Report creation date: 14.10.2008 - 11:36
Countr(y/ies): San Marino
Chapter(s): 1,2,21,22,23,24,241,242,243,244,245,246,3,31,32,33,4,41,42,421,422,423,424,425,426,427,428,429,4210,43,5,51,511,512,513,514,515,516,517,518,519,52,53,531,532,533,534,535,536,537,538,539,5310,6,61,62,63,64,7,71,72,73,8,81,811,812,813,82,821,822,83,831,832,84,841,842,9,91,92

San Marino/ 1. Historical perspective: cultural policies and instruments

San Marino was founded in 301 AD and is - beside the Holy See - the only still existing territorial entity of the various independent states on the Italian territory prior to its unification in the 19th century. The Republic of San Marino is 61 km2, has a population of over 29 000 people and is divided up into nine political / administrative municipalities (called Castles).View on San Marino

During the post war years, industrialisation and a revival in tourism were factors which influenced the transformation of San Marino, also from a cultural point of view. The Titano Theatre became a stage for a series of prestigious cultural events as well as traditional civil celebrations. Several contemporary exhibitions organised during the 1950s contributed to the establishment of the Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery; the collection of the gallery was made up with works from key exhibitions held throughout the Republic.

In 1956 the San Marino prize for figurative arts, the first important painting event, inaugurated a successful series of San Marino Biennials, which attracted more than 100 000 visitors and gathered 515 artists and 1 312 works. San Marino Biennials caught the attention of the international artistic community and encouraged many painters to take part in these exhibitions. The 6th Biennial which took place in 1967 was, however, the last of this series of exhibitions. Subsequent events organised around the awarding of prizes such as the Olnano Castle Painting Prize (which later became the Serravalle Castle Painting Prize) were held until the 1980s and influenced the state purchase of about 80 works of art.

In the late 1960s, the State Office for Tourism, Sport and Performing Arts, the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs organised several festivals focused on the distinctive aspects of cultures from various parts of the world by involving intellectuals, artists, journalists, ambassadors and Nobel Prize winners of the targeted country. This initiative ended in 1989.

While the 1970s can be characterised as a period of continued focus on the organisation and hosting of several large exhibitions, the 1980s were marked by an important reform of the public administration responsible for culture. Several new cultural institutes were created such as the Office for Social and Cultural Activities. Other state institutions received increased independence such as the state museum, library and archive. The aim of the government's cultural policy was to separate tourism from culture, to grant culture a more official "status" and to promote the image of San Marino; the latter a priority which was carried over into the 1990s. In this context, the main objectives of the government were to promote the active participation of San Marino artists in international fora and to support the cultural development within the country. New centres were opened outside of the city centre (in the Castles of Dogana and Fiorentino) to organise cultural events. Calls were made to open new libraries in the Castles of Serravalle, Domagnano and Faetano.

In 1982, San Marino participated for the first time in the Venice Biennial International Art Exhibition on an equal footing with other countries. In the late 1980s, the role of the Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery was discussed more in detail and envisaged as a public museum to monitor and promote new artistic trends. The first step taken in this direction was "Summer 2", which included the participation of local cultural associations and researchers in the selection of public modern art works. Summer 2 was an initiative intended to offer an alternative summer of entertainment and leisure to be held within the city centre, with a variety of spectacular events, exhibitions, shows and theatre performances.

In the late 1990s, the Ministry of Education and Culture became the Ministry of Education and Cultural Institutes, thus stressing a political will to make the cultural sector autonomous and to free it from the staffing obligations of the public sector provided for by law. In 1996 San Marino organised the International Meeting "Cinema and History" and launched the "International Photomeeting". Among the major events organised during these years are the exhibitions: "Giorgio De Chirico", "Salvador Dalý" and "The Goths in San Marino". This last initiative was organised by the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and of Culture. It brought together, for the first time, all pieces of the Treasure of Domagnano scattered in various museums and collections worldwide and stressed the importance of international cooperation in the preservation and circulation of cultural goods.

In general, the cultural policy of the 1990s centred on far-reaching and high-value initiatives, which were to leave a mark and to promote San Marino abroad. The new millennium started with celebrations dedicated to the 2000 Jubilee. Two major exhibitions were organised in cooperation with the Russian State Museum in Saint Petersburg: "From icons to avant-garde. Mysterious treasures of Russian art" and "Christ in the Russian Art. Five centuries of religiousness and faith". These were two absolutely unique and original exhibitions for Western visitors, since it was the first time that Russian art crossed the boundaries of ancient Saint Petersburg. In 2003, the exhibition "Libertatis Fundator: Saint Marino: iconography, art and history", was organised and was dedicated to the Republic's Patron Saint, under the aegis of UNESCO and the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, Walter Schwimmer.

The production of stamps and commemorative medals has constantly been a priority for San Marino. Always in great demand, these objects are issued on the occasion of major events to celebrate famous people and promote peace, culture and justice all over the world.

San Marino/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.1 Organisational structure (organigram)

                                         Great and General Council (Parliament) 

San Marino/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.2 Overall description of the system

Following the general elections on 4 June 2006, ten new Ministers were appointed, with a reorganisation of the Departments responsible to each Ministry and the consequent redistribution of tasks and responsibilities. The most evident innovations, compared to the preceding legislatures, concern the responsibilities for peace assigned to the Ministry of Justice, for equal opportunities to the Ministry of Health and for youth policies to the Ministry of Labour.

After the formation of the new government (in San Marino, the executive body is named "Congress of State", and is composed of 10 Ministries, the so-called "Secretariats of State"), four Permanent Parliamentary Commissions were established, to which the various bills and issues are assigned according to their field of competence: Permanent Parliamentary Commission for Constitutional and Institutional Affairs, Public Administration, Internal Affairs, Civil Protection, Relations with Local Authorities, Justice, Education, Culture, Cultural Goods, University and Scientific Research; Permanent Parliamentary Commission for Hygiene, Health, National Insurance, Social Security, Social Policies, Sport, Territories, Environment and Agriculture; Permanent Parliamentary Commission for Finance, Budget, Planning, Handicraft, Industry, Commerce, Tourism, Services, Transport, Telecommunications, Labour and Cooperation; Permanent Parliamentary Commission for Foreign Affairs, Emigration and Immigration, Information, Security and Public Order.

The Ministry of Education and Culture, University and Social Affairs is the central governmental body responsible for promoting cultural policy. It is responsible for legislation and structural issues associated with the organisation of the cultural field.

The Ministry is responsible for coordinating all cultural institutes (museums, galleries, cinemas and theatres, libraries, the Music Institute and the University), as well as the social / cultural centres (Social Centres, Council of Cultural Associations and Cooperatives, Naturalist Centre). The Ministry is composed of the Minister, his Private Secretary, a Secretariat Official and the Coordinator of the Department, all politically appointed. Under Law 5/1981 and subsequent amendments - regulating secondments and permits for political functions - the Minister can rely on a staff of officials and experts coming from other offices, who benefit from a temporary political secondment for the whole legislation. Periodically, the Coordinator - who represents the link between the Executive power and the Public Administration - convenes the Department Council, an administrative meeting of all directors of the cultural sector, whose opinions are compulsory but not binding.

In San Marino, the legislative body is named the "Great and General Council" and is composed of 60 Parliamentarians, the so-called "Consiglieri"). The Parliament appoints the members of the following institutional bodies:

The Directorate of Cultural Affairs and Information is part of the Department of Foreign Affairs and is responsible for organising / managing: international cultural initiatives; all activities concerning cultural relations and scientific cooperation at an international level; bilateral agreements. The Permanent Study Centre on Emigration and the Museum of the Emigrant are also located within the Department of Foreign Affairs. See also 8.3.

The nine political / administrative municipalities of San Marino (called Castles), which are each presided over by a Mayor and a Council, are responsible to the Ministry of Justice, Relations with Local Authorities, Information and Peace. These local government bodies are key liaisons between the citizen and the state. Among their functions are the circulation of information on decisions made by institutional bodies of interest for the Castle, the financing and coordination of cultural and social initiatives (in collaboration with other public and private bodies or institutes) and carrying out studies and research activities to increase the knowledge of the history, customs and traditions of the Castle. In agreement with the Commission for the Preservation of Monuments, Antiques and Art Works and with the competent offices, the Castles promote the restoration and preservation of artistic, architectural and archaeological works of the Castle itself.

San Marino/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.3 Inter-ministerial or intergovernmental co-operation

The Congress of State holds executive power which it exercises through its Ministers (no-more than 10). The Congress of State assigns to each Minister specific competences and administrative sectors, for which they are politically and directly responsible. Under Constitutional Law on the Congress of State No. 183/2005 and Qualified Law on the Congress of State No. 184/2005, each Minister is required to cooperate with his colleagues whenever his area of competence overlaps with that of other Ministers and in any case whenever so requested by a colleague or the Congress of State. This means that Ministries can cooperate to achieve common objectives, though this is not always the practice.

The Ministry of Education and Culture, University and Social Affairs cooperates mainly with the Ministry of Labour and Cooperation, with the Ministry of Justice, Relations with Local Authorities, Information and Peace and with the Ministry of Foreign and Political Affairs. Such cooperation, however, is not systematic and mostly involves joint funding of specific events. Recent examples of cooperation between public institutions and private bodies are the staging of Giuseppe Verdi's Aida; "Allegro Vivo", an international piano competition; and an international singing competition dedicated to Renata Tebaldi.

Whenever necessary, the Congress of State can appoint inter-ministerial technical working groups, made up of representatives from the various Ministries. These working groups have no autonomy or decision-making powers and their task is limited to the study of specific issues, on which they have to report to the government.

In November 2006, San Marino took over the Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. In line with the Country's century-old tradition of peace, the main themes and priorities of San Marino's six-month Chairmanship concerned violence against women and children, education on human rights and democratic citizenship, protection and promotion of cultural diversity, as well as support and promotion of intercultural and interreligious dialogue, with full respect for diversity and by favouring understanding and mutual knowledge among cultures, both within Europe and in the relations with non-European countries. In order to achieve this last objective, a group of officials of the Ministry and of the Department of Foreign Affairs, in close cooperation with the Secretariat General of the Council of Europe, organised a forum with the participation of the major religious representatives, held in San Marino in April 2007.

Another event, held in the Republic, in March 2007, was a conference involving the European jurists who were studying the proposals to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the European Court of Human Rights. The Colloquy, which saw the participation of Representatives of States, NGOs, Academic Institutions and Juridical Experts - reiterated the need for Protocol 14 to the Convention on Human Rights to come into force soon, since the Russian Federation had not ratified it yet. Without implementing Protocol 14 it is quite impossible to envisage a comprehensive change in the system of protection of human rights. The objective of the reform process is to provide the Court with the instruments to process all applications in reasonable times. The Colloquy resulted in useful suggestions for the preparatory works of the 117th Session of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (held on 10-11 May 2007).

At the level of inter-ministerial collaboration, the drafting of the Framework Law on the Implementation of Youth Policies No. 91/2007 underlines that the issue of youth policies is not just a responsibility of the Secretariat of State for Labour, but it also interacts and integrates with the social policies addressed to other people. Cooperation is therefore carried out actively and in synergy with the government authorities responsible for labour, training, education and culture, leisure, health, etc.

San Marino/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.1 Overview of main structures and trends

From a strictly political and cultural point of view, the past 5 years have been marked by some important events, mainly concerning San Marino history and institutions and having a resonance far beyond the country's borders. These events have mostly concerned the political system, with regard to its field of competence, through ad hoc budget allocations by means of Congress of State (government) Decisions and the establishment of special inter-ministerial committees, which have also relied on the assistance of experts in this field. Cultural bodies have collaborated with each other domestically and, in some cases, they have been assisted by external bodies for better implementation of large-scale projects.

In 2001, on the occasion of the 1700th anniversary of the Republic's Foundation, a documentary dedicated to San Marino's history and traditions was presented: this documentary was a scientific and historical in-depth study on the events that have marked the cultural, juridical and economic evolution of the Republic throughout the centuries. The 1700th anniversary was celebrated during an extraordinary sitting of the Great and General Council (Parliament), in which also some delegations of students took part. Finally, the event was celebrated also by means of a special coin, a philatelic series and some pre-paid telephone cards.

2006 marked the 100th Anniversary of the Arengo, which represents the most important democratic expression of San Marino State and its institutional and political development, as well as the beginning of a welfare based on equity and solidarity among citizens. To commemorate this Anniversary, some important initiatives have been organised, including the minting of a silver coin, the unveiling of a memorial plaque on the fašade of the Government Building and the summoning of an extraordinary meeting of the Great and General Council. Moreover, the Arengo was recalled through a public conference, an exhibition of street artists and two works: a work of art - a majolica permanently on display in the heart of the city of San Marino - and a publication with the historical and juridical description of San Marino Public Law.

With regard to international cultural relations, the instruments used by the state of San Marino are mainly cooperation treaties or collaboration agreements, the texts of which are generally developed jointly by the Ministries of Culture and of Foreign Affairs. The latter is responsible for approving and finalising the agreement.

Among the most recent bilateral agreements are: the February 2002 proposal by San Marino of an "Agreement between the Government of the Republic of San Marino and the Government of Slovenia on Co-operation in the fields of culture and education"; the "Protocol between the Government of the Republic of San Marino and the Government of Japan on Cooperation in the fields of culture, education, tourism, economic and commercial activities and research", proposed by Japan in 2004; the "Memorandum on consultation between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of San Marino and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Cyprus", signed in November 2005; the "Protocol between the Government of the Republic of San Marino and the Government of the Republic of Cyprus on Cooperation in the fields of culture, education, sport, tourism and economic and commercial activities", proposed by San Marino in November 2005; the "Memorandum on Cooperation and Consultation between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of San Marino and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg", proposed in May 2006; in 2006, Ukraine submitted a proposal and in 2007 San Marino agreed on a "Cultural Cooperation Agreement between the Government of the Republic of San Marino and the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine". These are all agreement proposals, the texts of which have been exchanged between the competent Authorities of both countries; up to now, however, they have not agreed on a shared document and therefore on the consequent signature of a final agreement.

San Marino's six-month rotating Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (November 2006 - May 2007) - for the second time since the Republic's adhesion to this European Organisation in 1988 - has underlined the principle of equality among all member states, to which San Marino Chairmanship attaches fundamental importance, as it is at the basis of the existence and activity of the Council of Europe. This is symbolically and vitally signified by the transfer of the Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers from the largest European country to a very small state. Membership of this Organisation increases awareness of the common identity, a sine qua non condition to work together and to eradicate, through debate and collaboration within the Council of Europe, the threats of indifference and lack of democratic participation.

