovenia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.8 New technologies and cultural policies

The increased use of information technology in the cultural sector is also one of the most important goals of the new National Programme for Culture (see 3.3). There are some measures which will make it possible to achieve this goal such as giving priority to finance:

The Ministry of Culture has, in 2005 and 2006, established a network of 15 multi-media centres in all 12 statistical regions across Slovenia. 1.3 million euros was invested in these centres, of which more than half of the amount was obtained from the European Structural Funds.

A new entry in the budget for 2006 is intended for financing activities connected to the activities of the regional cultural centres. The goal is to increase the number of cultural institutions and their activities that are presented in individual regional internet portals, and to provide information on cultural themes, events and activities in the regions, and to enable connection to the national cultural portal. 

Slovenia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.9 Heritage issues and policies

Basic plans for the digitisation of cultural heritage in Slovenia have been outlined in several documents: in the Strategy of the Republic of Slovenia in the Information Society (2003), and the Resolution on the National Programme for Culture (2004), as well as in a research project entitled Information Models of Cultural Heritage (2004). The aim is to connect institutions of cultural heritage and to create instruments for the development of digitisation programmes and projects.

By joining the EU MINERVA and MINERVA Plus projects, institutions, especially libraries, museums and archives in Slovenia have become more aware of the need for digitising cultural heritage for which they are responsible. The importance of this topic reflects in the fact that international conference "Digital Cultural Contents" is one of the seminars during the Slovenian presidency of EU in first half of 2008 (see 2.4.6). Libraries have been engaged in a number of activities, and initiatives have been started as well in other fields. Target institutions have become more willing to share information about their projects. MINERVA (and CALIMERA) publications have been distributed to institutions. A plan to support the development of several portals of cultural heritage on the basis of regional information and communication networks is an organisational task which the Ministry of Culture is now working on intensively, hoping to be able to use the EU Structural Funds. Portal KAMRA was developed in 2006 to include library, archival, museum, associations' and local study centres' information. The portal is specially intended for containing knowledge of a particular geographical area and it therefore includes digital information created at the regional and local level. The information concerns life and events in local communities, documents on the history of local communities that can be a source for education, culture, tourism, the creation of e-content, as well as for the economy. The state has introduced activity in the area of digital cultural heritage, in 2005 and 2006, by increasingfinance for the programme of the national library . The internet portal "Digital Library of Slovenia" has been created, as well connecting digital content to the European Digital Library.

The National library placed the Portal Digital Library of Slovenia on the internet in 2006. It offers free searches by sources and access to digital content - magazines, books, manuscripts, maps, photographs, music and handbooks.

See also 3.3 and 4.1

For more information, see
European Heritage Network: Country profile Slovenia

Slovenia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.10 Gender equality and cultural policies

The position of women in culture and cultural policy can be examined through the participation of women in: leading positions in public institutions; on councils of public institutions; on national bodies in the field of culture; on expert commissions of the Ministry of Culture.

Table 6:     Share of women holding leading positions in public institutions, 2003


National public institutions and funds

Municipal public institutions financed by the Ministry of Culture

General libraries

No. of directors




% share of women




Sources:    Ministry for Culture

Table 7:     Share of women as members and Presidents of Councils of public institutions, 2003


National public institutions and Funds

Municipal public institutions financed by the Ministry of Culture

General libraries

No. of presidents




% share of women




No. of members




% share of women




Sources:    Ministry for Culture

Percentage of Women in National Councils:

Table 8:     Share of women on the National Council for Culture, 2003



Percentage of women






Sources:    Ministry for Culture

Table 9:     Share of women on the National Council for librarianship, 2003



Percentage of women






Sources:    Ministry for Culture

Table 10:   Share of women on Expert Commissions of the Ministry of Culture, 2003



Percentage of women







Sources:    Ministry for Culture

The data shows that the number of women is decreasing with the importance of the position. The percentage of women holding leading positions in national public institutions as central and leading institutions is 20%, while in the municipal public institutions the percentage amounts to approximately 40%.

It is also evident that the great numbers of women, almost 80%, are employed as librarians. Regardless of this fact, the percentage of council members and presidents indicates that this percentage is decreasing on the level of management (there are only 59% female members and 66% chairwomen). This decrease can be explained by the fact that the municipalities, while appointing their representatives, are not bound to the profession of librarian. In this way they can include more men. The greater percentage of chairwomen than members of the council indicates the degree of trust and competence, which obviously recognises women in the field of librarianship. The highest position, Director of the National Library, is held by a man. Yet the National Council for Librarianship is chaired by a woman. Many women are represented in this council (64%). In the National Council for Culture, which is an independent body appointed by the Parliament, there are 30% women, but the chairman is a man.

Although the majority of the employees in the public cultural sector are women, the share of women in expert commissions of the Ministry of Culture amounts to one third (35%). Apparently men are considered to be greater experts and that is a basic criterion for appointment to the commission. We should point out that in the field of cultural policy no special attention is paid to gender in regular hiring practices. However the state is preparing a Resolution on the National Program for Equal Opportunities of Men and Women (2005-2013), which defines the bases of gender equality politics in the Republic of Slovenia, sets goals, measures and key decision makers in politics.

The main initiative with an objective to produce and organise affirmative action projects, in order to draw attention to the disproportionately low participation and representation of women in the field of arts and culture, is undertaken by the Association for the Promotion of Women in Culture - City of Women. Its programmes and activities have been facilitated through a network of partners, who have ensured financial support as well as conceptual input and feedback. The Association is engaged in ongoing collaborative projects with a variety of cultural and women's organisations, and works with external experts, international curators and selectors, on specific elements of its programme. Its largest endeavour is the organisation of the annual International Festival of Contemporary Arts - City of Women.

In 2006, quotas of female political candidates have been implemented for the first time.

Slovenia/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.3 Other relevant issues and debates

For some years, there has been a debate on the introduction of regions in Slovenia. Regionalisation is also a key issue for cultural development and for further development of the cultural infrastructure (see also 2.2, 3.1 and 7.1). It is foreseen as a solution for almost 40 institutions of broader importance which are state funded and municipal founded. Due to the influence of the EU, there are now 12 statistical regions. In 2006, the Slovenian constitution changed and the sensitive political process of setting up regions became one of the main topics. The political coalition in power announced that the legislation is ready to establish 14 regions and for them to be functional on 1 January 2009. Since regular elections are foreseen for the autumn of 2008, execution of this project will fall into the next political mandate.

The premises of all three arts academies (Academy of Fine Arts, Academy for Theatre, Radio, Film and Television and the Music Academy) are in catastrophic condition. A new location has been finally decided, but construction has not started yet. Another crucial project is the construction of a new National Library which has been on the agenda for decades.

Following the retreat of the Yugoslavian Army, the former barracks known as "Metelkova" were turned over to the cultural sector. Half of the property is owned by the city of Ljubljana and has been occupied by alternative cultural movements. The other part belongs to the state, which has been renovating the venues and its cultural infrastructure to house the Museum for Ethnography and some ministerial offices. The remaining space will be dedicated to the Centre for the Contemporary Arts, but in 2007 very vivid discussions about the exhibition concept took place. The Ministry of Culture underlined, on different occasions, that the Modern Gallery has impartially favoured certain artistic circles, which can only be overcome by establishment of exhibition grounds with broad access for all visual artists. The Modern Gallery argues that only technical management of the new venue would lead to de-professionalisation and voluntarism in this field. In the overall shortage of premises destined to contemporary arts, one of the most important infrastructural acquirements in the last period was the acquisition of theOld Power Plant in Ljubljana for the use of non-governmental organisations, especially in the performing arts sector. 

The adoption of both the Media Act and RTV Act still troubles some parts of the public. The main issue driving public discussion is RTV's governing structure and related political influence. While the political coalition in power argued that the previous governance system was not transparent, enabling political forces to hide behind the fictive democratic curtain of civil society, the political opposition and the majority of public experts believe that this is a worrying development of returning public television into state television once again. The changes are twofold:

The clash between the two positions is so substantial that the political opposition insisted on a referendum about the new law, where it lost with 49% against 51%. In October 2006, the conflict required the first interpellation during the mandate of the current government: the Minister of Culture who is ultimately responsible for the media in Slovenia was called by the opposition to defend his policy in front of the parliament. Unfortunately, this issue does not mean that culture is at the centre of the political agenda in Slovenia, but shows instead that centrality depends only on political weight; the media certainly has such political weight. The minister was successful on this occasion.