San Marino/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.2 Public actors and cultural diplomacy

The Dante Alighieri Association was established in San Marino in 2005 as a publicly mandated cultural agency. Its committee was re-established after 31 years since its dissolution, and a century since its first establishment. This non-profit Association, which has no political purpose, aims at safeguarding and promoting culture through the following activities: study and defence of the Italian language and civilisation; research in the humanistic and scientific disciplines; and comparison between San Marino's own experiences and those of other states and cultural backgrounds. The Dante Alighieri Committee of the Republic of San Marino is part of a wider network made up of numerous similar foreign committees of about 80 states throughout the five continents, besides Italy.

Another cultural institute, the Alliance Franšaise, has been operating for several years in San Marino and represents a real "cultural multinational" agency, with the aim of disseminating the French language and culture beyond the national borders, through multinational cultural activities. This private institute promotes activities in support of the French language teaching in schools and organises various cultural events, as well as exhibitions, concerts, meetings on the French language, traditions and culture, in order to promote exchange activities between the French and the Italian cultures. More specifically, the objectives of the Alliance Franšaise are cultural promotion, education and training through various initiatives, such as debates, meetings, information and training, with a view to promoting integration on the territory of Italy (San Marino is one 54 sections existing on the Italian territory).

This Association periodically organises special days for French teachers in San Marino and Rimini, in collaboration with the various Alliances of the surrounding areas. In this regard, the Association closely collaborates with the Ministry of Education, Culture and University: the proposals of the Ministry are transmitted to the teachers, who are encouraged to participate in the various initiatives, although without any obligation. Indeed, the Alliance Franšaise has no government or public mandate, except for some specific cases defined from time to time (for example, some French language and culture courses have been organised for the officials of the Department of Foreign Affairs).

The state budget includes some specific items supporting cultural activities, both domestic and international, organised by the Directorate of Cultural Affairs of the Department of Foreign Affairs, as well as activities organised by the Ministry of Education, Culture and University through the Cultural Institutions responsible to it: State Museums, Office for Social and Cultural Activities and State Library. Moreover, in particular cases, economic support is also offered by private entities, in particular by banking foundations. For further clarifications, see chapter 2.3 and chapter 3.1.

San Marino/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.3 European / international actors and programmes

With regard to San Marino participation in the Council of Europe's multilateral cooperation programmes, the Ministry of Education and Culture has established a commission of experts made up of university professors, teachers and others, with the aim of planning initiatives for the six-month Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (November 2006 - May 2007). Moreover, the members of this commission are called upon to actively participate in the initiatives promoted by the Council of Europe and to represent the Republic within the international fora. In this context, a national coordinator has been appointed, with the task of taking part in the meetings on education relating to democratic citizenship and human rights and on the forms of responsible and active citizenship favouring the democratic participation of schools. Schools of every order and grade have developed a particularly rich programme on this theme.

Moreover, the training and refresher courses on education relating to human rights directed to teachers, started in September 2006, will continue to be offered. The Summer School, established in 2007, is organised by the Department of Training of San Marino University, in co-operation with the Department of Education Sciences of Bologna University, which has the aim of developing an educational reflection on the use of civil theatre as a cultural and teaching resource in different training contexts, in order to promote full and aware democratic citizenship. The Summer School offers meetings and workshops with the best artists involved in civil theatre, theatre laboratories, seminars with university professors and a theatre exhibition open to the public: the "Festival of Democratic Citizenship", which included four performances dealing with the issue of social inclusion / exclusion from different points of view. Moreover, a San Marino University professor has been entrusted by the Ministry of Education and Culture with the task of participating in the "Pestalozzi" training programme of the Council of Europe for education professionals, focused on intercultural education. 

The Cooperation and Customs Union Agreement signed with the European Union allows wide margins with regard to cultural exchange programmes, such as Erasmus, although these are not regulated in a specific paragraph. Indeed, several San Marino young people have decided to study and specialise abroad. Like the citizens of other European states, San Marino young people can participate in foreign projects. The only difference concerns the possibility of receive financing, which cannot be granted to non-EU citizens. Therefore, San Marino state provides assistance by paying the relevant financial contributions. Moreover, in accordance with Law n. 5 of 21 January 2004, the Office for the Right to Study allocates grants for highly specialised courses both in Italy and abroad. This Law represents a useful instrument for those particularly gifted and talented young people wishing to specialise in their chosen field. San Marino Secondary School provides for the training abroad of students, in particular throughout the 5 years of the Linguistic Lyceum and during the fourth year of the Classical, Scientific and Economic Lyceum.

For the first time, in 2007 San Marino participated in the photography competition EPIM (ExpÚrience Photographique Internationale des Monuments) organised by the Government of Catalonia and sponsored by the Council of Europe. The aim of the initiative is to stress the importance of the historical, cultural and monumental heritage of European states and the world, through a particular "photographic objective": that of the new generations. Photos taken by two girls attending the junior high school and high school have been chosen to represent San Marino in this important pedagogical project.

With regard to activities promoted by UNESCO, in 2006 San Marino has actively participated in the project "Human rights and education in the fight against poverty. Support to autonomy acquisition by girls and women from Niger". For this humanitarian initiative, in which other 4 small states participated, San Marino signed the letter of intention and offered an economic contribution. The amount allocated will be used to complete, in one of the poorest areas of the world, a comprehensive education project including: the building of primary schools in villages, with the necessary equipment and training courses for teachers; the implementation of agricultural activities; awareness raising campaigns on human rights and gender equality; adequate training concerning health and the fight against AIDS. The envisaged interventions will be monitored by UNESCO, in collaboration with the financing countries.

Congress of State Decision of 16 May 2006 agreed on San Marino's signing of the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions and mandates the Secretariat of State for Foreign Affairs for the relevant fulfilments. At the time being, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Political Affairs and Economic Planning and the Ministry of Education and Culture, University and Social Affairs are working on the ratification of this Convention. The ratification of the United Nations Convention is part of a wider project which includes San Marino government policies supporting intercultural dialogue and pursued in the international fora where the country is represented. In particular, protection and promotion of diversity was among the priorities of San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe; even if the six-month Chairmanship is over, these issues and ideals are still very important, representing the basis of San Marino's social and political agenda.

San Marino/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.4 Direct professional co-operation

In 2005, the NUA Association (New contemporary art and research), composed of visual artists, musicians, theatre directors, political scientists, economists and cultural operators, launched and curated a project entitled "Going beyond the countries' art - small states on un-certain stereotypes". In this context, a first meeting gathering artists and institutions of contemporary art from small states of Europe was held in San Marino in November 2005. An observatory / network of artists and the institutions from Andorra, Cyprus, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco and San Marino is being developed to favour future cooperation. This network stems from the need to go beyond the countries' art in order to promote transnational exchanges of experiences, methodologies and instruments and to support art production and its development throughout Europe. The project has been realised in the context of ARTMIX 2005 download, a multidisciplinary exhibition curated by the Office for Social and Cultural Activities, in collaboration with the Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery, and sponsored by the San Marino Foundation.


San Marino/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.5 Cross-border intercultural dialogue and co-operation

For intercultural dialogue, see 2.3, where reference is made to the six-month programme of the San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe.

In the context of youth policies, in 2000, the Ministry of Education and Culture awarded (by implementing Law 5/2004 on the Right to Study) some travel grants to students enrolled in secondary schools and universities to enable them to participate in training courses in foreign languages and culture abroad. The objectives of these grants are: to promote personal development during summer holiday periods; to develop abilities and skills which cannot be fully exploited during the normal training period; and to strengthen knowledge through direct experience with the cultural and social life of other countries.

At an international level, in May 2000, San Marino signed the European Convention on the Promotion of a Trans-national Long-term Voluntary Service for Young People, thus recognising the educational aim of voluntary service at NGOs abroad, including some intercultural learning elements. From a domestic point of view, special provisions regulate the activities performed by volunteers: Law n. 97 of 1989 regulates cooperation between volunteers and public entities (see also 8.4), while Law n. 142 of 1985 refers to volunteers working in cooperation projects based on bilateral or multilateral agreements with developing countries. Both laws set forth general rules of a humanitarian and social character (for further details, see 5.1.6).

The government programme for the XXVI legislature, in the section dedicated to foreign policy and international relations, justifies the assignment of responsibilities for peace to the Minister of Justice, Relations with Local Authorities and Information, by entrusting him / her with the task of promoting, also in collaboration with volunteer associations and through international cooperation, any useful initiative by volunteers and associations.

At an operational level, some San Marino sections of international volunteer associations have been established on the territory, such as Fair Trade groups, Mani Tese, Unsolomondo and others, which organise some initiatives in collaboration with Italian NGOs, by co-financing wide-ranging projects. One of the most recent cases is the Preda Italia Association, which promotes and supports, both in Italy and San Marino, an important comprehensive humanitarian and social project. The San Marino group contributed to raising awareness on this project by promoting meetings and debates and involving public institutions and, in turn, it received state sponsorship and support.

For more information, see our Intercultural Dialogue section

San Marino/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.6 Other relevant issues

In December 2006, the Republic of San Marino had a total of 38 786 inhabitants, out of whom 26 432 reside on the territory and 12 354 reside abroad, scattered all over the world and divided up in the following way: 7 768 in Europe, 4 451 in the Americas, 10 in Africa, 14 in Oceania and 111 not specified. The countries hosting the highest number of San Marino citizens are: in Europe, Italy (5 724), France (1 881) and Belgium (62); in the rest of the world, United States of America (2 910) and Argentina (1 489). In the other countries, there are only small groups of San Marino citizens, the transfer of whom is however significant for a small state like San Marino. Particularly interesting is the case of Brazil, where there is an association of 500 descendants of San Marino citizens who emigrated at the end of the 19th century. The 25 communities, which are legally autonomous since 1979, are located in Italy, France, Belgium, United States and Argentina; indeed, with Laws 77-79/1979, the associations of San Marino citizens residing abroad are legally recognised and protected. The Law provides for precise criteria for the establishment of an association. The minimum number of San Marino registered citizens to establish an association is 30; these citizens must be at least 18 and reside abroad. There are also de facto communities, which are not recognised, such as the communities of Pesaro, Switzerland and Bourgogne.

A Law also established the Consulta (Council) of San Marino citizens abroad: this is a sort of general assembly gathering the representatives of San Marino communities abroad. In compliance with the internal regulation, this body was established in order to: facilitate closer relations between San Marino citizens residing abroad and the motherland; directly inform the offices of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the problems concerning San Marino emigrants in the world; promote examination, within the competent bodies, of the most important themes concerning the community; express the opinion of San Marino citizens abroad on the country's general policy; and protect the interests and rights of San Marino citizens abroad, on an equal footing with residing citizens. The Consulta meets every year in plenary session in San Marino and is preceded by a pre-Consulta, in which only the Presidents of the communities participate, while one representative for each 100 members of the community of reference may participate in the plenary session. Also, San Marino government representatives may participate in the annual assembly; on this occasion, the representatives of the communities draft a final document, which must be approved by acclamation. With Law n. 98/1997 reforming the Consulta, the Minister of Foreign Affairs no longer presides over the Consulta; indeed, the President is directly elected within the assembly, as it happens for the Office of the Presidents, composed of 5 members. The works of the Consulta are public and all citizens and interested persons (for example, on account of grants, degree theses, etc.) may intervene.

Among the initiatives directed to San Marino citizens residing abroad are the so-called cultural stays - that is summer stays of 3 weeks financed by the state and aimed at San Marino young people between 18 and 28. These young people, who are allowed to participate only in two non-consecutive editions, are chosen by the single associations. These courses represent an important instrument to favour the knowledge and in-depth study of the language, traditions, history and institutions of the Republic, in order to make participants more aware of their status as San Marino citizens. Since 1980, more than 700 young people residing abroad have participated in this culturally enriching initiative, about which they have always been enthusiastic to the point that some of them have decided to move to San Marino, while others have become active members of San Marino associations abroad or have been assigned important consular or diplomatic positions in their place of residence on behalf of San Marino.

Every year, through a Government Decision, the contributions established by Law are allocated among the various communities, according to the number of effective members. These contributions are supplemented by the solidarity fund (4% of each contribution allocated by the state in favour of communities) destined to San Marino citizens abroad who find themselves in difficulty. These cases are presented and examined on the occasion of the pre-Consulta. The above-mentioned Decision also allocates annual grants to the communities, which are used by the respective associations on the basis of internal needs, by adopting the merit and need criteria. The number of grants assigned varies from one to three according to the quantity of members.

Foreign policy is a priority for San Marino and its aim is to reinforce the statehood of the Republic including its sovereignty and identity.

San Marino's active cooperation with Italy is based on geographic interdependency and on common cultural and democratic traditions. Under the first 1862 agreement between the Kingdom of Italy and the state of San Marino, Italy committed itself to guaranteeing and protecting the freedom of San Marino as a friendly nation. Even though bilateral acts were established between two sovereign states, based on legal equality, sovereignty and independence of the parties, the characteristics of nearby Italy have often been taken into account in the decisions made by San Marino which, in some cases, have reflected the cooperation needs between the two states.

Italy and San Marino have signed several bilateral agreements relevant to culture such as: Agreement on the Mutual Recognition of Educational Qualifications (1983) and an Agreement on Cultural and Scientific Collaboration (2002) covering culture, arts, protection, preservation and restoration of cultural heritage, archives, museums, libraries, university education and inter-university cooperation, school and professional education, and tourism.

France is another state with which San Marino actively cooperates. The 1985 cultural agreement with France further strengthened this relationship. Other similar agreements have been concluded with Romania (1975 and updated in 2003), with the former USSR (1979 and in 2002 proposed to the Government of the Russian Federation) and with the People's Republic of China (1980). In 1986, San Marino ratified the European Cultural Convention, thus contributing to the protection and development of a common European cultural heritage and to the promotion of the study of the language, history, culture of the member states, as well as to the circulation and exchange of people and goods of cultural value. Cultural agreements between San Marino Castles European and non-European cities have also been concluded to foster new commercial and cultural relations.

The Republic is also active on the multilateral level and has participated in UNESCO activities since 1974. In 1991, it ratified the UNESCO Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.

San Marino has implemented the principles and policies included in the European Commission White Paper on Youth, through the Social Centres located throughout the territory. A concrete example is the Youth Card offered by the Social Centre in Serravalle and designed to increase youth mobility in Europe.

San Marino/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.1 Main elements of the current cultural policy model

During the 1980s and 1990s, responsibility for culture was implemented via public institutions and cultural centres. Today, the current cultural policy model is increasingly based on joint co-operation of public and private sector actors. The main focus of this cooperation is on the organisation of high level artistic and cultural projects and events which can be exported abroad.

The private sector, in particular banking foundations, has increasingly engaged in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture and with other public bodies responsible for culture. Attention has been focused on hosting prestigious cultural events which are independent from the seasonal tourist programmes along the Adriatic Coast. The involvement of the private sector is not only financial. It also contributes to the work of public cultural bodies. For example, in recent years, the theatre season has been organised by the Office for Social and Cultural Activities in collaboration with other private partners. ARTMIX 2004, 2005 and 2006 has benefited from significant economic and organisational contributions by a bank foundation.

For more details on cultural policies, see 3.3 and 4.1.

San Marino/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.2 National definition of culture

The political and planning agreements for the government (2001 and 2006) defined the culture as a fundamental element of San Marino identity, in relation to its traditions and to the international role played by small states in the era of globalisation. Culture is therefore strictly linked to the state's identity and to the sense of belonging rooted in San Marino people.

This definition was further underlined in a 1996 Conference entitled "The Republic of San Marino: identity of a people". The final report connects "identity" to the achievements made by the people of San Marino throughout the years in terms of democracy, civilisation and science, emancipation of the classes, works of engineering and art, restructuring, preservation and respect for heritage, traditions, environment and nature. Although the Republic belongs to the Italian peninsula from a geographical, ethnic, cultural, monetary and commercial point of view, San Marino maintains its specific features and authentic heritage. San Marino identity is therefore a value, the characteristics of which have always been preserved thanks to civil, institutional, social and cultural interventions. The attitudes, uses and traditions of its people can be defined as its cultural heritage, which is its "sammarinesitÓ": a word of cultural anthropology to describe attitudes and behaviours which is now part of everyday language and which expresses the strong sense of belonging, identity and stateness.

San Marino/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.3 Cultural policy objectives

The programme of the current government - formed in July 2006 - expressively states that the external relations activities of San Marino should highlight the identity of the Republic as a state and its vocation to peace, dialogue among cultures, peaceful co-existence among peoples, respect for and protection of human rights and international co-operation. In particular, as far as the cultural policy of the state is concerned, it specifies that "the social and economic development processes, together with the phenomena of interculturality and globalisation, require a continuum of training, research and cultural promotion activities, so that the quality of knowledge and skills can be guaranteed" and it affirms that "culture is a fundamental resource for people and society. It is a factor of individual growth, general development, cohesion of the whole community and understanding among peoples... the San Marino vocation as a state needs a comprehensive cultural policy... which can compete with the great culture and provide its own citizens with periodical events representing occasions of exchange, meeting, knowledge of the other cultures and, at the same time, develop more qualified and targeted forms of cultural tourism... In the age of globalisation and multiculturality, it is fundamental for our Republic to strengthen the process... to build the San Marino cultural identity".

See also 3.1 and 4.1.

San Marino/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.1 Main cultural policy issues and priorities

Policy priorities in the cultural sector have been mainly linked to the government's aim to foster economic development in San Marino. They are:

See also 3.1 and 3.3.

San Marino/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.1 Cultural minorities, groups and communities

There is no main cultural policy document addressing national minority groups and this issue is not listed as a policy priority in the government's current list of cultural policy priorities, as there are only a few national minority groups.

The number of foreigners in San Marino is not enough to justify a specific legislation for the recognition and protection of minorities. Nevertheless, the few cultural minorities which do live on the territory enjoy full respect in conformity with the principles stipulated by the 1974 "Declaration on the Citizens' Rights" and by the following laws, which supplemented and partially amended this Declaration (see 5.1.1). In August 2007, out of 31 901 inhabitants (including residents and permit holders), the number of immigrants was 274, compared to 252 in August 2006. These are mainly Italians, followed by Romanians, Argentineans, Ukrainians, Russians, Poles, French, Albanians and other minority groups not exceeding 20 people. The increasing number of people having a different religion, culture, belief and language has never caused intercultural problems or conflicts. Those minorities which have formed cultural associations enjoy, like all those participating in the Council of Cultural Associations and Cooperatives, special benefits, also of an economic nature (see 8.1.3). Moreover, the state periodically sponsors the organisation of some events to highlight uses, traditions, cuisine etc., of an ethnic or cultural group located in San Marino. In 2004, events were organised on the music of France and Africa; on Peru and on the 50th anniversary of the BahÓ'ý faith. These events, however, are not the result of a government policy for the assimilation or integration of a group. In 2007, with the participation and sponsorship of different Secretariats of State and the Russian Association "The world of culture", a concert of Russian music was organised; the initiative was among the cultural events organised on the occasion of the official visit of the President of the Russian Federation to Italy.

In 2005, a group of volunteer women founded an association called "Le amiche di Ruth" (Ruth's girlfriends) organising various courses (language, computer, cooking, etc.) for foreign women living in San Marino. The aim is not only to facilitate their inclusion in the local society and culture, but also to establish a more conscious relationship with people from different backgrounds and to stimulate cultural exchange for mutual enrichment. Italian language courses, organised by the Ministry of Education, continue to attract a high number of immigrants. Inside the information magazine of the political party "Sinistra Unita", a column offers support to immigrants looking for work, by publishing their advertisements.

In 1988, San Marino signed the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 1996. In 2005, the Republic signed the Additional Protocol n. 14 to the European Convention of Human Rights.

On 19 May 2006, San Marino signed the Council of Europe Framework Convention on the Value of Cultural Heritage for Society and the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Currently, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Political Affairs and Economic Planning and the Ministry of Education and Culture, University and Social Affairs are working to ratify the latter, in line with the policies to support intercultural dialogue adopted by the San Marino government and affirmed within the international fora where the Republic is represented. In particular, the protection and promotion of diversities was among the priorities of the San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe; even after the six-month Chairmanship is over, these issues and ideals are still very important, representing the basis of San Marino's social and political agenda.

San Marino/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.2 Language issues and policies

Italian is the official language of the Republic of San Marino. However, up until a few decades ago, San Marino people used to speak an additional dialect in their daily life, irrespective of their social status. Following the major economic, social and cultural changes of the post war period, the Italian language was used by all groups of society.

Nowadays, Italian and dialect coexist. Younger generations are increasingly using Italian, while a smaller group of elderly people still use dialect as their only language. Local dialect can be considered as the second language of San Marino people, with its autonomous and regular linguistic system from a phonetic, morphosyntactic and lexical point of view. Even if there are no ad hoc laws for its protection, dialect is still a valuable source of historical traditions and true popular expression.

In 1998, the text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was translated into 250 national and local languages, including the San Marino dialect. San Marino traditional folk heritage encompasses a lively popular literature and dialect songs. Moreover, numerous amateur theatre companies use dialect in their plays (see 8.4.1). Radio programmes of the state broadcasting company San Marino RTV include a transmission in dialect which rediscovers ancient popular sayings and poems, entitled "Rime e ricordi d'infanzia" (Rhymes and memories of childhood). To bring young generations closer to the dialect, "TG Ragazzi" has dedicated a special section to popular sayings. The professions of past generations, now disappearing, have characterised the weekly TV show entitled "E'Mount" (transl. "The Mount"), produced in dialect, hosted by Checco Guidi, a San Marino dialect poet.

The University of the Third Age "Il Sorriso" (The Smile) (free association promoting the knowledge and recovery of the San Marino community and historical roots, opened to everyone, but especially attended by the elderly) has enhanced the importance of local traditions on many occasions. The cultural stays addressed to the children of emigrants (see 2.4.6) organise meetings aimed at rediscovering San Marino dialect roots. Finally, the Popular Library of Serravalle promotes cultural events focused on the traditions of San Marino and of the near Romagna region.

In addition to these events, other sporadic initiatives have involved the schools of the territory, which, during main festivities, have staged performances in dialect with the aim of rediscovering old San Marino traditions. However, these are not ongoing events and are not part of any official government debate. Nevertheless, people are aware that the progressive disappearance of the dialect, now only protected by a few people, spoken only by the elderly and nearly not understood by young people, leads to an impoverishment of popular culture, which represents the roots of the San Marino people. Therefore, the threat of the disappearance of the San Marino dialect is always present; this gap is bridged, only partially, by the sensitivity of the banking Foundations, which periodically sponsor publications in dialect.

San Marino/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.3 Intercultural dialogue: actors, strategies, programmes

Intercultural dialogue is a recurrent theme in several fields. At a political level, promoting intercultural and interreligious dialogue was among the priorities of the San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe during the semester November 2006-May 2007. In particular, as stated by the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in his speech on the occasion of the transfer of Chairmanship ceremony, "The Republic of San Marino intends to support the Council of Europe's aim to establish peace based on justice and international co-operation, which are vital to the survival of human society and a civilisation devoted to the moral and spiritual values behind the European ideals of individual freedom, political freedom and respect for democracy. Promoting intercultural and inter-religious dialogue is the most tangible means of furthering the task of upholding these values". In particular, the San Marino Chairmanship intended to "encourage the transmission of the idea of peace conquered by Europe over sixty years ago, to promote peaceful coexistence and, based on San Marino's tradition of hospitality - best illustrated when it welcomed 100 000 refugees to its small land in World War II - make an important contribution to a peaceful and prosperous future". In view of the evident connection between migration patterns and plural societies, the San Marino Chairmanship also endeavoured to support initiatives and activities aimed at analysing the theme of intercultural dialogue and proposing appropriate solutions. In this regard, San Marino organised, in October 2006, an international Conference on the relationship between emigration and development, with the participation of the Council of Europe Secretariat.

Following the path traced by the Warsaw Summit, which acknowledged the great importance of intercultural dialogue in the broad sense of the term, in 2006 San Marino signed the Faro Convention on the value of cultural heritage for society. More specifically, the Republic supports the affirmation of "plural European citizenship", in close liaison with the conservation and enhancement of Europe's cultural heritage, based on intercultural and inter-religious dialogue. Indeed, the emergence of "plural European citizenship" can contribute to mutual knowledge and understanding among different cultures, both inside Europe and in its relations with extra-European realities. The Republic of San Marino, with its history of freedom, self-government and democracy, is particularly sensitive to this issue. Education in "plural European citizenship" must therefore turn differences to account as instruments of positive and peaceful human development, as opposed to prejudice and intolerance, barring the way to sterile sameness and the ironing out of differences. In pursuit of these aims, the San Marino Chairmanship organised in Strasbourg, in March 2007, a study conference on the cultural and identity-related aspects of the Italian language in the small states and small territorial entities.

At a political level, the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs underlined in his speech that the role of education is essential in instilling the values of tolerance, human rights and respect for others into the hearts and minds of Europe's youth, in the knowledge that only mutual recognition, respect and understanding, transcending all "differences", can lastingly guarantee justice and peace. In this spirit, San Marino is aware that it is necessary to educate the young not to be indifferent towards differences and, for this reason, ad hoc youth policies have been recently added to the government attributions.

Domestically, point 13 of the government plan for the 26th legislature (dating back to July 2006) explicitly refers to "cultural and training policies". With regard to schools, the plan underlines that social and economic development, as well as intercultural dialogue and globalisation, require a continuum of training, research and cultural promotion activities in order to guarantee qualitative knowledge and skills. Therefore, the state is committed to continue ensuring that the primary aim of training should be the acquisition of common knowledge and skills, while guaranteeing equal education opportunities for all. Moreover, an ad hoc paragraph refers to the connection between schools and the labour and business world. In this regard, the main objective of the government is to promote and facilitate the exchange of students and teachers at a European level, in order to increase cultural, job and guidance opportunities.

For more information on minorities living in San Marino and their integration in the Republic's social and cultural context, see 4.2.1.

The San Marino government attaches considerable importance to the promotion of dialogue among cultures and religions, as a fundamental instrument to build peace. Also, on the basis of the ideas expressed in the final document of the European Conference on the Religious Dimension of Intercultural Dialogue, organised by San Marino in April 2007 in the framework of the Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, this latter has entrusted San Marino with the coordination of the first annual meeting dedicated to the religious dimension of intercultural dialogue, to be held, on an experimental basis, in Spring 2008 with the Representatives of the 47 member states, as well as religious and civil society representatives.

The government also proposes San Marino as an international place for dialogue and relations among peoples and cultures.

The support by the government and the institutions of the positive actions of cultural diversity is clearly expressed in the actions carried out, as well as in the declarations. It is in this spirit that the Secretary of State for Education invited teachers and operators of San Marino schools to pay particular attention to the education to human rights in the school programmes.

The support offered by the government to public initiatives of single groups or associations, aimed at presenting aspects (related to culture, art and food) of the different cultural expressions, has now become part of the ordinary social and cultural activity of the Country and it concretely shows how the Authorities acknowledge the positive actions of cultural diversity.

In February 2007, the San Marino government adopted the "Revised European Charter on the Participation of Young People in Local and Regional Life". The text contains different parts directly referring to "cultural diversity" and "intercultural dialogue", which deserve maximum attention and respect.

In July 2007, the Framework Law for the Implementation of Youth Policies met the need to plan suitable initiatives aimed at favouring the full and free development of the personality of young people at cultural, social and economic level, by recognising the different forms of expression and stressing the importance of associations and non-profit organisations. The Law provides for the creation of opportunities for younger generations in different contexts: in civil society, by promoting active citizenship, respect for diversity, intercultural and inter-religious dialogue, etc.; in the fields of education and training; in terms of access to the labour market, and; in the field of international mobility.

Moreover, there are many fields in which the different Secretariats of State, together with the Foundations of Banking Institutions, commit to supporting cultural diversity, also with extremely visible actions. In this regard, some recent initiatives can be recalled, such as the promotion of a public competition for San Marino artists or for artists residing on the territory to create a sculpture dedicated to the value of dialogue among different cultures and peoples, as a sine qua non condition to build peace. The sculpture will be located in the centre of the roundabout of Borgo Maggiore, a town at the foot of Mount Titano. It will assume a very strong symbolical and ideal meaning, since it will be placed in a strategic transit point for anyone going to the city centre of San Marino (every year, about three million tourists visit the Republic). For further information on the competition and the sculpture, see 7.3 and 8.1.2.

Another initiative, promoted by the Secretariat of State for Foreign Affairs with the participation of other Secretariats of State and public sectors, has been the creation, in the city centre of San Marino, of a place that can freely be used by visitors and citizens for meditation and prayer. This place has no religious symbols and is open to any person, regardless of his / her faith.

The opportunity to join specific international campaigns, like the one entitled "All Different - All Equal" promoted by the Council of Europe in 2006, has enabled the government authorities to coordinate their efforts and contribution in the adoption of specific decisions and programmes.  

In San Marino there are no specific institutions responsible for developing programmes to promote intercultural and inter-religious dialogue. The most involved institutions are, de facto, the Secretariats of State for Foreign Affairs, for Culture and Education, for Tourism and for Peace, which however have to collaborate with each other and adopt common decisions in the Congress of State, to which they regularly submit proposals and initiatives to be approved, for the necessary collaborations at an institutional level, for the authorisation of costs etc...

For more information, see:
Database of Good Practice on Intercultural Dialogue and our Intercultural Dialogue section.