The most controversial cultural policy issue in 2007 concerns the situation of Slovenian film production and a vision for its future organisation.

The main problem identified by the Ministry of Culture is that Slovenian filmmakers / producers are unable to realise their projects within contractual liabilities with the Slovenian Film Fund because producers don't have enough funds. The Slovenian Film Fund, acting as a guarantor of the national cultural interest and legal use of public funds, increasingly has to rescue projects with extra funding on top of the resources that it has already provided. Otherwise, projects will not be completed and the Film Fund will loose its initial investment. In order to solve this problem in 2007, the Ministry halted regular annual film production and concentrated, on the one hand, on completion of all unfinished film projects (8 features films). On the other hand, the government is concentrating on the preparation of new legislation as it considers the existing law as the main obstacle for consolidation of the film industry in Slovenia. The main hypothesis of the ministry is that the Slovenian Film Fund is, as the chief financer of realisation and promotion, and increasingly distribution, completely alienated from the way and quality of film marketing as well as from film sales, so consequently there is no effective legal basis for at least a partial reimbursement of invested public resources.

The filmmakers cannot accept either the ministerial occupation of the Slovenian Film Fund by his own people (including the nomination of a senior civil servant as an acting director of the Fund) or the suspension of film production in 2007 that was legally adopted by former management. They also oppose the part of the draft Film Institute Law which foresees the fusion of the Slovenian Film Fund and the national technical film infrastructure (Viba film) into the same legal entity, under the direct influence of the Ministry.

2007 also saw public discussion on the draft National Programme for Culture 2008-2011. The first such document for the period 2004-2007, produced by the last government, is running out of a mandate. In spite of the legal provision for the government to report annually to the Parliament on its implementation, only two reports, in 2004 and in 2005 have been presented. The Ministry openly admitted two basic shortcomings of the strategic document which seriously diminish its credibility: the inflation of general objectives (10) and sectorial goals (more than 45) and inconsistent indicators for their monitoring, including poor cultural statistics. In spite of the legal provision that the document can be annually adjusted, the Minister has not taken this option into account, although he publicly expressed several times his doubts about the legitimacy of the document. Some critics say that it functions as a camouflage for politics and cultural bureaucracy.

During the four month long public discussion of the new draft National Programme for Culture 2008-2011, which was prepared by the group of experts nominated by the minister, several criticisms were put forward: such as the lack of any situational analysis or research that would support the document; inconsistency regarding the relationship between culture and the economy; judgemental ambitions of cultural policy makers regarding the justification for public funds; ideological discussion around the new Centre for Contemporary Arts in Metelkova (see above); insufficient support for new models of production outside the public institutions; lack of structural funding for academic publishing houses... One of the most common reflections concerned the absence of concrete measures and related finances for the implementation of, again, very numerous and indefinite objectives.

Slovenia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.1 Constitution

The General preamble of the Slovene Constitution refers to culture in 2 Articles:

In the Chapter on human rights and fundamental freedoms it reaches into the field of culture in the following Articles:

In the Chapter of the Constitution dealing with economic and social relations, Article 73 is intended to safeguard natural and cultural heritage. While the state and local communities are obliged to look after the preservation of natural and cultural heritage, the duty of protecting the most important part of the heritage - natural sights, rarities and cultural monuments - is a duty which everyone must observe by law.

Slovenia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.2 Division of jurisdiction

At the moment, Slovenia has two political territorial levels: state and municipal. As described in 4.3, there are no regions in Slovenia; not yet. The construction of regions (and their number) has been one of the most sensitive political questions in Slovenia for a long time.

The Ministry for Culture prepares system solutions and performs administrative, expert and other tasks in the area of:

Supervision of the performance of statutory and regulative provisions in the area of culture and media is done by the Inspectorate of the Republic of Slovenia for Culture and Media, a body incorporated within the Ministry.

Tasks concerning archive and documentary material are performed by the Archive of the Republic of Slovenia, a body incorporated within the Ministry. According to the Archives and Archival Institutions Act (Official Gazette No. 30/2006) the state assumes responsibility for all 6 regional archives.

The relationship between the state and the municipalities (210) in the field of culture is regulated by the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002.

The law provides special attention to:

The municipalities are obliged to:

The municipalities, which historically have developed into cultural centres of broader significance, are bound by the law to exercise and develop this role also in the future. The state is supposed to help them in doing so by additional means, based on special agreements between the state and municipality. At the present moment, the state still finances local public cultural institutions of broader significance directly (around 40), but the government recently announced that state funding will stop on 1 January 2009 at the latest (see 2.2).

Slovenia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.3 Allocation of public funds

The procedures related to allocation of public funds in culture are included in the Public Finance Act (Official Gazette No. 79/1999, 124/2000, 79/2001, 30/2002, 56/2002), which is important above all for the way public institutions are financed and the General Administrative Procedure Act (Official Gazette No. 80/1999, 70/2000, 52/2002, 73/2004, 119/2005, 105/2006), which applies to the functioning of administration. It is also regulated by the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002. According to the latter, the procedures are regulated by the Executive Act on the Execution of Public Tenders and Public Calls, the Executive Act on the Manner of Execution of Public Institutions, Public Funds and Public Agencies in the field of Culture and the Executive Act on Expert Commissions.

The Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002 provides 3 different procedures for financing.

In all three kinds of procedures, commissions composed of external experts participate in decision-making. They prepare a proposal which is submitted to the Minister who in turn makes a final decision based on (or contrary to) their proposals. It is seldom that the Minister overrides their proposals, especially since the decision-making process and the work of the expert commissions are public. The Minister is therefore under the pressure of public opinion. There are exceptions, however. For example, in 2004 when the Minister disagreed with the expert commission for the visual arts and, in the end, decided against their proposals. In the end, the head of the expert commission resigned.

The confrontation of politics and special fields of activity should bring quality to decision-making. On the other hand, it exposes political responsibility as a counterweight or is an alibi offered to the Minister by a system of expert commissions / peer evaluation.

The Minister or the competent authority in a local community can exceptionally make decisions on the allocation of public funds without a public procedure in the event when financing is especially ear marked (e.g. for a special post) or if there is not enough time to carry out the procedure: in 2005 this amounted to 0.45 % of the budget of the Ministry of Culture.

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5.1.4 Social security frameworks

There are specific measures for self-employed persons in the cultural sector including recognition of their freelance status for tax purposes and social security. The bases for granting these privileges are exceptional achievements and the government's decision to encourage growth in the number of professional artists. This special status is awarded for three years and may be extended. In 2006, 1 500 self-employed artists out of 2 328 registered had been given this special socio-economic status which cost in 2006 4.29 million euros or almost 2.92% of national funds for culture.

A retired cultural worker who has made an especially important contribution to Slovene culture but whose pension does not correspond to the contribution he has made may be granted a republic allowance by the Minister after consultation with the expert commission from the area of work of the candidate. In determining the level of the republic allowance social circumstances are taken into account. A republic allowance may also be granted as an addition to a family pension. Public funds for the republic allowance under this Act shall be provided by the ministry responsible for culture from that part of the state budget intended for culture. In 2006, 203 000 euros were spent for 89 such republic allowances. Another intervention in the pension system are exceptional pensions for artists which had been granted in past according to topmost artistic merits. The measure originated in previous period is from time to time vividly publicly criticised as a relict from previous system.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

Slovenia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.5 Tax laws

As of January 2005, authors lost their rights to a 40% income tax deduction on material expenses. This deduction has been reduced to 10%, with no possibilities to justify actual costs. If an author registers his or her activities regularly the reduction is 25%. Self-employed people in the field of culture continue to have the right to deduct 40% from their income tax base, if they earn less than ca. 25 000 euros. If they exceed this amount, they must provide accounts and receipts to justify the actual costs. A new Law on Income Tax, which is going to be in force from 1 January 2007, entails some changes. A 2% deduction for purchasing certain goods and services (including books, paintings, investment in monuments) will be replaced with a new measure which will designate 0.5% to purposes of public interest (culture is included). A new Law on Corporate Tax introduced a 0.3% deduction for donations to various good causes and also a special deduction for culture of 0.2% of taxable income, with the possibility of averaging over a three year period.