San Marino/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.4 Social cohesion and cultural policies

In San Marino, the issue of "social cohesion" is not included in specific cultural policies. Indeed, on account of the limited number of foreigners residing on the territory, a targeted measure has not been deemed necessary (see also 4.2.1). However, San Marino society is generally characterised by tolerance and dialogue and this has led to an increase, over the years, in the number of foreigners living and working in San Marino. Despite the fact that, at the time being, the Republic is not affected by discrimination problems based on race, colour, language and origin, there exist some administrative and civil law provisions mainly concerning employment. Similar provisions also regulate firing and equal opportunities.

Some measures have been adopted by the government and the institutions to enable the few foreigners residing in San Marino to express their own cultural identity and contribute to the cultural richness of the society as a whole. For instance, the evening classes for the Italian language, proposed by the Secretariat of State for Public Education, continue to attract many immigrants: the aim is to facilitate their integration into the social context of the Country (see 4.2.1). In addition, for some years, Trade Unions have been providing an information and assistance service both to workers and employers to support their process through the bureaucratic procedures.

Other measures recently adopted by the San Marino Executive power to promote values aimed at strengthening social cohesion are part of the education and training policies involving the Training Department of San Marino University. This Department offers various professional categories, including teachers of any grade, training courses and study sessions concerning multicultural education, respect for diversities and the value of tolerance.

In the school year 2006/2007 new lessons concerning human rights were introduced, a priority theme in the curricula of all San Marino schools. This is the reason why the Department of Training organised some ad hoc courses on human rights and education to democratic citizenship. Moreover, the Department of Training included the subject matters "intercultural pedagogy" and "gender difference" within specialisation courses destined for teachers.

In the field of post university education, San Marino is participating, for the first time, with a national delegation in the first level Masters in "Human Rights and Humanitarian Action" promoted by the University of Siena.

For further details on the activities carried out in schools and in the field of education, see 8.3.2.

In October 2006, San Marino organised the conference "Migration and Development". This initiative was organised by the Museum of the Emigrant - Permanent Centre of Studies on Emigration (established in 1997 with the task of documenting the experience of San Marino migration and testifying to the sense of belonging of the 12 000 San Marino citizens living abroad, see 4.2.9), with the sponsorship of the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. It proposed specific solutions. The results of the research presented on the occasion of the conference have underlined that emigrants have always represented a resource both for their country of origin and host country. In particular, emigration has led not only to the meeting / clash of different cultures, but above all it had an impact on the transformations, changes, improvements occurred within society, aimed at shaping it differently. The social and economic influence of migration on the country of origin and the educational function of emigrants returning to their homeland as agents of transformation are further aspects which make San Marino a model of positive emigration. Furthermore, the Secretariat of State for Health has established professional training courses in the field of assistance and nursing, addressed to immigrants. Finally, in view of stressing much more the importance of cultures and the different ecclesiastic traditions, the San Marino-Montefeltro Diocese extended the invitation to the Christians of the different religions to take part in the Liturgy celebrated, for the first time, in the Byzantine rite in the Basilica of San Marino on 20 January 2006.

San Marino/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.5 Media pluralism and content diversity

The establishment of a public radio and television broadcasting company was a major historical and diplomatic event. In 1990, San Marino ratified a cooperation agreement with Italy, thus regaining its independence and the right to make its voice heard also through these means; a prerogative which it had renounced in 1953.

San Marino RTV, the public company responsible for the Republic's radio and television services, was established in 1991. San Marino RTV is the exclusive provider of the public radio and television broadcasting service. Among its transmissions, information programmes play a leading role, although there is enough space for others in the fields of economics, society, culture, politics, etc., San Marino RTV contributed to the country's civic education through social campaigns on the environment, alcoholism, handicap, third age, etc and broadcasts alternative programmes. In 2002, changes in managerial positions were accompanied by a new editorial line, in compliance with Law n. 41 of 1989, Establishing the San Marino Broadcasting Company, and with the mandate of the Board of Directors. The pivotal concept of this new cultural policy was the "sammarinesitÓ" (for any clarification about the meaning of this term, see 3.2), taking into consideration the different local contexts, including those most decentralised and least considered.

There are also programmes concerning art and culture, offering a different perspective according to the target audience. Addressed to the younger generations, the "TG Ragazzi" proposes references to music, youth culture and education; the "TG ComunitÓ" has been created for San Marino citizens abroad and it is broadcasted every month. The aim is to provide San Marino citizens living in the Country with an overview of the activities that their fellow citizens abroad carry out and, at the same time, offer to the associations and communities a new communication channel, besides the institutional ones, to establish a dialogue among them and with the Republic. To this end, San Marino RTV has sent a web-cam to all 25 communities to provide live broadcasts with the headquarters and the members of the associations worldwide. Every edition is also available on the web-site of San Marino RTV for on-line consultation. "Viale Kennedy 13" is another TV magazine format: theatre, art, music, culture, history, tangible and intangible knowledge of the Republic and the territory.

Finally, "Rubricario" deals with volunteer activities, associations and solidarity; its protagonists are San Marino local movements and associations, connected to the Montefeltro area, in the light of the Diocesan Pastoral: catechism and parish communities of the territory. Particular attention is paid to the religious calendar of the Christian Laity: events, institutional and religious anniversaries of the San Marino-Montefeltro Diocese.

San Marino has 3 daily newspapers published on the territory, one of which is also electronic. Moreover, news concerning San Marino can also be found in some newspapers of the surrounding areas. There is also a local weekly paper reporting on economics, finance and politics. In particular, a daily newspaper - "La Tribuna Sammarinese" publishes a supplement, a magazine on art, music and culture in the Republic of San Marino. The Associations of San Marino citizens abroad deal with cultural issues related to San Marino through their magazines - inter alia "La Voce dei Sammarinesi", "Il Titano", "Lo Scalpello", "Pagine Sammarinesi", "Forum". The latest to be published in the Republic is "Avvenimenti", an information periodical of the San Marino Foundation. Nowadays, the San Marino banking foundations are becoming so important at cultural level to be defined as "examples of active citizenship to the service of civil society". Indeed, today any exhibition, event and cultural project can benefit from the economic support and sponsorship of the Credit Institutions Foundations (see also 7.3 for the emerging cooperation with the Foundations).

In 2005, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs improved its website by including information on the Republic's international activities and relations, which can be easily accessed also by foreign organisations and San Marino citizens residing abroad. The publishing sector is regulated by Law n. 25 of 1998, "Publishing Companies and Provisions for the Publishing Industry", and by Decree n. 108 of 1999, amending and supplementing the preceding law.

With regard to antitrust measures to prevent monopoly in the publishing sector, the above-mentioned Law n. 25/1998 is aimed (art. 3) inter alia at prohibiting dominant positions in the information market by one or more publishing companies. This Law assigns control powers to the Guarantor of Information (art. 4), whose functions are performed by the Supervising Commission (which also monitors, in parallel, the State Television).

There is a lack of guarantees and instruments safeguarding operators and users, a code of professional ethics and an ad hoc professional association, which makes the production of information, open to any kind of influence. On 1st April 2005, a new Union of San Marino Journalists and Photo-journalists (USGi) was established. As specified in the Statute, the Association, which has about 50 members, intends to: defend press freedom, protect the reputation of journalists, photographers and cameramen, also through a better definition of their terms of contract; establish relations with domestic and foreign organisms, bodies, associations and institutions with a view to favouring and safeguarding its members' activity, also outside the country, and promote greater awareness of the various issues concerning journalists through the organisation of events or the creation of independent press bodies. Moreover, in September 2005, San Marino hosted an international conference entitled "The Information Society: freedom, pluralism, resources".

In May 2007, San Marino decided to celebrate World Press Freedom Day by promoting a public meeting on "Freedom and information: meeting with the protagonists". The event represented an opportunity to discuss the central role played by free information in the protection and enhancement of democracy and the freedom of citizens in any country, as well as the attacks and situations to which journalists are often subjected. The meeting was followed by a debate with the San Marino media on the topic "Information in San Marino: rules, rights, professions". The operators in this field submitted a series of requests. The most urgent ones concerned: the agreements with Italy to develop San Marino professionals; access to sources and the truth on the basis of the right to information and in the public interest; collective bargaining; a law on the press to define rights and duties of journalists; training and professional updating. The government encourages the creation of a Code of Conduct for journalists and a Council for Information, in order to draft a law as soon as possible. These initiatives will receive the necessary support from the Secretariat of State dealing with Information.

With regard to training, there are no refresher courses for journalists. Art. 8 of Law 25/1998 stipulate that the Congress of State "...shall promote specific courses concerning the professional qualifications which are mostly required for the staff of local media. These courses are managed directly or through agreements with public or private entities, or in collaboration with companies operating in this sector or with universities or schools of journalism. In order to promote the training of journalists, the Ministry of Information allocates grants for the training of professional journalists". In practice, except for some one-off courses organised some years ago, neither periodic refresher courses nor grants have been recently established. In order to bridge this gap between the law and practice, among the priorities of the Ministry of Information is the organisation of courses directed to the workers of this sector.

The Secretariats of State for Labour and Information, in co-operation with the Professional Training Centre of San Marino, established, in 2007, a preparatory training course in journalism and public communication, sponsored by the Association of Journalists of Bologna, the San Marino Journalists Union (USGi) and with the agreement of the Supervising Commission. The objective of the course is to provide guidelines in the fields of journalism, the use of multimedia, radio and on-line information through theory and practice. The course offers two scholarships to access qualified training with some of the Italian newspapers. This training might represent the first step towards the creation of a school of journalism.

San Marino/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.6 Culture industries: policies and programmes

By virtue of a cooperation agreement on radio and television signed with Italy, the Italian Government and RAI assist San Marino RTV through technical and editorial financing and support. Additional contributions are provided by the state of San Marino. Revenues from the selling of advertising space, together with other revenues, enable the company to manage and improve its structure. For the time being, there are no other means of support. Technical negotiations were held between San Marino and Italy to define the future implementation of the 1987 Agreement on radio-television cooperation, and its possible adjustment on the basis of the technological and telecommunication innovations, also in view of the introduction of the digital terrestrial television.

Newspaper companies complain that the 1998 Law is inadequate as there are no instruments which would guarantee autonomy, safeguard and / or ensure transparency. The main problem concerns financing and public incentives. Support is provided up to 7% of the publishing expenditures on printing, purchase of paper and maintenance of equipment, but does not cover additional expenditures. Article 7 of the 1998 Law refers to annual amounts which are to be paid by the state, for administration needs, to purchase advertising space in local media. However, this provision has never been applied. Moreover, the Law envisages a 30% contribution to the news service provided by the main press agencies: however, because of the very high costs of obtaining information from news agencies, information is generated on the basis of bulletins and press releases coming directly from the interested persons.

San Marino/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.7 Employment policies for the cultural sector

According to some surveys, the number of people employed in the various cultural sectors has increased considerably over the last decade and is now equal to 411, divided up between employees (managerial, concept and auxiliary staff) of public cultural institutes (230 people) and private sector employees (181 people). These figures, provided by the Labour Office, are however general as they include people works at training institutes, cultural agencies and associations, entertainment services, radio and television and at other entertainment or recreational services.

A general growth in the number of people working in the culture sector was registered until 2002; after which employment levels stabilised. At the moment, there are no specific policies or strategies aimed at creating jobs in the cultural sector. Culture, like other working sectors, would need an active labour policy, but this issue is still open for debate. Worth mentioning in this regard is the approval of Law n. 131 of 29 September 2005 promoting, supporting and developing employment and training. Law n. 131, which supplements 1989 Law on Employment, has integrated training with guidance, by personalising employment procedures in the companies. With regard to wages, San Marino has a unified public wage structure: the same wage applies to the same salary level. However, in practice, the same categories have reached different salary levels due, for example, to supplementary benefits. If we compare the wages of directors working in public cultural institutes and hospital directors (chief physicians), both having the highest responsibility in their respective sectors, the latter has a higher salary. Indeed, health staff receives some supplementary benefits which those working in cultural institutes do not.

San Marino/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.8 New technologies and cultural policies

The State Archive has been working since early 2004 to convert documents into digital format. This will enable users to acquire a better knowledge of the documentary sources in the Archive and prevent their deterioration, while promoting their use and dissemination in electronic form. Two archive series, the historical population register and the Captains Regent's correspondence from the 14th to the 16th century, have been included in the web site (see 9.2). The first one is particularly interesting for San Marino citizens, while the second one is aimed at scholars outside the Republic. In April 2005, a popular petition was filed to conduct a study on the strengthening, adjustment and modernisation of the State Archive so as to protect and safeguard the heritage preserved therein. In July 2005, the San Marino Parliament accepted the petition and urged the government to proceed with the study. As a consequence, in autumn 2005, the Ministry of Internal Affairs rented premises to adequately house and preserve all documents and correspondence from the Public Administration offices, as state property.

The State Library maintains the database "Sebina" containing 17 500 bibliographic references available in its collection. Input to the database has slowed down in recent years due to a re-evaluation of the system, updating appropriate software and the development of a special interface to enable the database to be put online.

Since 2003, the Permanent Study Centre on Emigration has promoted a plan to devise an information system for research and the management of collected data and documents. It is a "Memory Archive", conceived in a way so as to overcome the physical and logistical constraints of traditional museums, and make it available all over the world through the web. San Marino communities abroad have access to this archive. Its availability on the web enables non resident citizens to carry out personal research and / or studies. Most importantly, it allows those wishing to cooperate to send documentary material or data on emigration collected on-site, in order to complete and enrich the database of the Permanent Centre.

The Law on Electronic Documents and Digital Signatures, passed in 2005, is a single text which is part of a broader project on IT security, distribution of Internet services on the public data network, introduction of document e-archiving services and interactive provision of services to citizens. This important law stipulates some principles at the basis of a new technological and cultural transformation project. Indeed, the Public Administration reform, through an innovation and modern approach to the use of documents, will be, most of all, a cultural challenge, which will radically change communication systems among citizens, enterprises and the central administration. The result will be a higher level of quality, efficiency and effectiveness and a complete transformation of the approach to and use of documents.

San Marino/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.9 Heritage issues and policies

The 19th century was marked by a slowly increasing social awareness of monuments and cultural goods to be preserved. Yet, it was only in the early 1900s that the state introduced legislation to regulate the matter. Law n. 17 of 1919, subsequently amended by Law n. 87 of 1995 entitled Single Text of Town Planning and Building Laws is the only piece of legislation providing for the preservation of cultural goods, the scope of which covers different categories of artefacts. The Law, however, did not specify the ownership of the goods and does not address the sale of such goods. In 1998, Law n. 30 outlined the general rules on the state accounting system and provided provisions which prevent the sale or transfer of: state property holding historical, archaeological and artistic interest; palaeontological goods discovered or found under the soil; and goods for public use by the community including forests, museum and gallery collections, etc.