VAT was introduced on 1 June 1999. The reduced 8.5% rate is used to tax books, while CDs, videocassettes are exposed to the normal 20% VAT rate due to harmonisation with EU Directives. The reduced rate also applies to cinema tickets and entertainment events. Cultural services of non-profit cultural organisations are exempt from paying VAT. The same right can be extended to artists if their turnover does not exceed ca. 25 000 euros per year and if they decide that they prefer to be exempt; a seemingly difficult decision. Gifts to museums, libraries and archives are exempt from excise duty.

Slovenia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.6 Labour laws

Employment relationships in the field of culture are regulated by general legislation; some special provisions regarding public servants are also included in the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002. In Slovenia, the Civil Servants Act mainly regulates the status of state employees and only its initial principles and articles apply to public servants. The law allows for separate questions to be regulated by special laws which regulate separate areas of public sector.

Otherwise the employment relationships with public servants are regulated by the same law that applies to the overall economy, i.e. the Employment Relationship Act (Official Gazette No. 42/2002 and 79/2006). This kind of system is possible only because all public institutions in Slovenia are independent legal persons, entered in the register of companies together with enterprises and they conduct activities in the same way regardless of their public financing (sometimes entirely). The main consequences for the field of culture are:

Otherwise there are no essential differences since the salaries and the manner of promotion are uniformly regulated by the Salary System in the Public Sector Act (Official Gazette No. 56/2002, 72/2003, 126/2003, 70/2004, 53/2005, 14/2006, 27/2006 and 68/2006). This uniformity has also a positive aspect. Due to equalising measures between the salaries of different public sectors, those of the public culture workers should be raised in 2007.

The Employment Relationship Act (2006 last amendment) is based on non fixed-duration employment and allows for fixed-duration employment only as an exception. Therefore, the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002 enacted special provisions which would allow for more flexible working relationships in the cultural field. Fixed-duration employment also makes it possible to receive a higher wage within an otherwise uniform system of salaries. The law also introduces reasons for hiring people on fixed-term contracts:  because otherwise workers would be made redundant or when the work exceeds the needs identified in the work plan of the public institution. These provisions are extremely important because the Slovenian cultural field is over institutionalised and all employees are public servants. As one would expect, there is a strong resistance to the law. At the moment, only new comers / young generation are engaged on temporary contracts. However, resistance is also felt on the governmental side. The provision related to the higher payment of temporary employed staff has not yet been implemented.

The Ministry of Culture has, on behalf of employers with representative trade unions in culture, concluded a Collective Agreement for Cultural Activities in Slovenia. This agreement regulates separate legal questions and includes provisions intended to regulate the issues on which both sides have reached an agreement.

From the point of view of the cultural field, Slovenia has neither special legal provisions nor experience concerning the inclusion of volunteers into working relationships.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

Slovenia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.7 Copyright provisions

The Slovenian Copyright and Related Rights Act (Official Gazette No. 21/1995, 9/2001, 30/2001, 85/2001, 43/2004, 58/2004 and 17/2006) (CRRA) follows the tradition of droit d'auteur. Copyright is an indivisible right to a work and is a uniform right, which consists of exclusive personal powers (moral rights), exclusive economic powers (economic rights), and other powers of the author (related rights). Although the CRRA was amended several times since its adoption in 1995, there were no changes or debates on moral rights as the concept of moral rights is a well established concept in Slovenian doctrine.

There are several provisions which provide limitations of copyright in order to enable users free access to copyright material. However, the limitations are only permissible in cases mentioned in the CRRA, provided that the extent of exploitation of a copyright work is limited by its intended purpose, is compatible with fair practice, does not conflict with the normal use of the work, and does not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the author. The limitations are systematically divided in two schemes: legal licences and free use. Legal licences permit the use of copyright material without the assignment of a respective economic right, but on payment of equitable remuneration. CRRA allows such use in the case of reproduction from readers and textbooks intended for teaching and for the reproduction of periodical publications of articles on current topics of general interest, provided that the source and authorship of the work is indicated. It is also lawful to reproduce or distribute works without assignment of economic rights, but on payment of equitable remuneration for the benefit of the people with a disability. On the other hand free use is allowed for the following purposes: to provide access to information of a public nature, for public performance of a disclosed work when used in teaching, temporary reproduction, private and other internal reproduction (in this case the author has a right to equitable remuneration which is collected as blank media and equipment levy), quotations, accessory works of secondary importance, free transformations of disclosed works, reproduction of databases by the lawful user, public exhibition or sale of artistic works, works permanently located in generally accessible premises, use in official proceedings and testing of equipment.

Another provision which limits authors' right and enables unrestricted public lending of copyright works in public libraries is the provision of public lending right. Public lending right is reduced to the right to equitable remuneration, when the original or a copy of a work is made available for use, for a limited period of time, without economic advantage, and if done through organisations performing such activity as public service.

Secondary rights are not defined separately nor there are any provisions relating particularly to secondary usage of works. However, certain types of copyright works (i.e. musical and literary works) fall under mandatory collective management. Therefore, broadcasters must refer to a competent collecting society for permission to use material from their repertoire (an individual author cannot refuse to permit use of his work, if the work is a part of a collecting society's repertoire). Collecting societies are obliged to conclude a contract for the non-exclusive assignment of rights for the use of authors' works in accordance with the valid tariff. Broadcasting organisations shall monthly submit to the competent collecting society a list of all broadcast copyright works.

The amendment to the CRRA made in 2004 was rather exhaustive. Certain changes had to be made in order to bring CRRA into line with EU Directive 2001/29EC on Copyright in the Information Society, others relate to the particularities of Slovenia (like collective management of copyright and related rights). New provisions on technological measures were introduced in addition to already existing provision on protection of rights-management information. Respectively the penal provisions of CRRA were amended, so that there is a fine prescribed for circumventing effective technological measures and for refusing to make available to persons having legal access to the subject matter of rights to enforce limitations to copyright and related rights. Certain new limitations of authors' rights were introduced (i.e. reproduction and distribution of works for the benefit of people with a disability and acts of temporary reproduction, limitation to the right of transformation in cases of works of architecture, limitations to the right of the makes of the database), others were modified (i.e. private and other internal reproduction, free use of artistic works for promotion of a public exhibition or sale of artistic works, free use of works for performance of tasks relating to public security or any official proceedings). In the chapter of related rights, the definition of a performer was changed as well as the definition of exclusive economic right of performers. Amendments were also made to the provisions on collective management of copyright and related rights. The cases in which collective management is mandatory were reduced to: communication to the public of non-theatrical musical works and literary works (small rights), management of the droit de suite, reproduction of works for private or other internal use and its photocopying beyond the scope of free use, cable retransmission. Furthermore, the provisions relating to authorisation of collecting societies, their obligations and supervision were amended. The landmark change in the collective management system was the introduction of mediation as a measure for resolution of disputes concerning conclusion of an inclusive agreement and disputes concerning conclusion of an agreement for cable retransmission of broadcasts. Some other minor adjustments were also made like exhaustion of the right of distribution which now relates to the European Union instead of to the Republic of Slovenia and expansion of the subject matter under the public lending right which now relates to all works, not just written materials as before.

The latest amendment to the CRRA was made in 2006 with the goal of improving the deficiencies inherent in the collective management system (introduced in 2004). The amendments state that if a common agreement can not be reached within four months of a dispute, each side has the right to propose arbitration. The system of setting tariffs has been a problem for many years. There are many contentions between collective organisations and users of authors' rights; it is easier to adopt ideal legislation than to make it work.

Slovenia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.8 Data protection laws

In Slovenia, the protection of data has not yet been exposed as problematic in view of the access of cultural organisations to reach a potential public.

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5.1.9 Language laws

In 2004, the Act on Public Usage of Slovenian Language (Official Gazette No.86/2004) was passed. It was in preparation since 1996. The law supports the further development and enforcement of the Slovenian language in traditional and numerous new areas opened up by the information society. Furthermore, it is supposed to enforce the Slovenian language in times of globalisation. To this end, it summarises the content of certain provisions from older legal provisions dealing with public usage of the Slovenian language (the Consumer Protection Act, the Mass Media Act, Companies Act etc.) and tries to abolish gaps concerning responsibility, inspection and sanctions. The law does not contain provisions on obligatory grammar, word and orthography characteristics of the Slovenian language, it rather provides for its status as an official language and the language of public communication without, at the same time, prohibiting the use of foreign languages. To this end, it determines the basic rules of language to be used by the state administration and other agencies of public authority, for education, media, commerce (marketing), industry, public performances etc. Monitoring legal provisions, creating a language policy and its implementation, are tasks of the government in general and the Ministry of Culture in particular.

Slovenia/ 5.2 Legislation on culture

As the political system was transformed at the beginning of the 1990s, legislation on culture also had to be changed in its entirety. The new Constitution of Slovenia in 1991, established traditional rights with regard to culture including freedom of artistic creation, cultural development and heritage protection as well as providing copyright, cultural and linguistic rights for Italian and Hungarian minorities, rights for the Roma community and assistance for Slovenes living in either neighboring countries or around the world.

In December 1994, the public's interest in culture was regulated for the first time. In November 2002, the Act was revised in its entirety in order to create proper means for its implementation and to reconsider the model. Thus, the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002 is now an umbrella law and currently consists of:

There are also other general acts affecting culture, i.e. the Public Finance Act, the Local Government Act, the Civil Servants Act, the Salary System in the Public Sector Act, the General Administrative Procedure Act (see also 5.1).

Besides the umbrella law, there is another law, which is affecting different spheres of culture: Providing Funds for some Programmes in the Culture Act (Official Gazette No. 24/1998 and 108/2002). The latter is a Financial Act that in 1998 ensured financial means for some urgent programs in the period 1998-2003 and in 2002 was extended to the year 2008. The funds were distributed in various areas: investments in the premises of public institutions, co-financing to build up municipal libraries and to provide IT to general libraries, monument restoration, support for library networks, cinema and multimedia centres, and amateur culture and youth cultural centres. The Ministry of Culture obtained a special budget, but the amount of financial resources which accumulated on the budget was almost never disposed of entirely. The Providing Funds for some Programmes in the Culture Act was adopted on the initiative of the members of the Parliament and does not represent a comprehensive strategy but a summary of different interests.

The Structural Funds of the EU provided a new framework for projects financed from the European Regional Development Fund during the period 2004-2006 (e.g. castles owned by the Republic of Slovenia, Multimedia Centres, etc). The Providing Funds for some Programmes in the Culture Act enables the Ministry of Culture to reserve resources for the European Regional Development Fund. The law has contributed to regional development, while on the other hand, the securing national investments in, for example, the national library, arts academies etc.

In addition to the Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act 2002, there are others that regulate specific cultural sectors such as: Mass Media Act, Librarianship Act, Cultural Heritage Protection Act, and Archival Material and Archives Act.

Some specific areas are also regulated through legislation such as the France Prešeren Award Act and the Providing Funds for some Programmes in the Culture Act.

Slovenia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.1 Visual and applied arts

There is no specific sector law.

Slovenia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.2 Performing arts and music

There is no specific sector law.

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5.3.3 Cultural heritage

The cultural heritage sector is regulated by:

The protection of natural heritage is regulated by the Nature Conservation Act. Until 1999, natural and cultural heritage were regulated within the same law and within the same office. In 1999, the natural heritage came under the jurisdiction of Ministry of Environment, Space and Energy, while the cultural heritage remained under the jurisdiction of Ministry of Culture.

The Protection of Documents and Archives and Archival Institutions Act governs the methods, organisation, infrastructure and implementation of capture and storage of documents in physical and electronic form, the effectiveness and value of such materials, the protection of archives and conditions for use of archives. It defines the tasks of archival institutions and the public archival service, as well as related services. The supervision over the implementation of its mandatory obligations is regulated accordingly.

The main dissent during the legislative procedure concerned the idea to integrate all of the six regional archives into the Slovenian National Archive, which is already a part of the Ministry of Culture. Due to very powerful lobbying, regional archives preserve their autonomy and remain separate legal entities.

The immovable cultural heritage is regulated by different laws managing space, buildings, regional development and spatial document development on the national and local levels. The Cultural Heritage Protection Act, adopted in 1999, regulates the protection of movable and immovable cultural heritage, with an additional chapter designed for museums.

In order to carry out its role in the construction of a uniform system of heritage protection, the state had to engage experts to participate in the formulation of a heritage preservation policy. The Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of the Republic of Slovenia remains a separate public institution.

The Cultural Heritage Protection Act, adopted in 1999 and amended 2002, 2003 and currently under review outlines:

In this process, seven regional institutes for monument protection lost their independent status and were merged into a new national institute. A strategy for cultural heritage has been incorporated in the National Program for Culture which states that Slovenia wants to preserve and promote its cultural diversity by preserving and protecting its cultural heritage and by increasing its accessibility. This means making sure that all information on cultural heritage should be available, also a pre-condition for increasing expert knowledge in this area.

The main policy instruments for cultural heritage support are:

The aim of the revision of current legislation is to suppress those problems which haven't been successfully solved by existing legal provisions. Among them are:

Slovenia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.4 Literature and libraries

The Exercising of the Public Interest in Culture Act, 2002 presents the legal basis for the main supportive measures such as public tenders and public calls for financing libraries, literacy culture, translation of classical works of humanistic and literature (see 8.3.1) and working scholarships (see 8.1.2). In recent years, a fairly comprehensive system of financing for book publishing was constructed (see 4.3). Parallel to this, the idea to delegate all executive tasks to a Public Agency has been developed resulted in the adoption of the Act on the Public Agency for Books in 2007. In order to more efficiently organise and combine the currently rather uncoordinated governmental policies in this area, the new Law merged support for the production of books and magazines in the fields of literature and science. However, the main objectives concern the empowerment of expertise in the decision-making process concerning the allocation of public funds and the sustainability of funding, including the diversification of different sources on national and trans-national EU levels. These tasks are now delegated to the Public Agency for Books (see also 4.1).

Libraries are regulated by the Librarianship Act adopted in 2001 and amended in 2002.

The Act has four main aims, all of them based on the statutory obligation of municipalities to provide library services for their citizens:

In 2006, a new Act on the Legal Deposit of Publications (Official Gazette No. 69/2006) was adopted. Its main novelty is that it reduced the number of legal deposits to the national library from 16 to 4, with some exceptions concerning the publications that are produced with public support, which remain at 16.The funding for a deficit compensation for legal deposits was provided in the amount of 400 000 euros and therefore the total amount of financing to purchase materials was increased in 2006. The Act includes a provision on collecting electronic internet publications, which is one of the first such statutory provisions among EU member states.

Slovenia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.5 Architecture and environment

Information is currently not available.

Slovenia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.6 Film, video and photography

The law related to the film sector is the Film Fund of the Republic of Slovenia Act (Official Gazette No. 17/1994, 22/2000 and 59/2001), which will be amended with provisions offering new financing models (see 4.2.6).

Slovenia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.7 Culture industries

There is no specific overall legal framework to promote and develop the culture industries in Slovenia.

Slovenia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.8 Mass media

See 4.2.5.

Slovenia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.9 Legislation for self-employed artists

See 5.1.4.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

Slovenia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.10 Other areas of relevant legislation

Information is currently not available.

Slovenia/ 6. Financing of culture

6.1 Short overview

Within the public sphere, culture in Slovenia is co-financed by two main actors: the state and local communities. On the state level, the Ministry of Culture is responsible for the distribution of the majority of public funds for culture (ca. 90%). Various programmes and projects are supported by the cultural budget including those of public cultural institutions (national and municipal), the Film Fund of the Republic of Slovenia and the Public Fund of the Republic of Slovenia for Cultural Activities, programmes and projects of both minority groups as well as subsidies and grants for artists, professional societies, scholarships, cultural festivals, investments in information technology, sites and monuments, minimum social security for freelance artists, retirement benefits for cultural workers etc.

In Slovenia, there are still no regional authorities that operate between the state and local level, although there are plans for new regions to be operating by 1 January 2009 (see 2.2). In a country of 2 million people and approx. 20 000 km2 there are 210 local communities. The obligations of the local communities in the cultural field are: to ensure conditions for common library activities, cultural and arts activities and amateur cultural activities, conservation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage and other cultural programmes of local importance. In areas where national minorities live, the local communities are also obliged to support their cultural activities.

Public cultural expenditure in 2006 amounted to approximately 257 million euros and corresponded to 0.86% of the GDP.

The share of the state in public cultural expenditure, in 2006, was 60%, with the local level providing the remaining 40%. (This division includes all local level expenditure on culture, but at central level it only refers to the expenditure of the Ministry for Culture).

The share of state cultural expenditure, as part of the total state expenditure in 2006, amounted to 2% and the share of local communities' cultural expenditure, as part of the total local communities' expenditure in 2006, amounted to 6.3%.