A list of state owned movable and immovable goods has been compiled yet requires a great deal of updating. This systematic recording and listing of state property has enabled the people of San Marino to identify, for the first time, property belonging them. The goods selected and included in the list have been examined and approved by the Commission for the Preservation of Monuments, Antiques and Art Works. Several unsuccessful attempts have been made to compile a complete record of movable goods owned by private individuals and religious institutions, which makes preservation and safeguarding of such goods more difficult.

In April 2005, a popular petition requesting the establishment of a structure coordinating cultural organisations and bodies on the territory was submitted.  It called for a more effective and rapid implementation of the provisions and laws, in force or to be promulgated, in the fields of preservation, protection and promotion of the historical, cultural, environmental, archaeological, monumental, art and architectonic heritage of the Republic. In July 2005, the San Marino Parliament accepted this petition and urged the government to take necessary measures. A Permanent Parliamentary Commission was set up by the responsible Minister to investigate.

The Documentation Centre of the State Library, the Ministry of Education and Culture and the Bologna University, started an important project to recover, organise and promote the linguistic history and culture of San Marino. This project, which started in the early 1990s and continues today, intends to include intangible cultural goods in its research including: singing and traditional folk music, superstitions, sayings, season-related feasts, technical knowledge, working cycles, child games, folk medicine, mills and furnaces. The "San Marino Folk Tales" - collected in the 1920s by scholar Walter Anderson - represent the largest and most important literature which records the oral traditions of the Republic (it includes 118 texts, out of which 54 are in dialect).

The Department of Education, Culture and University (former Department of Education, University, Cultural Institutes and Information) has been working since 2002 on a new idea for classifying, preserving and promoting the book heritage of San Marino by building a cooperative system among all libraries in the country. In addition to the San Marino National Library, the implementation of the project also involves the University, the State Museum, the Museum of the Emigrant, high schools, Social Centres, the Music Institute, the Naturalist Centre, the European Centre for Disaster Medicine (CEMEC), the Library of the State Hospital, the Court and the Popular Libraries of Faetano and Serravalle. A future goal is to make the results available on the Internet. Following the approval of the project, a feasibility study was carried out to examine how the results and data can be included in a homogeneous way in a single catalogue of San Marino libraries. Some cultural centres are already working with the new system. A considerable part of the material preserved in the main libraries is already available on the Library Network of the Republic of San Marino, which, in the years to come, will include the entire book heritage of San Marino.

The Museum of the Emigrant was created in 1997 with the involvement of the resident and non resident population. Initially conceived of as a "memory archive" to collect, preserve and disseminate information on the emigrants' exodus from San Marino, the Museum has become the main custodian of San Marino cultural roots and identity. The Museum' activities offer residents and non residents the opportunity to meet and exchange views. (For further information, see also 4.2.4 and 4.2.8).

With a view to collaborating with other external entities in order to make the state artistic heritage more visible, the Ministry of Education, Culture and University is examining the costs and feasibility of a project concerning a series of museums (outside classic circuits, which already include the most important museums in the world). Altogether, these museums would constitute a network for mutual promotion and knowledge and this would allow visitors of a partner entity to find paper and optical material concerning the other museums involved in this initiative, including San Marino State Museum.

San Marino/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.10 Gender equality and cultural policies

Between the end of 2003 and the beginning of 2004, San Marino signed and ratified the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and committed to adopt its principles in the national legal system. It passed the Parliamentary Decree n. 108 of 4 July 2005, implementing the Optional Protocol to the UN Convention. In 2004, the Republic established the Commission for Equal Opportunities, which replaced the former Commission in charge of equality for women. The Commission is appointed by the Parliament and is responsible to the Ministry dealing with "Equal Opportunities", which is the Secretariat of State for Health, Social Security and National Insurance. Among the functions of the Commission for Equal Opportunities are the promotion and safeguard of full equality among citizens, in compliance with Article░4 of the Declaration on the Citizens' Rights (see also 5.1.1). By virtue of Constitutional Law 61/2005, Amendment of Article 16 of the Declaration on the Citizens' Rights and Fundamental Principles of San Marino Constitutional Order, the Commission has the faculty of filing appeals on the constitutionality of rules also in the field of legal equality and equal opportunities.

From an institutional and civil perspective, the year 2004 marked the 40th anniversary of women's right to vote and the 30th anniversary of women's right to be elected. Equal access to education is the sine qua non condition for San Marino women to increasingly participate in all stages of decision-making processes. Equal access to employment and social security have since long been recognised by San Marino legal system.

Over the last decade, the percentage of female workers has reached a considerable level, also thanks to an ad hoc law aimed at supporting working mothers and the access of women to the labour market through tax relief for women employed in the textile and clothing sectors. In this context, it is worth mentioning the approval of a law supporting young and female entrepreneurship. Article 12 of Law n. 131/2005 promoting, supporting and developing employment and training, specifically regulates the employment or re-employment of women as members of the labour force deserving special protection.

A relatively high number of women now hold middle and middle-high ranking positions both in the public and private sectors. In particular, women are mostly represented in the cultural world. The major cultural institutes are either directed or chaired by women, as in the case of the State Museums, the State Library, the Office for Social and Cultural Activities, the Directorate of Cultural Affairs and Information of the Department of Foreign Affairs and the Museum of the Emigrant. Moreover, there are a considerable percentage of women in the field of the culture industries: more than 50% of the journalists of the state broadcasting corporation "San Marino RTV" are women, including the Chief Editor in charge of news services and the person responsible for the editorial office for Internet, Teletext and Eurovision. A woman has been reconfirmed as President of the Commission responsible for supervising radio and television information.

The process to achieve women's legal equality has, however, been long and difficult - and is not fully achieved. Today, there are a very limited number of women in politics and in the Parliament (12%); only two women sit on the 10-member Congress of State (government). The situation is not different on the local level: there is only one woman out of the 9 mayors and only 16 women out of 82 town councillors.

Qualified Law No.1/2007 dealing with Provisions to enhance citizens' willingness and for Equal Opportunities in Elections and Electoral Campaigns further supports the access of women to elective offices: indeed, the lists of candidates presented by the political parties cannot include more than 2/3 of candidates of the same gender; furthermore, being a woman represents an advantage if candidates of the same list obtain the same number of votes.

Some non governmental organisations have been established to increase female participation in the various sectors of public life, such as: "San Marino Saint Agatha Association: Women, Arts, Professions, Business"; "Futura", an association for education to politics; "3DS", a movement for the affirmation of equality for women; "Confronto", an association supporting civil rights against any sex discrimination, and the group; "Friends of Marisa Bellisario Foundation", operating in the cultural field.

According to a statistical survey published by the Study Office of the CDLS (Democratic Confederation of San Marino Workers) on 8 March 2006, the female labour force is increasing in the Republic: women make up 41% of the total labour force, 30% of the self-employed, 57% of public administration employees and 38% of private sector workers. However, this increase is not always accompanied by adequate social and cultural policies in support of working women and mothers.

However, San Marino support to women goes beyond its national borders. Indeed, on the occasion of the 33rd UNESCO General Conference, held in Paris in October 2005, San Marino and the other small states of Europe supported a project aimed at promoting the education and self-determination of Nigerian young women. In this regard, the Republic is favourably considering the proposal being developed by a working group composed of UNESCO micro-states to promote women's autonomy through education and training.

On 19 May 2006, San Marino signed the European Convention against Human Trafficking and the government undertook to submit this Convention as soon as possible for parliamentary ratification. The San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe supported the pan-European campaign to combat violence against women, which was launched in Madrid on 27 November 2006. Domestically, San Marino has envisaged a wide ranging series of initiatives and on 29 November 2006 it launched its national campaign.

San Marino/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.3 Other relevant issues and debates

In 2005, the four Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Cultural Institutes, Territory and Environment, and Tourism worked together (with the support of an ad hoc working group) to submit the Republic's candidature for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage List. The cultural and natural property proposed for inclusion is Mount Titano and some of its surrounding areas. In 2006, the relevant dossier was finalised and submitted to the international experts for its consideration. This project has raised many expectations in that, if accepted, it will be a major instrument for the promotion of the Country's tourist image and the protection of its future urban development.

San Marino/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.1 Constitution

The Republic of San Marino has no Constitution, rather a number of laws and acts which make up constitutional rules, dating back to ancient "Statutes" of the 1600s to more recent legislation, notably the 1974 Declaration on Citizens' Rights; the latter considered the fundamental basis of the San Marino legal system.

Article 5 of the 1974 Declaration stipulates that "human rights are inviolable", while Article 6 reads "everybody shall enjoy civil and political freedoms in the Republic. In particular, personal freedoms, freedom of residence, establishment and expatriation, freedom of assembly and association, freedom of thought, conscience and religion shall be guaranteed" and ends with the following statement "arts, science and education shall be free. The law shall secure education to all citizens, free and at no cost". Moreover, secrecy of communication is safeguarded, except for special cases expressly envisaged by law.

Article 10 of the Declaration is extremely significant in that it states the Republic's duty to protect its historical and artistic heritage and natural environment. It is a common understanding that the term "protect" does not simply mean "preserve", but rather to make the best efforts to ensure the integrity, existence, recovery and restoration, scientific and documentary knowledge of goods to be protected. Under the Declaration, the notion of "cultural good" covers not only artistic evidence but also historical evidence, natural and human landscapes.

Law n. 95 of 2000 integrates the original Article 4 with an additional clarification on the principle of equality between sexes. Law n. 36 of 2002 partially amends the 1974 Declaration in that it precisely lists the hierarchy of the sources of law, constitutionally guarantees the principles set forth in the European Convention for the Safeguard of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and establishes a Board of Guarantors. Lastly, Decree n. 79 of 8 July 2002 is a consolidated version of the 1974 Declaration as amended by Laws n. 95 of 2002 and n. 36 of 2002 respectively.

San Marino/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.2 Division of jurisdiction

Considering the small territorial size of San Marino (approx. 61 km2), a clear-cut distinction between central and local authorities, the latter consisting of 9 municipalities called "Castles", is almost pointless. Law n. 22 of 1994 and subsequent Law n. 97 of 2002 amending the legislation on Township Councils define the functions and powers of local authorities in all sectors, including culture. The 2002 Law assigns a significant role to the Township Councils within the institutional framework of the country, to be carried out, however, in close cooperation with the central authorities.

San Marino/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.3 Allocation of public funds

In accordance with the San Marino Budget Law, funds allocated to the cultural sector are registered as expenditures of the "Department of Education, Culture and University ". The Department submits both an annual and a three-year budget proposal. As a rule, such proposals vary slightly from year to year, with most variations in revenue and expenditure categories depending on the portfolios assigned by any new legislature. The budget of the Department includes expenditure categories generally called "funds" or "contributions" to financially support the Council of Cultural Associations, Social Centres, local libraries and other local cultural associations such as the Choir Society, the Band of Serravalle, the San Marino Centre for Music Studies, the orchestra of the Music Institute, some cooperatives, etc. Other categories of expenditures are public institutions such as the State Museums, the State Library and Archive, the Naturalist Centre, the Office for Social and Cultural Activities, etc. Over the last few years, there has been an annual 5% cut to the overall state budget - culture among those sectors which were most affected.


San Marino/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.4 Social security frameworks

Article 9 of the 1974 Declaration on Citizens' Rights, stipulates that labour is a right and duty of every citizen and lists, among others, the right to social security. The social security system adopted by San Marino is universal, in that the same treatment applies both to employees and self-employed, although with different calculation formulas and contribution rates. Though it changes the mechanism, Law n. 157 of 2005 maintains a "pay-as-you-go" wage-based system. Framework Law n. 158 of 2005 introduces the so-called "second pillar", that is a mandatory contribution-based system. However, its actual implementation is envisaged in 12 months time, once the legal provisions are defined. Similarly, unemployment benefits are not linked to the sector of activity, which means that employees in the cultural sector, hired under collective bargaining agreements, are entitled to the same benefits as any other employed worker (e.g. wage supplementation funds, mobility, etc.).

Employment in San Marino was initially regulated by Law n. 7 of 1961, Law for the Protection of Labour and Workers, subsequently modified and supplemented. The labour sector was then regulated by the 1989 Law on Employment and by the recent Law n. 131 of 2005 Promoting, Supporting and Developing Employment and Training.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

San Marino/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.5 Tax laws

Private investments in the cultural sector, moderately encouraged from a legal point of view, are regulated by Law n. 91 of 1984 General Income Tax, subsequently amended and replaced by Law n. 9 of 1993. Article 6 of the General Income Tax Law stipulates that donations and gifts by natural persons may be deducted from taxation in the following amounts: if the donation or gift is made in favour of the Roman Catholic Church and non-profit cultural, social, recreational and sports associations, a tax allowance up to 1 500 euros is granted; if the beneficiary is the state or other public entity, the whole amount is deductible.

Annual revenues of cultural associations include a 3ë mandatory contribution from tax returns. Tax payers freely choose the entity or institution that will benefit from such contribution. If unspecified, the beneficiary will be the state.

Cultural investments made by foundations are not taxed; as non-profit entities they would normally not generate taxable income (see also 7.3).

San Marino has no VAT regime on goods and services, unlike neighbouring Italy. Indirect taxation is levied in San Marino on imported goods and services at an average rate of 17%. This tax is a single-stage tax in that it is levied only once, when imported goods or services enter San Marino.

San Marino/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.6 Labour laws

There are no sector specific labour laws in San Marino.

Up until a few years ago, open-ended work contracts were the rule, but the trend has recently changed towards fixed-term contracts, provisional jobs, collaboration or consultancy, etc., which are subject to contractual provisions, and have not yet been the subject of any legislative action. Wages of public employees are set out in collective bargaining agreements and define according to level of employment. Negotiations are carried out with the state in the case of public employment and with the employers' associations in case of employment in the private sector.

Special provisions regulate the activities performed by volunteers: Law n. 97 of 1989 regulates cooperation between volunteers and public entities (see also 8.4). Law n. 142 of 1985 refers to volunteers working in cooperation projects based on bilateral or multilateral agreements with developing countries. Both laws set forth general rules of a humanitarian and social character, and have little to do with culture.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

San Marino/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.7 Copyright provisions

The principal legislation on copyright protection is Law n. 8 of 1991, subsequently amended and replaced by Laws n. 63 of 1997 and n. 43 of 1998. Under the current legislation, the author of a protected work acquires the copyright in that work by the sole fact of its creation. Moreover, intellectual property rights cover moral and patrimonial rights. The same Law stipulates that all protected works, irrespective of their form of expression, destination, and merit and of their intrinsic, aesthetic and artistic value, are eligible for copyright protection. Any work, original or derived, single or collective, of a literary, dramatic, musical or artistic character, is therefore protected upon creation. The same principles apply to sound recordings and audio-visual works. Models and drawings, originally regulated by the same Law, are covered by Law n. 64 of 1997 Framework Law on Trademarks and Patents, which governs their registration and related rights. The provisions of this last Law and those contained in the implementing Regulation n. 74 of 1999, have been superseded by Law n. 79 of 2005, "Single Text on Industrial Property", and subsequent amendments. The Single Text introduces some changes with regard to patents, especially in case of inventions made by employees or employees of public research organisations (Article 7). Under Article 66 of the Single Text, holders of previously registered trademarks may submit an objection, while the definition of the relevant procedures is entrusted to the Director of the State Patents and Trade Marks Office. In April 2005, a Memorandum of Understanding signed with the Austrian Patent Office, an international searching authority, entered into force. This Memorandum establishes technical cooperation between the two Patent Offices. Patent applications submitted to the San Marino Office, may be examined, at low cost, by the Austrian counterpart, with a view to verifying, with reasonable certainty, the novelty of the invention. If the invention is worth exploiting, the Austrian Office will proceed with a technical analysis, including a detailed examination of the invention.