Household spending on cultural activities and goods in Slovenia was calculated, in 2004, on the basis of the National Household Budget Survey made by Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. In 2004, this amounted to ca. 465.5 million euros or 4.43% of the total household budget. The majority of the cultural household expenditure was spent on the RTV subscription (30.4%) and press (20.6%). Household spending on cultural activities and goods in Slovenia, in 2004, corresponded to 1.77% of the GDP.

National cultural expenditure, calculated on the basis of public cultural expenditure and household spending on cultural activities and goods, in 2004, amounted to 680 million euros and corresponded to 2.59% of the GDP.

Table 11:   Share of household spending, 2000-2004







Share of household spending on culture in GDP*






Share of public cultural expenditure in GDP*






Share of national cultural expenditure in GDP*






Sources:    Ministry for Culture, Ministry for Finance, Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia.
*                 A revision of GDP calculation for the years 2000-2004 was made in the middle of the 2007. The methodology of household spending was harmonised with COICOP-HBS classification (Division HE09 Recreation and culture, witch covers the main cultural expenditure of households). The same methodology was used in the publication of Eurostat: Cultural statistic, 2007 edition.

Slovenia/ 6. Financing of culture

6.2 Public cultural expenditure per capita

Public cultural expenditure per capita in the year 2006 was 127.9 euros and corresponded to 0.86% of the GDP.

Slovenia/ 6. Financing of culture

6.3 Public cultural expenditure broken down by level of government

Table 12:   Public cultural expenditure: by level of government, in euros, 2006

Level of government

Total expenditure

% share of total


154 257 346


Local (municipal)

102 506 679



256 764 025


Sources:    Ministry for Culture, Ministry for Finance.
NB.            All public cultural expenditure on the local level is taken into account. On the state level it refers only to the expenditure of the Ministry for Culture.

Table 13:   Share of public cultural expenditure, by level of government, 1996-2006





































Sources:    Ministry for Culture, Ministry for Finance.
NB.            All public cultural expenditure on the local level is taken into account. On the state level it refers only to the expenditure of the Ministry for Culture.

Up until 1999, the state co-financed the most important local cultural institutions. In 1999, and in the first half of 2000, 38 of these local public cultural institutions have been co-financed by the municipalities. However in the second half of 2000, the state took over co-financing of these institutions again.

Slovenia/ 6. Financing of culture

6.4 Sector breakdown

Table 14:   State cultural expenditure in Slovenia, by sector, in euros, 2006

Field / domain / sub-domain

Direct expenditure

Transfers to institutions


% total

Cultural goods

36 966 242

14 986 053

51 952 295


Cultural heritage

27 497 860

10 055 045

37 552 905


Historical monuments

8 825 184

9 384 239

18 209 423



18 672 676

670 806

19 343 482



3 623 089

156 005

3 779 094



5 845 293

4 775 003

10 620 296



49 384 421

4 297 534

53 681 955


Visual arts (including design)

6 376 601

607 207

6 983 808


Performing arts

43 007 820

3 690 327

46 698 147



22 963 716

1 432 307

24 396 023


Theatre and musical theatre*

20 044 104

1 301 047

21 345 151




956 973

956 973



1 558 578

13 917 912

15 476 490


Books and press


4 959 489

4 959 489




4 179 361

4 179 361




780 128

780 128


Audio, audiovisual and multimedia

1 558 578

8 958 423

10 517 001



1 558 578

4 152 589

5 711 167




2 395 773

2 395 773




2 410 061

2 410 061



14 709 291

10 857 807

25 567 098



7 080 454

1 720 747

8 801 201



619 725

444 216

1 063 941


Cultural relations abroad


508 408

508 408



6 460 729


6 460 729


Educational activities


768 123

768 123


Not available by domain

7 628 837

9 137 060

16 765 897



102 618 532

44 059 306

146 677 838


Sources:    Ministry for Culture, Ministry for Finance.
Notes:       Financing for Funds, e.g. the Film Fund, the Fund for Cultural Activities, are classified under "transfers"

Direct expenditure includes financial support for:

Slovenia/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.1 Re-allocation of public responsibilities

In 2006, constitutional amendments on local self-government which are crucial for the formation of provinces in Slovenia were adopted finally. It is now explicitly stated that the provinces should be set up by law, as well their status and jurisdiction defined. In addition to decentralisation and subsidiarity, the amendments are important as they give provinces the necessary framework to act as partners for European structural funds and in cross-border regional co-operation. It is now possible to transfer some jurisdiction to local authorities without their approval. However, the state must also earmark the necessary funds for the new tasks. This move is being implemented to enact the principle of subsidiarity. This development is an opportunity to entrust the regions with responsibility (including funding) for larger state cultural institutions and therefore overcome the current gap between state funding and local funding(see also 4.3).

Slovenia/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.2 Status/role and development of major cultural institutions

Obtaining a legal status as a public institution as the only option for regular public funding is no longer an optimal solution for cultural producers. The latter are, as a consequence of the self-management heritage, still separate legal entities, but at the same time, part of the public sector obliged to follow the public servant and public finance systems. A modernisation of the public sector therefore demands a separation between:

This type of separation would also be a good way to increase the power of NGOs and civil society.

The National Programme for Culture 2004-2007 has identified the modernisation of the public sector as one of its priorities; however, no serious changes have taken place yet. The draft programme for the next period, 2008-2011, repeats this intention, adding that a special interministerial working group in charge of this task will be set up.

Slovenia/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.3 Emerging partnerships or collaborations

To date, there are few examples of emerging public-private partnerships or collaborations in Slovenia. Some measures such as tax incentives have attracted private sponsorship for cultural events (e.g. festivals) and are the first step in creating an environment for co-operation. There are some examples of "good practice" in this area such as the regional cultural centre "Festival Brežice" which attracted 58% of its turnover through sponsorship in 2001. Another interesting example is the regional cultural centre "Narodni dom Maribor" which attracted 25% of its turnover through sponsorship in 1998 (26% from ticket sales, 40% from a municipality grant and 9% from the state). One of the most successful projects is the traditional Summer Festival Lent which attracts not only an incredible concentration of cultural events and around 350 000 visitors, but also the greatest number of sponsors.

Slovenia/ 8. Support to creativity and participation

8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

See 8.1.1.

Slovenia/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.1 Special artists funds

In addition to the social security scheme for freelance artists (see also 5.1.4) and income tax deductions on creative work (see also 5.1.5), there is a system of funding to support new musical works, ballet and folklore choreography and dramatic works. Public servants are still free to engage in work outside of their institutions and therefore, all successful actors or musicians are permitted to work for more than one institutional or non-institutional group.

With the Librarianship Act (2002 latest amendment), Slovenia began to meet certain requirements towards the authors of works which are borrowed from public libraries. The law stipulates that a library compensation scheme to support authors is to be introduced on the basis of funds generated from the public lending of books. Special rules were adopted, which not only determine the extent to which the state has to provide support for this purpose, but defines the types of work and which authors are eligible to receive compensation. By introducing a library compensation scheme, the state wished to encourage creativity in different art fields. The funds generated from this scheme are distributed, on the one hand, to living authors on the basis of lending frequency in libraries. On the other hand, the funds are used for working scholarships given to promising authors of a high quality. All who are entitled to receive compensation must have their works available for lending in general libraries (with the exception of other kinds of libraries, i.e. school or high school libraries) and they must contain texts, illustrations, photographs, music or film. In 2006, 775 000 euros went for this purpose.

Persons eligible to obtain library compensations and working scholarships are authors, poets, authors of other text based works, translators, illustrators, photographers, music and film authors. The library compensation can be obtained by authors from the lending of original and translated books, audio-cassettes, CD records, video cassettes and DVDs, provided that all works, which are available in libraries, were borrowed to the extent that goes over a certain threshold. Working scholarships, however, have to be applied for via public tenders who are managed by the relevant authors / artists association; the latter are given the right to implement this scheme on the basis of a public tender issued by the Ministry of Culture.

Slovenian libraries are included in Co-operative Online Bibliographic System & Services (COBISS), which makes it possible to track library loans. In the framework of the COBISS system, a special web application for implementing the library compensation has been created which means that each year authors can consult the system and find out for themselves whether they qualify for library compensation and notify the Ministry in the event that they are entitled to receive compensation. The system also enables authors to review the data on their books and make corrections.