Law n. 63 of 1997 Supplementary Provisions to Law n. 8 of 25 January 1991 - Copyright Protection extends protection also to performers of a work, including actors, singers, musicians, dancers, etc.

Law n. 48 of 1998 (amending and replacing Copyright Law n. 8 of 1991 and Law n. 63 of 1993) stipulates that, as part of his moral rights, an author may prohibit any act through which his work could be made known to the public, either directly or indirectly.

In 1981 San Marino concluded an agreement with the Italian Association of Authors and Publishers (SIAE). Under this agreement and in line with the 1939 Convention on Friendship and Good Neighbourhood between San Marino and the Kingdom of Italy, San Marino and SIAE regulated their relationship concerning the use of all works protected by SIAE. The 1981 Agreement supersedes that of 1967 and provides preferential rates to be charged to San Marino users, plus an additional 20% reduction for performances arranged directly by the state. Moreover, the San Marino radio and television broadcasting company annually negotiates with SIAE the terms of trade for broadcasting copyrighted music.

While the Law does not make any reference to public lending rights, it provides for the use of copyrighted material by radio and television broadcasters. In case of a sound or audio-visual recording or broadcasting, performers of a dramatic, music or, literary work, etc., have the right to receive a fair remuneration, irrespective of what they earn as performers. Their name must also be reported in any sound or audio-visual recording of their performances. Sound recordings made in San Marino must have a special mark of origin, as evidence of their authorisation by the parties concerned. In practice, especially as regards concerts and musical performances, the artist "authorises" (generally for free) a radio-TV network to broadcast the event. Benefits for the performer are merely in terms of publicity and image. Otherwise, if San Marino RTV purchases audio-visual material, each product is certified with indication of the seller's rights and transfer of such rights to the radio-television network for broadcasting.

San Marino/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.8 Data protection laws

There are two laws covering data protection: Law n. 71 of 1995, regulating the collection of statistical data and attributions in public information technology matters, and Law n. 70 of 1995 reforming Law n. 27 of 1 March 1983 and regulating the computerised collection of personal data. Law n. 70 of 1995 applies to any IT applications by the state, public bodies or natural or legal persons, entailing the setting up or the use of magnetic or automated files containing names or other data which can easily identify legal persons. The Law protects both individuals and legal entities that have the right to know, challenge, rectify their data, electronically collected and processed. The setting up and use of databases are subject to the prior authorisation of the competent bodies under San Marino legislation. Social or cultural associations intending to collect, process or use personal data for their purposes are required to inform the Guarantor (an administrative judge).

The Guarantor will measure the impact of scientific progress on human rights and dignity and, if necessary, set forth rules and fix limitations in order to protect computerised data from unauthorised use. Many of the functions attributed to the Guarantor are not easy to fulfil due to the lack of instruments provided for by law which are not yet implemented. Besides giving a mandatory opinion in respect of authorisation requests from private databases, the Guarantor shall also ascertain that both public and private databases comply with legal provisions; grant access to databases; examine complaints and, in case of infringement, report to the judicial authorities; give opinions with regard to decrees and regulations implementing the legislation in force; authorise the dissemination of data to third parties.

San Marino/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.9 Language laws

See chapter 4.2.3.

San Marino/ 5.2 Legislation on culture

There is no framework legislation concerning culture or cultural policy in San Marino.


San Marino/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.1 Visual and applied arts

There is only one relevant law applicable to the visual and applied arts: Law n. 6 of 13 January 1983 Provisions regulating Arts in Public Buildings.

San Marino/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.2 Performing arts and music

There is only one relevant law applicable to the performing arts and music: Law n. 82 of 20 September 1994, establishing the San Marino Music Institute.

San Marino/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.3 Cultural heritage

The following legislation has been categorised according to (a) its scope of application; (b) the role and functions of bodies operating within that scope:

(a)  Law of 16 September 1946 - Regulation of the State Archive;

Law n. 17 of 10 June 1919 - Law Safeguarding and Preserving Monuments, Museums, Excavations, Antique and Art Objects.

Law n. 87 of 19 July 1995 - Single text of Town Planning and Building Laws.

Law n. 30 of 18 February 1998 - General rules on the State Accounting System.

Law n. 126 of 16 November 1995 - Framework Law for the Protection of the Environment and the Safeguard of Landscape, Vegetation and Flora.

Law n. 147 of 28 October 2005 - List of Artefacts and Buildings having Monumental Importance.

(b)  Law n. 52 of 28 November 1978 - Law regulating the State Archive and Monitoring Private Archives of particular Historical Interest.

Decree n. 46 of 29 December 1955 - Enforceability of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and of the Relevant Regulations and Protocol signed in the Hague on 14 June 1954.

Law n. 98 of 11 December 1980 - Reestablishment of the Commission referred to in Title II of Law n. 17 of 10 June 1919.

Law n. 58 of 8 July 1981 - Protection of Rural Buildings of particular Historical, Environmental and Cultural Interest.

Decree n. 105 of 4 December 1984 - Accession to the 1950 UNESCO Florence Agreement on the Importation of Educational, Scientific and Cultural Materials and the relevant Nairobi Protocol of 1976.

Law n. 109 of 19 September 1990 - Amendment of Law n. 8 of 13 February 1980 establishing the San Marino National Commission for UNESCO.

Decree n. 67 of 28 May 1991 - Ratification of the UNESCO Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.

Decree n. 47 of 30 June 1992 - Ratification of the Agreement between the Republic of San Marino and the Holy See.

Law n. 9 of 17 January 1997 - Law on the Establishment of the San Marino Naturalist Centre.

San Marino/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.4 Literature and libraries

The following legislation has been categorised according to (a) its scope of application; (b) the role and functions of bodies operating within that scope:

(a)  Regulation of 23 March 1909 - Regulation on the State Library and Museum.

Decree n. 1 of 7 February 1914 - Amendment to the Regulation on the State Library and Museum.

Decree n. 7 of 2 March 1920 - Amendments to Articles 3 and 5 of the Regulation on the State Library and Museum.

(b)  Law n. 31 of 19 December 1957 - Compulsory Surrender of Printings to the State Library.

San Marino/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.5 Architecture and environment

The following legislation has been categorised according to (a) its scope of application; (b) the role and functions of bodies operating within that scope:

(a)  Law n. 87 of 19 July 1995 - Single text of Town Planning and Building Laws.

Law n. 30 of 18 February 1998 - General rules on the State Accounting System.

(b)  Law n. 35 of 27 October 1972 - Provisions for the Conservative and Restoration of Historical Centres.

Law n. 98 of 11 December 1980 - Reestablishment of the Commission referred to in Title II of Law n. 17 of 10 June 1919.

Law n. 58 of 8 July 1981 - Protection of Rural Buildings of particular Historical, Environmental and Cultural Interest.

San Marino/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.6 Film, video and photography

Information is currently not available.

San Marino/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.7 Culture industries

The following legislation has been categorised according to (a) its scope of application; (b) the role and functions of bodies operating within that scope; (c) their financial requirements.

(a)  Law n. 57 of 28 March 1988 - Discipline of Telecommunication Services.

Decree n. 49 of 27 April 1990 - Ratification of the exchange of letters between Italy and the Republic of San Marino on the reacquisition by the Republic of San Marino of the Right to Install a Radio and Television Station, signed in Rome on 23 October 1987.

Decree n. 50 of 27 April 1990 - Ratification of the cooperation agreement in Radio and Television matters between the Republic of San Marino and the Italian Republic, signed in Rome on 23 October 1987.

Law n. 25 of 13 February 1998 - Discipline of Publishing Companies and Provisions to Publishing Industry.

Decree n. 108 of 28 October 1999 - Amendments and integrations to the Discipline of Publishing Companies and Provisions to Publishing Industry.

Decree n. 28 of 23 June 1967 - Ratification and Implementation of the Universal Copyright Convention and related Protocols.

Law n. 8 of 25 January 1991 - Copyright Protection (amendments 1997, 1998).

Law n. 79 of 25 May 2005 - Single Text on Industrial Property (amended July 2005).

Law n. 115 of 20 July 2005 - Law on Electronic Documents and Digital Signatures.

Decree n. 156 of 8 November 2005 - Technical Rules on the Drafting, Transmission, Preservation, Duplication, Reproduction and Validation, even Temporal, of Electronic Documents.

(b)  Decree of 20 May 1912 - Accession to the International Radiotelegraphic Convention.

Decree n. 11 of 5 April 1977 - Accession to and Ratification of the International Telecommunication Convention.

Law n. 41 of 27 April 1989 - Establishment of San Marino Radio Broadcasting Company.

Decree n. 123 of 18 December 1989 - Ratification of the European Convention on Transfrontier Television.

Law of 28 May 1881 - Law on Press Crimes.

Regency Decree n. 13 of 13 May 1921 - Press Censorship.

Law n. 99 of 25 July 1991 - Establishment of the Council of Cultural Associations.

Law n. 38 of 28 April 1982 - Provisions on Services for Political, Cultural and Recreational Activities.

(c) Decree n. 59 of 2 April 1998 - Determination of the contribution to Periodical Press referred to in Law n. 25 of 13 February 1998.

San Marino/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.8 Mass media

Telecommunication services are regulated by Law n. 57 of 1988, assigning the state the exclusive right to install and manage, on its entire territory, public telecommunications equipment and services under a monopolistic regime. Concessions can be granted to private enterprises or companies, following a Decision of the Congress of State, through temporary and provisional licences. See also 4.2.4 and 4.2.5.

San Marino/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.9 Legislation for self-employed artists

At the moment there is no general legislation for artists, nor a specific law for the promotion of arts.

Law n. 6 of 1983 is the only provision regulating arts in public buildings. Whenever San Marino public bodies decide to construct new public buildings or restore old buildings, 2% of the total projected expenditure must be allocated to works of art. In case the inclusion of paintings and sculptures is not possible, the 2% allocation will be destined to movable works of art to supplement internal furnishings.

In practice, however, this Law has not always been fully complied with in the construction of new buildings, which, over the last twenty years, has considerably increased. The newly established International Centre for Contemporary Art NUA, promoted by local artists and cultural operators, is striving for the application of this law and for the definition of artists' professional status. In the last years, also ASART, the San Marino Association of Artists, turned to government bodies to make them aware of this need. So far, however, the numerous promises have not translated into reality.

Under Government Decision n. 35 of 1995, artists are included in the unemployment schemes as professionals when in possession of a high school diploma. On the contrary, artists not having any diploma but only natural skills and talent are registered as self-employed. As self-employed, they do not have access to average income, flat-rate or agreed taxation schemes. Taxation rates for artists employed by the state are fixed according to income brackets.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

San Marino/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.10 Other areas of relevant legislation

Information is currently not available.

San Marino/ 6. Financing of culture

6.1 Short overview

Information is currently not available.

San Marino/ 6. Financing of culture

6.2 Public cultural expenditure per capita

Public culture expenditure per capita (education and culture) in 2001 was 1 711.46 euro and corresponded to 6.10% of the GDP; in 2002 it was 1 594.23 euro and corresponded to 5.78% of the GDP.

San Marino/ 6. Financing of culture

6.3 Public cultural expenditure broken down by level of government

Information is currently not available.

San Marino/ 6. Financing of culture

6.4 Sector breakdown

Information is currently not available.

San Marino/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.1 Re-allocation of public responsibilities

The government has always been responsible for national cultural institutions which include: the State Museums (Guaita Castle, Cesta Castle with its Museum of Ancient Weapons, Pergami Palace, Saint Francis Museum and Art Gallery, Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery, Post and Stamp Museum, Saint's Basilica), the State Library and Archive, the Naturalist Centre and the Office for Social and Cultural Activities. The latter is responsible for theatres / cinemas and the Social Centres in Dogana and Fiorentino. Although the San Marino Music Institute and the University are partly autonomous from, the Department of Education, Culture and University, they receive an annual state contribution and their activities are subject to the supervision of such Department.

The State Archive and the Museum of the Emigrant are part of and receive funding from the Department of the Interior and the Department of Foreign and Political Affairs respectively.

In San Marino, non governmental institutions do not have public responsibilities for taking initiatives. However, they may operate with the sponsorship, contribution and involvement of public institutions (Secretariats of State, Departments or Offices...); in this case, when they submit or manage projects destined to society or intended to be developed outside the Country, they have more responsibilities, which they share, however, with their public partners.

San Marino/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.2 Status/role and development of major cultural institutions

The State Museum of San Marino was established in the second half of the 19th century, thanks to a series of donations from all over the world. In this context, the Museum did not emerge as a result of a clear culture strategy, but rather an assembled collected of works donated irrespective of their origin, history and quality. With the public administration reform in 1983, the State Museum became autonomous. Since then, and until 2001, almost all works were stored in places not accessible to the public and to researchers. On 18 March 2001, the Museum was reopened to the public in the ancient Palazzo Pergami-Belluzzi.

A similar story precedes the establishment of the State Library which owes its birth and future development to many donations. Established in 1839, it was opened to the public in 1858 in Palazzo Valloni, where it is still located. Initially book lending and consultation was prohibited. It was not until many years later when the Library was open to the public at least once a week. The first inventory and catalogue, though incomplete, were made in 1890. From the beginning, a lack of economic and human resources made it very difficult for the Library to meet the needs of a population extremely interested in education, who asked for precise opening hours and days and for an enlargement of the archive. In 1983, the State Library witnessed a physical and legal revolution, in that it became fully independent from the State Museum and its administration, with which it had shared the seat in Palazzo Valloni until that time. The reader became the ultimate target of this new public institution and contacts were established with schools, the territory and the population. The Documentation Centre was created in the framework of this restructuring, to trace, collect and select all information coming from various sources, so as to guarantee a clear picture of San Marino's social and economic evolution. The State Library is still governed by a regulation of 1909, subsequently amended in 1914 and 1920. Therefore, the adoption of a new law is a top priority in order to supersede the anachronistic and inapplicable provisions now in force. 

San Marino/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.3 Emerging partnerships or collaborations

The contributions and interventions of the recently established banking foundations play a fundamental role, especially those of two major San Marino banks. The first is the Cassa di Risparmio, opened in 1882, which regularly invests in social and cultural activities and has allocated significant funds for the purchase of art works. In 2001, it provided funding to the State Museum, on the occasion of its re-opening to the public. The second is the Cassa Rurale di Depositi e Prestiti di Faetano, established in 1920 and now named Banca di San Marino. Other banking institutions such as the Banca Agricola Commerciale and the Banca Centrale, have provide support to social, cultural and artistic projects such as the publication of books and other material on the history of San Marino, the promotion of local or foreign artistic and historical heritage events and the sponsorship of exhibition catalogues.

The involvement of banking institutions was linked primarily to occasional events and not as part of any specific strategic plan. Following the creation of banking foundations, their contribution to and management of such cultural initiatives became part of a long-term planning policy. These foundations, regulated by Law n. 130 of 1995, are non-profit private corporations with full legal capacity and statutory and managerial autonomy. These foundations provide funding to projects either directly or in cooperation with other bodies or foundations.

The contribution of the San Marino Foundation - Cassa di Risparmio della Repubblica di San Marino - SUMS (est. 2002) and of the Ente della Cassa di Faetano Foundation can take two forms: direct financial support to various projects upon request and sponsorship of institutional or international events. At present, these two Foundations are cooperating with the Music Association "Allegro Vivo" in the organisation of the International Piano Competition - Repubblica di San Marino, which is also receiving support from the San Marino Music Institute, the San Marino National Commission for UNESCO and the Ministries of Culture, Tourism and Foreign Affairs. Moreover, both Foundations, in agreement with the Renata Tebaldi Foundation and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Tourism and Culture, and with the support of numerous San Marino entrepreneurs, have promoted the newly established international singing competition dedicated to Renata Tebaldi.

In 2004, 2005 and 2006 the San Marino Foundation supported, in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture and the Office for Social and Cultural Activities, "Artmix - San Marino Young Artists", consisting of a series of events in the field of visual arts, music, theatre and cinema. This project paid special attention to training, to identifying new production methods and to the participation of the public. 

The Ente della Cassa di Faetano Foundation is mainly committed to supporting local projects in the fields of culture, arts, education, sports, economic development, health and scientific research and protection of the weakest groups of society. Its activities are based on a multi-year programme, which clearly defines the sectors and the relevant projects which will eventually receive support. For its first three years of activity, this Foundation decided to concentrate on arts, culture and sports. In 2001, on the occasion of 1700th anniversary of the foundation of the Republic, the Banca di San Marino, in close cooperation with the Ministry of Cultural Institutes, made an important contribution to art by ordering a big painting from a San Marino artist, having as theme the major episodes in the history of the Republic. The Foundation announced a competition in 2002 on "Globalisation", open to the artists living in San Marino and in the nearby area. Out of 200 works submitted and exhibited at the State Museum, 12 were selected for the Bank's 2003 calendar. The Foundation, together with the Ministry of the Interior, created another project to disseminate documents preserved in the State Archive through three publications and the Internet.

The Banca Centrale Foundation was the last one to be established in March 2005 by the Central Bank of the Republic of San Marino. It is also a non-profit organisation and its primary objective is training in the fields of economy, law and international relations. Among the Foundation's activities are: the promotion of studies, seminars, meetings, cultural and research activities in these specific sectors and the dissemination of initiatives to improve and expand knowledge on the conditions necessary for the Republic's economic, social and cultural progress. As provided for by its Statute, the Foundation accepts proposals made by labour and training institutions regarding the implementation of possible projects.

In 2005, in the context of the initiatives celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Social Security Institute, San Marino Foundation and the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation co-sponsored a competition for the realisation of a work of art to be placed in the vicinity of the State Hospital. In consideration of the high quality of the 26 projects submitted, the examining commission suggested the organisation of an exhibition open to all citizens and expressed the hope that at least some of these projects be realised and placed in adequate public spaces. Also in 2005, a new school was inaugurated in Faetano (one of the nine administrative divisions of the Republic), thanks to the cooperation between the state and the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation. The importance of this cooperation is due to the fact that, for the first time, the private and the public sectors collaborated in the implementation of a public project.

In 2006, the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation established the "San Marino Award", a cash award in favour of San Marino citizens who pay honour to the Republic around the world. On the occasion of its first edition, the award was given to a scientist and a missionary father - who celebrate the Republic's ideals of peace, progress and liberty through their everyday work.

The State Archive, also thanks to the sponsorship of the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation, is carrying out a project to place on-line important San Marino documents: a work of great historical, social and institutional importance, which makes the most rare and precious documents available to all (see also 4.2.8).

In 2007 the Ente Cassa di Faetano Foundation contributed economically to the organisation of a competition for the project of a sculpture on the value of dialogue among cultures and peoples, which represented one of the priorities of the programme of San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe. San Marino attaches great importance to this issue, since it is a sine qua non condition to build peace. For further information on this work of art, see 4.2.3 and 8.1.2.

San Marino/ 8. Support to creativity and participation

8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

San Marino artists do not benefit from specific measures which are part of a well-structured and long-term cultural policy framework. The only legislative provision promoting the artists work, is Law n. 6 of 1983, regulating arts in public building (see 5.3.9).

While this void has created a great deal of uncertainly and lack of confidence within the arts community, it remains lively. One of their main demands was the creation of the International Centre for Contemporary Art, with the full support of government institutions, mainly those responsible for culture. The objective of this Centre is be to develop and promote artistic research and creativity through meetings and exchanges among artists, the public and those operating in the contemporary art sector in San Marino and abroad (see also 8.1.2).

Artists participating in the Biennial of Young Artists from Europe and Mediterranean and ARTMIX receive some support from the state in the form of organisational and travel costs given by the Office for Social and Cultural Activities. The Biennial, the only regular event since 1992, is a great occasion for San Marino artists to promote their works and has become, throughout the years, a training, and exchange and production opportunity in connection with the world of art, industry, entertainment and media. ARTMIX - an event which took place for 3 consecutive years and ended in 2006 - was a music, theatre, cinema and contemporary art workshop whose main objective is training through the sharing and development of creativity, in order to stimulate the country's artistic and cultural production, taking into consideration national and international trends.

San Marino/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.1 Special artists funds

No special funds for artists exist in San Marino, except for the annual state contribution to the groups belonging to the Council of Cultural Associations. In this case, however, state support is granted to the association and not directly to the artist (see also 8.1.3).

San Marino/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.2 Grants, awards, scholarships

Direct support to artists in the form of grants and subsidies is sporadic and is not part of a long-term programme. In most cases, support is granted upon specific request by the interested party and does not result from a policy in favour of local artists.

ASART, an artist association founded in 1978 (belonging to and financed by the Council of Cultural Associations and Cooperatives) offers financial assistance to a maximum of two San Marino artists per year, who wish to exhibit their works. It also provides travel and accommodation funds artists to participate in meetings, exhibitions and workshops organised in major European cities. However, these cannot be considered as real scholarships to attend special courses or nor as special subsidies to young artists or initiatives aimed at promoting local cultural programmes.

The Biennials of Young Artists from Europe and the Mediterranean Area represents another opportunity for young artists. San Marino is part of the BJCEM, an international association organising the Biennial. Since 1992, the Office for Social and Cultural Activities has promoted the participation of San Marino in this Biennial. Every two years, a committee of curators from abroad chooses the artists in the various fields of contemporary art. In 2004, a pop music group called "MIODIO" and the visual artists Lionice Cola and the couple Giovagnoli / Fadanelli participated in the Naples event.

In 2005, the NUA Association, new contemporary art and research, composed of visual artists, musicians, theatre directors, political scientists, economists and cultural operators, launched and curated a project entitled "Going beyond the countries' art - small states on un-certain stereotypes". In this context, a first meeting gathering artists and institutions of contemporary art from small states of Europe was held in San Marino in November 2005. An observatory / network among the artists and the institutions of Andorra, Cyprus, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco and San Marino is being developed to favour future cooperation. This network stems from the need to go beyond the countries' art in order to promote transnational exchanges of experiences, methodologies and instruments and to support art production and its development throughout Europe. The association keeps contacts also with Icelandic artists and institutions, with the aim of inviting them to take part in the network. Moreover, it is working to create its own Internet website, a publication and an exhibition, to be held in Milan at the "Careof & Viafarini Documentation Centre for Visual Arts", on the activity carried out during its first 2 years of life.

The project has been realised in the context of ARTMIX 2005 download, a multidisciplinary exhibition curated by the Office for Social and Cultural Activities, in collaboration with the Modern and Contemporary Art Gallery, and sponsored by the San Marino Foundation. This initiative intends to favour the various forms of artistic creation, training and promotion, taking into account the best projects, also of international character, presented by associations and groups on the territory.

The newly established International Centre for Contemporary Art also provides some support to facilitate exchange between San Marino and international artists. The Centre is expected to host - for a maximum period of two or three months - some international artists who are selected by a special committee, to work together with San Marino artists on an artistic project for the country. The Centre will offer some grants to participate in training courses abroad, will make some of its structures available for the organisation of exhibitions, performances, concerts and theatre events and will manage the participation of San Marino artists in the Art Biennials. Moreover, another important task of the Centre will be to become a point of reference for any information on courses, exhibition areas and training opportunities. The Centre is also expected to organise artistic and cultural events, such as readings, exhibitions, courses and meetings for schools, social groups and the public in general. Finally, through its workshops, the Centre will provide some services for internal artistic production, as well as for other activities such as the production and post-production of videos, graphic designs, web sites and multimedia products.

In 2006, on the occasion of the celebrations for the 100th Anniversary of the General Arengo (Assembly) of the Heads of Family (an event which marked in San Marino the beginning of modern parliamentary democracy), the Ministry responsible for Information and Cultural Institutes announced a competition for to artists, either San Marino citizens or residents, for the realisation of a commemorative work on paper or canvas in a free-form technique. The winning work, typographically reproduced on the information material of the celebration events, was exhibited in the Government Building. The winner received a cash award.

In the framework of the initiatives promoted by the San Marino Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe - characterised, in particular, by the support and enhancement of dialogue among cultures and religions - a competition was advertised for the project of a sculpture to be placed in a very symbolic place, at the foot of Mount Titano, a transit point for anyone going to the city centre of San Marino. The project winning the first prize is called "Different / Equal" and immediately suggests the message of dialogue and equality that the author wanted to convey (see also 4.2.3 and 7.3).

In 2007, the Secretary of State responsible for Youth Policies launched a competition to create the logo and postcard to be used on the occasion of the initiatives addressed to San Marino young people. The competition was intended to give voice to the artistic expression of this group of society, recalling the concepts of participation, active citizenship, creativity, tendency to form associations, youth involvement, culture of young people, and cultural changes. The prize was presented on the occasion of the first Conference on Youth Policies, held in October 2007 and organised by the state, with the co-operation of the main San Marino Youth Associations.

San Marino/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.3 Support to professional artists associations or unions

The Council of Cultural Associations and Cooperatives supports its members through annual financial contributions, upon request, and through the free use of public structures and services for the promotion of their activities, for example, by providing free postage, free bill-posting, printing and binding of informative material, etc. A prerequisite to become a member of the Council is the social and / or cultural nature of the association, which must be non-profit. This is confirmed by Law n. 99 of 1991 establishing the Council, according to which the aim is to promote a better coordination of cultural activities within the country and to develop exchange and collaboration among them, to promote the circulation of information among the various cultural associations, cooperatives and centres. Approximately 10% of its associations (104, as of August 2007) deal with music, writing, painting or photography. Members from the music sector include: the Bluesmobile, the Camerata del Titano, the San Marino Centre for Music Studies, the San Marino Friends of the Music Association and Musamelica. Members from the literary sector include: the Libraries of Serravalle and Faetano. From the visual arts and photography, members include: ASART and NUA and ASFA (Photo Amateurs Association).

Financial support is also provided to the associations - Camerata del Titano and San Marino Immagine - by the Ministry of Culture, which, by virtue of specific conventions, offers them an annual contribution to promote and disseminate the culture and knowledge of music and photography through the organisation of special events and other initiatives.

From October 2004 to Summer 2005, San Marino RTV dedicated a weekly radio programme to national non-profit associations, which will probably be proposed again in the near future.

San Marino/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation

8.2.1 Trends and figures

The San Marino Office for Economic Planning and the Centre for Data Processing and Statistics have published two important monitoring studies on household consumption patterns and life style from 1999 to 2002. It found that the education level of the head of the household was high: 15.32% holding a university degree or diploma and 40.51% has a high school diploma. The main consumption patterns of households (1999 figures) are:

The share of households with technological equipment rose between 1999 and 2002.

A survey made by the Data Processing Centre and Statistics in 2004 shows that expenditures outside the Republic for education and leisure / entertainment are equal to 61.48% and 58.19% respectively. The increase in technological equipment in San Marino households reflects the introduction of new products on the market. Although the number of PCs, Internet subscriptions and satellite dishes remained unchanged in 2004, in comparison with 2003 data, the number of households with a DVD reader (+8.3%), a digital photo camera (+3.1%) and a plasma flat TV (+2.2%) recorded a slight increase. The survey also reveals that most families purchase from 1 to 5 books per year. Books are mainly bought and read by women aged between 30 and 50, while newspapers are mainly read by men aged between 40 and 50. Periodicals are read mainly by women between 30 and 50. The number of families reading periodicals (73.7%) is higher than the number of families reading newspapers (71%). In the households, the same number of males and females up to 25 years of age watch television (93.8%), out of which 54% from 1 to 6 hours. If we consider people from 20 to 24, females prevail, while from 40 to 70, a higher number of males watch television. The same trend was observed for radio listeners (76.9% of households). Internet use (64.4% of households) remains stable compared to 2003: the survey revealed that males from 30 to 34 and from 40 to 49 prevail, while the percentage of younger people remains low (despite a slight increase).

In 1995, young people aged 15-24 were interviewed in a survey undertaken by the Sant'Andrea Social Centre in Serravalle. The main results are:

An Observatory on Population Trends was established in 2004 by the Ministry of Health, Social Security and Equal Opportunities, with support from the Cassa di Risparmio Foundation. In September 2005, the results of a survey on San Marino adult population literacy were published. About 400 people from 16 to 75 were interviewed by DOXA to assess literacy levels on the basis of their behaviour. The aim was to establish any regression to illiteracy, examining loss of competences and skills due to lack of use. The interviews revealed high literacy levels, similar to those recorded in the most industrialised countries. Another focal point was the use of electronic means for the elaboration and transmission of information: computer has become a common tool in most San Marino families. Extremely interesting are the data on the elderly (66-75 years of age), who, despite their reduced opportunities to receive formal education, are very active.