Slovenia/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.2 Grants, awards, scholarships

In Slovenia, there is only one national award in the field of culture (Prešernova nagrada). It is given by the Administrative Board of the Prešeren Foundation. Members of the Board are appointed by the Parliament and are artists, creators of cultural life and / or scientists from all major fields of culture (15 members in total). Every year, a maximum of 2 national awards for outstanding achievements or lifework are given. The Prešeren Foundation also awards up to 6 prizes for important artistic achievements.

The selection of award winners and their works has always been of utmost importance for the formation of the field of art, for understanding the role of culture in different political systems (socialism, self- management, democracy) and for determining the proportion of power between the politics and classes of artists and among classes of artists themselves. The national award ceremony is held on the eve of the National Day of Culture, which is celebrated as a public holiday. The convergence of these two events bestows a particular significance to the award and together they represent an annual ritual.  The ceremonial parade of award winners, is not only festive, but celebrates the existence and recognition of Slovenian cultural identity and promotes an understanding of common values.

In addition to the national award for culture there are around 70 other prizes awarded in the field of culture in Slovenia. The prizes pursue a balance between the exposure of an artists' body of lifework and the recognition of an individual work of art which is meant to be an incentive for more artistic achievements. The total financial value of the awards granted in the year 2003 including the national award, was approximately 312 500 euros. This amount is approximately one twelfth of the amount invested into the social security system for self-employed artists. The national award accounts for half of the total financial value of all prizes. The biggest number of awards was given in the field of publishing and performing arts, namely in the field of theatre. This reflects the meaning of "language" in the national consciousness. Professional associations of artists give the largest number of prizes (18) while public institutions award 16 prizes and public foundations 11 prizes. The reason why the number of prizes increased in the 1990s is due to the opening of public institutions to new audiences, the need for greater visibility and the presentation of a diversity of productions (all of which is financed from tax payer money).

Professional associations manifest their presence and express their competence to claim what is the best in individual fields through awards. Through public institutions they organise festivals and meetings through which they promote their work and the prominence of their products.

The awards given by public foundations help them to invigorate their position as stakeholders of cultural policy and at the same time as designators of criteria of excellence in their fields. In this regard public foundations compete with professional associations. However, the difference is that the prizes awarded by the two public foundations in the field of culture (Slovenian Film Fund and Republic of Slovenia Public Fund for Cultural Activities - JSKD) are not financial, while professional associations are making an effort to add a financial component to their awards. Public foundations therefore envisage the meaning and significance of their awards as recognition of its own importance. On the contrary, professional associations are already aware of the problems of artists and thus try to give financial awards. The state helps them in doing so by providing funds from the state budget up to 70% of all financial awards. With one exception: all prizes which are awarded by local communities originate from the former political system, leading us to conclude that the politics of the time considered culture as an element of development and an outward affirmation of the local community.

Table 15:   Breakdown in the number of awards given in different culture fields, 2003




Different art fields









Art history



Visual arts






Cultural heritage






Performing arts


From these given by:


Inter-media arts



Cultural institutions


Film, cinema



Association, Union


Audiovisual arts








No data








Source:      the questionnaire prepared by Darja Jurjec, Nataša Pihler, Saša Jocič and interpreted by Saša Jocič (2003).

Table 16:   Source of awards given in different culture fields, 2003

Source of Awards






City municipalities






Cultural institutions






Public Fund for Cultural Activities- performing arts



Public Fund for Cultural Activities- music



Public fund for Cultural Activities - different fields



Film Fund








 From those given for:










Art history





Visual arts










Performing arts





Cultural heritage















Film, cinema





Different fields


Source:      the questionnaire prepared by Darja Jurjec, Nataša Pihler, Saša Jocič and interpreted by Saša Jocič (2003).

Table 17:   Overview of the number of awards given by year

Year of first granting



1940 - 1950



1950 - 1960



1960 - 1970



1970 - 1980



1980 - 1990



1990 -2000


Granted by:


2000 - 2001



Cultural institutions


No data



L'esprit de corps

















Source:      the questionnaire prepared by Darja Jurjec, Nataša Pihler, Saša Jocič and interpreted by Saša Jocič (2003).

Table 18:   Type of awards given and by whom, 2003

Type of the award














Granting bodies


Source:      the questionnaire prepared by Darja Jurjec, Nataša Pihler, Saša Jocič and interpreted by Saša Jocič (2003).

In 2004, the Ministry gave national public institutions involved in music the possibility to offer residencies. Young artists were thus given the opportunity to gain their first experiences of working in public institutions which would otherwise, because of a fairly restrictive employment policy, have been impossible for them. This was received enthusiastically by music institutions which made full use of the possibility.

More recently, the Ministry of Culture has been providing funds for residences in art studios, also abroad e.g. in New York, Berlin, etc. In addition, the Ministry provides financial support for the participation of artists in international events.

Slovenia/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.3 Support to professional artists associations or unions

In the past, professional artists associations were funded in the same way as public institutions and their employees received the same salaries as other public servants. In 2003, they lost these privileges. Consequently, they have to apply via public tenders for project or programme financing.

The Chamber of Culture of the Republic of Slovenia, by law, is to operate as a communication point between public authorities and the cultural field. The amount of public money it receives depends on its activities which are still very modest.

Slovenia/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation

8.2.1 Trends and figures

Table 19:   Cultural participation trends in figures, 2006


Professional theatre*
(drama and puppets)

Slovene Philharmonic

Number of units



Number of performances

5 440


Number of visitors

760 724

108 561

Number of visitors per 1 000 inhabitants




Opera and Ballet (2005)
(Ljubljana, Maribor)

Cankarjev dom

(cultural centre)

Number of units



Number of performances


1 146

Number of visitors

283 130

338 615

Number of visitors per 1 000 inhabitants




Museums and dislocated units*


Number of units



Number of new temporary exhibitions



Activities accompanying permanent exhibitions



Number of visitors

819 987

512 632

Number of visitors per 1 000 inhabitants




Public libraries


Number of units



Number of all visitors per 1 000 inhabitants

4 579


Number of members

538 865


Number of performances

15 081



Books and journals published


Number of books and brochures published

5 740


Number of literature books (UDK 8), published

1 524


Number of books published per 1 000 inhabitants



Number of towns with more than 5 000 habitants and with a bookshop



Source:      Ministry of Culture.
*                 Public institutions co-financed by the Ministry of Culture and located in municipalities.

Creating a public demand for culture is a task that producers of culture have long recognised as a condition for their existence and development. In Western Europe, the fall in attendance at artistic events is already a cultural-political problem. In Slovenia, in some fields, cultural consumption increased constantly for several years, but it seems that consumption figures are slowly approaching those of the Western countries. For example, the number of visitors to Slovene professional theatres has increased dramatically in recent years: there was an average of 215 visitors to the theatre, annually, per 1 000 inhabitants, in the period 1993-1997; theatre visits, in 2001, amounted to 352 visitors per 1 000 inhabitants; in 2005, this figure increased to 442 visitors per 1 000 inhabitants. Unfortunately, the figure for the year 2006 shows a different picture; theatre visits to professional theatres in this year amounted to 379 visitors per 1 000 inhabitants. Slovenia boasts two independent opera and ballet houses (Ljubljana and Maribor) and both have recorded a rise in audiences in recent years, especially Maribor Opera and Ballet House. In 2006, major restoration works at Ljubljana Opera and Ballet House started. In spite of this fact, the company did not stop operating and it made a guest appearance in some other public cultural houses, such as Cankarjev dom. Cankarjev dom is a cultural centre in Ljubljana, which operates as a mediating agency and it unites musical, theatre, exhibition, and film activities and cultural-humanistic education. The vitality of this cultural centre also appears in its ability to market itself as a conference centre, thus earning, together with funds obtained from the sales of entrance tickets, more than half the funds required for its operation.

A saying circulated in Slovenia in the nineties, that this is a land in which more people attend a symphony concert than a football match! In 2003, for example, the Slovene Philharmonic had 49 visitors per 1 000 inhabitants and in 2005 this increased to 55 visitors per 1 000 inhabitants. In 2006, this number diminished to 54 visitors per 1 000 inhabitants.

The number of visitors, to museums co-financed by the Ministry of Culture, has been increasing since 2002, although the number of recorded visitors shows a tremendous fall in 2005: in 2002, public institutions recorded 1 402 348 visitors, in 2003 - 1 448 402 visitors, in 2004 - 1 744 390 visitors, in 2005 - 1 200 532 visitors, and in 2006 -1 332 619 visitors. This fall in figures is actually due to more rigorous supervision of data collection, obtained on the basis of issued tickets (the data collection does not include the astimate of visitors to the opening of exhibitions). An increase in the number of visitors to museums can be ascribed, above all, to the marked increase in the educational and adult educational activities of museums and galeries. Some 80% of visitors to educational programs prepared by museums and galleries are participants of educational programs targeted at young visitors

The number of loans, at general libraries, in Slovenia is rising (in 2005, 61 public libraries had 251 local libraries and library buses and 658 library bus stops), and in recent years, the lending of books and other library material has also increased. Slovene general libraries have, recently, greatly increased the number of different services that they provide.

Slovene publishing activity is rich, both in terms of diversity and in terms of quality and complexity. In 2006, 4 579 books and brochures were published (in 2001 - 4 069), approximately one quarter were literature books.

Public archives, financed by the Ministry of Culture, contain 59 983 metres of written material, of which 1 945 metres were acquired in 2005. The archives also contain archive materials in special formats and other medium, such as films (in 2005, there were 6 175 movie titles and 1 640 video titles), photographs (in 2005, there were 364 166 photographs), microfilms, maps, various sound carriers etc.

Table 20:   Data on radio and television, 2005




Number of radio or television programmes



Number of radio programmes or TV programmes with national coverage





Of which domestic films

Number of cinemas



Number of film distributions

1 245


Number of visitors

2 443 776

72 239

Number of visitors per 1 000 inhabitants

1 221


Source:      Statistical Office RS,

Audiovisual media is an important factor in strengthening the Slovene national identity and in preserving the Slovene language. 97% of households have televisions, 36.4% receive cable programmes and 30% satellite programmes. The number of printed dailies is also increasing. The largest share of audiences - more than 90% - is attracted by audiovisual media (radio and television), newspapers 6% and journals 2%. Research shows that reading habits among those younger than 18 years are falling sharply and, at the same time, they are above average users of television.

The number of cinemas in Slovenia fell drastically in the 1990s (from 1986 to 2000, their number almost halved). Audience numbers fell accordingly (from 1986 to 2000, their number fell by 59%). The number of cinemagoers began to increase again, with the founding of cinema complexes (the first opened in Ljubljana in 2001). Data on audience figures for Slovene films are encouraging; from 1995 to 2000, the number of showings in Slovene cinemas increased four-fold, and the audience numbers increased six-fold. From 2001, there was a growth in attendance at Slovene cinemas (2001 - 1 791 000 visitors, in 2002, this figure rose to 2 689 000 visitors, and in 2003, there were 2 884 000 visitors). In the second half of the present decade, the positive trend seems to be stopping again: in 2006, attendance at Slovene cinemas was 2 443 776 persons.

Slovenia/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation

8.2.2 Policies and programmes

There are no specific programmes linking participation in cultural life to the broader issues of civic participation and citizenship. See also 4.2.4.

Slovenia/ 8.3 Arts and cultural education

8.3.1 Arts education

Tertiary arts education falls under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology. There are three arts academies (the Academy of Fine Arts, the Academy of Music and the Academy of Theatre, Radio, Film and Television.). Some programmes are also run at the Faculty of Arts, such as Library Science, Publishing, History of Arts and Musicology. Course on fashion and design are organised by the Faculty of Natural Science and Technology.

See also 4.3 regarding the three academies.

Higher arts education has not yet been restructured according the Bologna process. The only exceptions are two programmes in the Faculty of Arts in Ljubljana (Library Science and Publishing).

The National Programme for Culture has also recognised the need for a more active role of cultural policy in education. The major problems lie within higher education, as there are no study courses for important cultural professions. There is a special question on how to ensure that priority support is given to programmes and projects which can make up for the lack of professional training in the field of culture. Education for professionals that directly co-operate in the maintenance and restoration of cultural heritage do not exist in the present educational system. This is true for higher education and for secondary schools. Education is only provided through non-institutional training opportunities whereby professionals work under mentors, take part in special courses, seminars, workshops and additional education abroad. Museology, is not, at the present moment, an independent field of study, but only a subject in some Departments of the Faculty of Arts. The same is true for the study of conservation. There are only some possibilities to take course at the post-graduate level in some Faculties. A different situation exists in the field of librarianship, which has its own study course in the Faculty of Arts.

A problem which has arisen in the last couple of years is the lack of education for cultural managers in the fields of art and cultural heritage. At the moment, there is no under-graduate or post-graduate programmes in this field. Some subjects are taught at the Faculty of Social Sciences and in all three Art Academies. Progress was made in the field of restoration when an under-graduate course was introduced in 1996 (not all kinds of cultural heritage). A professional programme for carving and restoration of wooden objects was also introduced on the secondary school level.

The amount of financial support for scholarships and school fees provided by the Ministry of Culture, in 2005, was 770 833 euros (ca 120 students). The scholarships and school fees were provided for students in different fields of art and audiovisual culture, post-graduate study abroad and education for cultural professions in multimedia cultures, as art critics, in restoration, for translators of classic works of literature and humanism. Support for under-graduate studies abroad are only financed when there is no similar under-graduate programme in Slovenia.

Arts education is one of the priorities of the National Programme for Culture and is defined as creative education and education for creativity. Special attention is placed on the cultural content in pre-elementary education (nursery, kindergarten), in school curricula and in the teaching programmes of cultural institutions. One of the main goals is to link cultural and educational sub-systems and to re-establish mechanisms for a systematic and organised network of both. To this aim, in 2006, the Minister of Culture and the Minister of Education announced that the school year of 2006/2007 was to be a Year of Culture. Kindergartens and schools on elementary and secondary level are invited to focus on cultural education and include special programmes of the cultural institutions to their regular activities. The Ministry of Culture established a special website, with data on all of the cultural programmes for children and young people. It also continued with the programme "Growing with the book", which means that every pupil in the seventh year of elementary school receives one literary book. The Ministry of Education dedicated its annual public tender Hidden Treasure to "culture and creativity" and announced special training and consultation for teachers and school principals. A cultural bazaar is planned also as an event where cultural organisations can meet the schools and inform them of their educational activities and programmes. In 2006, the cultural bazaar was devoted to the presentation of cultural public institutions. "Cultural days" continue as part of schools' extra-curricular programmes.

Slovenia/ 8.3 Arts and cultural education

8.3.2 Intercultural education

Basic documents for education, such as the White Paper on Education (1996) or special legislation, take into consideration an intercultural approach to school activities, together with the appreciation of Slovenian culture and tradition. In elementary schools, some of the mandatory subjects - Slovenian language, Society, Geography, History, German language - include intercultural education. Interculturalism and tolerance are also covered by optional subjects such as Philosophy, Religion and Ethic and Civic Education.

In the school year 2003/2004, the National Education Institute published the Catalogue of Counselling Services, in which schools were given the opportunity to organise an advisory service or a thematic conference, where a counsellor of the Institute would present the possibilities for encouraging interculturalism in school. In the school year 2002/2003, schools received a circular letter from the Minister of Education and the director of the National Education Institute, in which special importance was given to intercultural education.

Intercultural education also includes modules about the cultures of other communities living in Slovenia.

For more information, see our Intercultural Dialogue section

Slovenia/ 8.4 Amateur arts, cultural associations and community centres

8.4.1 Amateur arts

The information in this chapter has been prepared by Vojko Stopar, Fund for Amateur Cultural Activities.

Amateur arts have a specific tradition in Slovenia, especially as an important source of national cultural identity with a special role in social processes, because of its specific social functions.

In the last 10 years, the position of amateur arts in Slovenia has not changed much. They are still defined as organised forms of free-time mass cultural activities which contain cultural and social dimensions.

In the domain of culture, amateur arts are extremely diverse in its essence: it is close to traditional folk culture in some milieus, aspires to top forms of professional culture, or remains an expressive part of contemporary subculture.

Amateur arts also provide access to culture which is not determined by the social status of an individual or by the specific circumstances of an individual, such as disability, or by regional factors.

An important function of amateur arts is promotion of cultural diversity, intercultural dialogue, creative pluralism and cultural goods. A large number of creative works, regardless of their genre, audience, aesthetic taste, ideology or ethnic content is characteristic of such activities and are also aimed at involving vulnerable people in social life.

The presence, activities, knowledge and experience of amateur / voluntary arts organisations are important factors in the complex provision of cultural goods, public awareness of the importance of top quality artistic events and quality of cultural life in general.

Amateur arts as social activities therefore contribute to social cohesion in the sense of:

Because of both qualities cultural and social, amateur arts in Slovenia were always strongly, directly or indirectly supported by the government on the state or local level. Slovenian independence from Yugoslavia in 1991 brought about a new system of local government that rocked the foundations of the funding for amateur culture which was tied to the network of 68 local communities (now 210 local communities). A lack of consensus among them endangered the organisational and financial structure of amateur culture.

In 1996, the government established the Fund for Amateur Cultural Activities (since 2000 Public Fund for Cultural Activities - JSKD) to prevent the collapse of an expert and financial framework supporting the work of cultural societies. With this fund, the government started to take direct responsibility for civil society institutions. The JSKD is obliged to support amateur cultural societies and their unions. It also acts as cultural intermediary, performs organisational and administrative services in the field of culture for local communities and is vehicle of cultural policy in many places. The JSKD has expert and administrative personnel at its headquarters in Ljubljana and 59 local offices in all major urban centres in Slovenia. The Fund also organises reviews and promotional events on the local, regional, and national level for all art fields (music, theatre and puppet theatre, folklore, film, dance, fine arts, literature, and intermedia projects), thus allowing interactive comparison and evaluation of achievements and can be said to stimulate innovation and creativity.

The JSKD makes annual calls for financing of projects and programs, provides small investments and equipment for cultural groups and youth culture centres and societies. In addition, almost every local community is supporting "everyday life" of cultural groups and societies on their territory with rooms and financing.

Data from 2005 shows that there are approximately 4 000 groups of amateur arts, most of them are choirs (about 1 550), theatre and puppet groups (450), folklore dancing groups (350), contemporary dancing groups (200), fine arts groups (200), literature groups (150), wind orchestras 150), groups specialising in cultural heritage (100), etc. There are about 100 000 individuals involved in amateur arts activities. They have organised 17 700 cultural events for almost 3 million spectators.

The most prominent activities are choral singing (, folklore dancing and wind orchestras, but also all other activities are of a high quality level.

In the last few years, intercultural dialogue was one of the main topics of the JSKD programmes, especially providing financial and organisational help to ethnic minorities, their cultural groups and associations.

On the international level, JSKD is one of the founder - partners of the regional (Central and Southeast Europe) network of socio-cultural organisations and institutions called European Culture Cooperation -ECuCo ( The Network organises conferences, colloquia and other gatherings, joint cultural projects (festivals, exhibitions), enhances exchange of information, mobility of artists (professional or unprofessional) and cooperation among festivals.

JSKD is also a member of the Initiative Committee (together with representative organisations from Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium) of the European Network for Active Participation in Cultural Activities NAPCA ( The Network, with the goal of connecting socio cultural or amateur art organisations working on the national level in all European countries (47), will be launched at a conference in Ljubljana, in June 2008.

In 2007, possible changes in the organisational structure of amateur arts in Slovenia were announced as a result of the new Laws on Regionalisation. It is expected that the responsibility for maintaining the high level of amateur arts activities will be taken over by regional administrations; the branch offices of the JSKD will be abolished and the JSKD will just maintain its role as a coordinator.

Slovenia/ 8.4 Amateur arts, cultural associations and community centres

8.4.2 Cultural houses and community cultural clubs

There are approximately 980 cultural centres in Slovenia located in smaller towns. They provide the main space for creation, socialising and concerts. They also provide shelter to amateur cultural associations especially in the fields of music and theatre. There are new cultural centres emerging which focus on contemporary creative forms and are particularly attractive for young people. These "youth cultural centres" encourage new innovative cultural practices and give young people access to modern technology. There are about 60 youth cultural centres in Slovenia which are located in bigger urban areas. Both the cultural centres and youth cultural centres are mainly owned by local communities, which finance their operations and maintenance.

Since 1998, the Providing Funds for some Programmes in the Culture Act, allocates some state support for the preservation and development of amateur culture and to equalise related standards among municipalities. These resources are intended to co-finance urgent investments and to purchase equipment which is required. Unfortunately from the planned budget of 5 000 000 euros (for the period 1998-2003), only 1 450 000 euros or 30% was allocated. The Act was prolonged in 2004 for another five years. Although the planned budget for the extended period is almost 8 300 000 euros for all foreseen programmes, only 1 700 000 or 20% of the funding is expected to be granted as can be seen in the allocations granted during the first two years of the period 2004-2008 and planned state budget for the 2007 and 2008.

Slovenia/ 9. Sources and Links

9.1 Key documents on cultural policy

Čopič, Vesna; Tomc, Gregor; Wimmer, Michael: Kulturna politika v Sloveniji. Ljubljana: Fakulteta za družbene vede, 1997.

Čopič, Vesna; Tomc, Gregor: "Threat or opportunity? Slovenian cultural policy in transition" in: Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society Vol.30, no.1 spring 2000, str.42-52, ISSN 1063-2921.

Ministry of Culture, News, See

Ministrstvo za kulturo: Predlog zakona o varstvu kulturne dediščine. See

Ministrstvo za kulturo: Predlog zakona o Javni agenciji za knjigo Republike Slovenije. See

Gosselin, Tania: Minority Media in Hungary in Slovenia. Ljubljana: Peace Institute, 2003.

Milosavljevič, Marko: Television Across Europe: regulation, policy and independence -Slovenia. Budapest: Open society Institute, 2005. See

Ministrstvo za kulturo: Analiza stanja na področjih kulture in predlog prednostnih ciljev. uednik. Grilc, Uroš, Ljubljana: Ministrstvo za kulturo, 424. See

Ministrstvo za kulturo: Resolucija o nacionalnem programu za kulturo 2004-2007.

Ministrstvo za kulturo: Slovenski nacionalni kulturni program. Predlog, Ljubljana: Nova revija, 2000.

Ministrstvo za kulturo: Poročilo o (so)financiranju kulturnih programov in kulturnih projektov v letu 2006.  See

Ministrstvo za kulturo: Predlog Nacionalnega programa za kulturo 2008-2011.

Ministrstvo za kulturo: Poročilo o (so)financiranju kulturnih programov in kulturnih projektov v letu 2005. See

Ministrstvo za kulturo: Poročilo o (so)financiranju kulturnih programov in kulturnih projektov v letu 2004. See

Državni proračun 2006: Obrazložitev finančnega načrta Ministrstva za kulturo. See

Slovenia Cultural Profile

Slovenia/ 9. Sources and Links

9.2 Key organisations and portals

Cultural policy making bodies

Republic of Slovenia - National Assembly

Government of the Republic of Slovenia

Ministry for Culture

National Council for Culture

Slovenian Fund for Cultural Activities

Slovenian Film Fund

Professional associations

The Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts

Slovene Writers' Association

Association of Slovene Publishers

Slovene PEN Centre

Professional Association of Publishers and Booksellers of Slovenia

Slovene Association of Literary Translators

The Reading Badge of Slovenia Association

Archival Association of Slovenia (AAS)

Association of Slovene Filmmakers

Society of Slovene Composers

Association of Museums of Slovenia

Slovene Museum Society

Union of Slovene Library Associations

Publishing, Printing and Media Association, Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Slovenia

Association of Slovene Festivals (SloFA)

Union of Cultural Societies of Slovenia (ZKDS)

Association of Ballet Artists of Slovenia

Union of Slovene Folklore Groups

Slovene Drama Artists Association

Grant-giving bodies

Ministry for Culture

Slovenian Fund for Cultural Activities

Slovenian Film Fund

Office for Youth of the Republic of Slovenia

Trubar Foundation

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Ad Futura,Science and Education Foundation of the Republic of Slovenia

British Council

Goethe Institute

French Cultural, Scientific and Co-operative Service of the Embassy of the Republic of France in Ljubljana

Ad futura, Science and Education Foundation of the Republic of Slovenia

Cultural research and statistics

Centre for Cultural Policy Research, Peace Institute

Legal Information Centre for NGO Slovenia (PIC)

Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia

Culture / arts portal

Slovenia Cultural Profile

SCCA - Ljubljana Center for Contemporary Arts

L'MIT, Ljubljana Network of Info Points

Student Resource Centre, KIBLA Multimedia Centre

PINA, Primorski informacijski atelje, Koper

Cultural Contact Point Slovenia

Media Desk Slovenia



The Council of Europe/ERICarts "Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 9th edition", 2008