The Tables below provide an overview of the rate of participation in cultural activities and institutions heavily subsidised by the state. These figures should, however, be read with caution. We are not able, for example, to distinguish between residents and non-residents.  There are no attendance figures for participation in temporary exhibitions of contemporary art because access is free of charge.

Table 1:     Theatre Attendance 1999-2003


No. of performances per year



Tickets Sold








1 848






2 644






2 099






3 403






2 573

% variation






Note:         R = San Marino Resident;  F = Foreigner

In 2004/2005 the number of performances was equal to 8 (2 432 tickets and 289 subscriptions).

Table 2:     Concert Attendance 1999-2003


No. of performances per year



Tickets Sold

































% variation






Table 3:     Cinema Attendance 1999-2003







1999/2003 % variation

Cinema Tickets Sold

76 863

64 921

67 877

65 960

52 436


In 2004/2005, cinema tickets sold were equal to 60 676.

Table 4:     Number of visitors to State Museums* 1999-2003







1999/2003 % variation

Tickets issued

256 161

257 939

250 308

229 336

180 076


Paying visitors


335 937

351 476

322 855

237 488



*          These figures do not include San Marino visitors, who have free access to State Museums. 2002 figures also include free entrances granted on request to bodies or similar entities upon authorisation by the Ministries or the Museums Directorate. The number of tickets issued is always smaller than that of effective paying visitors, since it includes single tickets and tickets granting entrance to two museums.

In 2004, the total number of tickets issued was equal to 172 320.

Table 5:     Number of visitors at the Museum of the Emigrant* 1999-2003







1999/2003 % variation


1 040

2 253

2 220



- 0.69

*          No ticket is necessary to visit the Museum. Visitors are only asked to sign a guest book, which has been used to calculate the total number. As not all visitors have signed the book and in some cases a single signature refers to a family, a group of students or other groups this data can only be an indication of the number of visitors. No distinction can be made between residents and non residents.

In 2004, the number of visitors was equal to about 500.

San Marino/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation

8.2.2 Policies and programmes

See chapter 4.2.4.

The main objective of San Marino policy is to extend access to new social groups, while increasing attendance by regular users, mainly through the reduction of prices. In line with this policy, performance and concert tickets did not considerably increase from 1999 to 2003, except for some downward or upward adjustments due to the introduction of the Euro. For example, theatre tickets cost 40 000 Lira in 1999 and 21.00 euro in 2003; concert tickets cost 20 000 Lira in 1999 and 10.00 euro in 2003. The only considerable increase can be noticed in the rise of subscription rates costing 320 000 Lira in 1999 and 195.00 euro in 2003.

In the theatre sector, there has been a considerable increase in the number of spectators during the 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 seasons. This is due to a number of measures including: experimental "mini-subscriptions" which were made available to those wishing to attend repeats of the most successful performances; shoppers at the Conad supermarket were given a reduction on a theatre subscription to the 2000/2001 season; subscription holders of both theatres (Teatro Nuovo and Teatro Titano) were granted a special discount. Concert subscriptions were first introduced in 2000. Besides regular and reduced rates, a special tariff was given to members of the music association.

San Marino citizens have free access to State Museums (Guaita Castle, Rocca Castle with its Museum of Ancient Weapons, State Museum in Pergami Palace, Government Building, Saint Francis Museum); discounts are available to foreign visitors. Promotional "week-end packages" are available for tourists. Increases in museum attendance have been recorded during specially organised events, such as the European Heritage Day, when there was a record number of visitors (10 611) on 12th September 2004 and on 11th September 2005, with 9 037 entries to San Marino sites and museums and more than 10 000 on 10 September 2006. San Marino participated in the European Heritage Days, with a total of 8 880 entries, on 9 September 2007. Moreover, in response to the invitation by the World Tourism Organisation to celebrate "World Tourism Day" on 27 September 2005, the Congress of State, with Decision n. 48 of 20 September 2005, authorised free entry to the State Museums and invited private museums to do the same. This was supported by an information campaign.

Since 1994, elementary schools annually organise an exhibition entitled "Who Reads Travels with the Mind". Over the years, the exhibition has been enlarged to include didactic projects developed by schools, meetings with the authors, workshops of animated reading and refresher courses for teachers and parents. This exhibition has now become a fixed event.

A number of specific cultural initiatives directed to San Marino residents and aimed at promoting participation are organised by institutions, which, in some cases, boast a century-old history. An example is the San Marino Archery Federation, gathering flag weavers, musicians, figurants and archers, whose costumes draw inspiration from those used in the ancient Court of the Dukes of Urbino. This Federation was created to preserve the memory of ancient traditions by evoking shooting competitions with the crossbow, an ancient defence instrument at the time of the Communes. In the 1980s, all the trophies, banners won, parchments, old costumes, documents, ancient crossbows and targets of the Federation were placed in the seat hall, in the historical centre, forming a museum with a very high moral and material value. This Museum is open to the public only once a year, on 3 September, on the occasion of the Anniversary of the Republic's Foundation and the Archery Competition. The State Military Band and the Serravalle Band offer free music courses with a view to training new musicians. Among San Marino historical groups, the Cerna dei Lunghi Archi, the Associazione Sammarinese Giochi Storici, I Fanciulli e la Corte di Olnano and the Gruppo Arti e Mestieri carry out a lively activity in the cultural and historical fields through their historical processions. All these institutions represent, still today, an important element of cultural involvement and promotion, both within and outside the country.

"At the theatre in the balcony!" is the theme introduced by the Office for Social and Cultural Activities (UASC) for the theatre season 2006/07. In order to make the theatre more accessible to all, attract younger generations and facilitate theatre lovers, the UASC has proposed an advantageous offer concerning both the price of single performances and that of subscriptions to the balcony (the ticket price for one performance is 13 euro and the subscription price for 12 performances is 120 euro).

San Marino/ 8.3 Arts and cultural education

8.3.1 Arts education

Under the aegis of the Ministry of Education and Culture, music education courses were created in 1975 and were subsequently integrated within the current San Marino Music Institute, which actually is not a higher education institution but a Cultural Institute with the aim of "promoting musical culture and the technical-professional preparation intended to encourage young people to perform artistic activities". Initially, the Institute was publicly financed but privately managed. Under Law n. 82 of 1994, it became a public autonomous body with administrative and managerial independence. The Law sets out its objectives, competences and responsibilities, its property, and governs the organisation of its courses. The passing of this Law provided a sustainable framework for the future functioning and financial stability of the Institute.

In 2005, the recreation centre for children Pologioco in Acquaviva (one of the educational centres on the territory, responsible to the Documentation Centre of the Kindergarten Directorate) promoted and realised the "Parco delle Storie Dimenticate" (park of forgotten stories): a path with sound, ecological, multisensorial and interactive devices, a sort of permanent art park in the pinewood of Mount Cerreto. The aim is to include this project in the network of the Italian thematic parks, facilitating mutual promotion of culture and tourism.

In April 2005, a tree symbolising peace was planted in Faetano. This was the concluding stage of a laboratory, cultural and artistic project carried out during the year in the various schools of the Republic, in collaboration with San Marino University and State Museum. The objective was to sensitise teachers and pupils on the role nature has always played, since the most ancient times, in promoting peace and harmony through artistic expressions. The activity culminated with the plantation of a kaki tree from Japan, a seedling which has survived the atomic bombing in Nagasaki. The Japanese artist Tatsuo Miyajma proposed the adoption of this tree by all countries of the world at the 1999 Venice Biennial.

In September 2007 - on the occasion of the annual meeting of the Committee for Higher Education and Research of the Council of Europe - a delegation of school representatives expressed San Marino's intention to join the Bologna Process. For San Marino, taking part in the Bologna Process means: to ensure transparent and clear courses and educational qualifications to its own citizens; to offer a wide range of high quality knowledge possibilities, which can ensure the economic and social development of the country; to promote the mobility of students, researchers and administrative staff of the University; and to promote European co-operation to assess the quality of the education system.

Currently, San Marino University, although small, is very active, vibrant and constantly developing in terms of participation and is making many efforts to achieve the important goal of constantly improving its quality and acquiring an international dimension. One of its objectives is to prepare the future generations to exercise an active and democratic citizenship, in line with the main European Education Policies, both of the Council of Europe and of the European Union. Joining the Bologna Process is for San Marino the sine qua non condition to improve the quality of its higher education system and to take part in the construction of a more democratic, inclusive and sustainable society, by getting fully involved, together with the other European Countries, in the building of a European area of higher education.

San Marino/ 8.3 Arts and cultural education

8.3.2 Intercultural education

A new democratic and pluralistic education system is described in Decree n. 57 of March 2006, "Adoption of Curricula for a New Learning Model in San Marino Schools", aimed at achieving a balance between a local and global dimension and enabling schools to provide access to knowledge on an equal footing. At the same time, differences must be promoted within schools, as well as a dialogue among different cultures. Hence, the traditional and original objective of schools to create citizens capable of acknowledging their well-defined "national" identity is now increasingly intermingling with the objective to present new forms of citizenship, in a context where globalisation progresses to the point that it involves economic, political, cultural and religious fields. 

The awareness of personal identity - which San Marino schools are considering - enables people to look at others without prejudice, in a spirit of knowledge, understanding and solidarity. Indeed, identity elements also constitute a prerequisite to positively face the problems of interaction among cultures. Intercultural education is therefore understood not as the fading away of personal origins and heritage of symbols, but rather as an encouragement to accede to and understand the symbols of others. In practice, all levels of San Marino schools, in line with the above-mentioned methodologies, address the issues of education on citizenship and intercultural dialogue, by preferring the in-depth study of situations "closer" to students: for example, they carefully study the countries of origin of the small number of foreign children present in the classrooms, in order to facilitate mutual knowledge and their integration in the local context.

The Training Department of San Marino University offers training courses and study sessions concerning multicultural education, respect for diversities and the value of tolerance, aimed at various professionals, including teachers. The school year 2006-07 was inaugurated with an opening address on human rights and, in parallel, the Minister of Education, Culture and University circulated a letter containing recommendations on the approach to the issue of human rights.

Education on tolerance and respect for differences is not an isolated subject, but rather represents one of the fundamental values, which must be part of all subject matters. Every single school, both primary and secondary, carries out interdisciplinary education projects aimed at promoting these values. In practice, the presence in Kindergartens of some children from other nations represents an occasion to propose intercultural education activities. Some didactic projects concern life and traditions of other countries, dances of other peoples, colours of other worlds, with the educational objective to promote and encourage positive behaviour and curiosity about different cultures. The intercultural educational objectives of Junior Schools concern awareness raising on the existence of different ways of expressing and communicating, the creation of a positive relational climate, the willingness to dialogue with "different" people, education on the values of civil coexistence, freedom, collaboration and respect for the others and becoming aware of one's own personal and cultural identity. In recent years, some intercultural projects have been developed in various subject matters, such as humanities (reading of novels concerning integration, meetings with foreigners, films on integration), English language (presentation of a multicultural calendar, in-depth study of the main articles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child), French language (reading and analysis of interviews with young immigrants, reading of books on racism) and music (listening and performance of pieces belonging to the tradition of various countries).

In 2007, in the framework of the educational project "Education for Democratic Citizenship" planned for schools on the occasion of the six-month Chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, the Documentation Centre of Kindergartens in collaboration with the Office for Social and Cultural Activities and the Company of Associated Artists "Teatro Ragazzi", proposed the show "Popone e l'elefante". This theatre performance, freely inspired to Theodor Seuss Geisel's fairy tale, intended to communicate to children, in a joyful way, the issue of interculturality, protection of minorities and their rights.

For further details on this issue, see chapter 2.4.3.

For more information, see our Intercultural Dialogue section

San Marino/ 8.4 Amateur arts, cultural associations and community centres

8.4.1 Amateur arts

The dynamism of the San Marino people is testified to by the continuous creation of new cultural and social associations. In March 2004, a study showed that one out of every two citizens participates actively or passively in an association.

The first association was the male section of the Mutual Aid Society (SUMS), created in 1874. Originally established to provide subsidies to those who could no longer work, the Society soon began to carry out several initiatives promoting industrial development and assisting all institutions supporting the well being of the working class. 25 years later, the female section of the SUMS was created. These entities were very important within San Marino society, which was characterised by great poverty at the time. Among the cultural initiatives promoted by the SUMS, worth mentioning are the Folk University (1904), open to the entire population, and the Amateur Dramatic Society.

The "Piccolo Teatro Arnaldo Martelli" was established in 1963/1964; the name comes from its founder, a San Marino professional actor, interested in local amateur theatre companies. Since then, the San Marino amateur theatre company has started a productive and uninterrupted process: over the years, the group has staged the most challenging authors of dramatic and comic genre, by establishing, in some cases, important collaborations with foreign directors. Since 1976, the members have also staged dialect performances, with a fixed annual event on the occasion of the celebrations for the joint patron Saint Agatha. The association - composed of 30 members - receives economic support from the state and sponsorship from the Township Council for its activities.

The "San Marino Choir" was created in 1960, bringing together the choristers of the former Governmental Chapel and the former Salesian Schola Cantorum, as well as music and song lovers. Subsequently, a policy of cultural exchange was started, which lead the Choir to perform in San Marino and in the most important non European, European and Italian cultural centres. The adult section includes about 35 persons, all voluntary; besides this section, there is also the chorus of treble voices "Piccole Voci", with about 40 children. The Choir benefits from annual grants issued by the state for services rendered during official celebrations, economic support of sponsors such as banking foundations and economic operators for specific projects, and sponsorship from the Township Council.

Freedom of assembly and association, freedom of thought, conscience and religion are provided for by the Declaration on the Citizens' Rights of 1974 (see 5.1.1). The first law recognising and regulating the freedom of association dates back to the 1977 Law regulating cooperative societies and replaced by a new one in 1991. The latter established the Council of Cultural Associations and Cooperatives which gathers together an increasing number of associations under one umbrella, in particular from the fields of theatre, photography, local culture, music, arts, reading, dance, history, environmental protection. Its creation underlined state recognition for the value and autonomy of such associations. Among the Council's tasks are to allocate state funding for associations, to organise meetings where participants can exchange views and experiences and to promote common cultural initiatives. For more information concerning state support of these associations, see 8.1.3.

A 1989 Law regulates cooperation between volunteers and public entities. The 2001 government paid special attention to volunteer activities as a supplement to public services and included the promotion of culture in the new policy plan - the main objective being the qualitative improvement of cultural institutes and support for associations. San Marino celebrated its First Volunteer Day on Saturday, 18 September 2004; organised by the Council of Cultural Associations and Cooperatives.

San Marino/ 8.4 Amateur arts, cultural associations and community centres

8.4.2 Cultural houses and community cultural clubs

On the local level, the 3 social centres of Dogana, Fiorentino and Serravalle provide important spaces for groups to share and perform poetry, singing, etc. "A house for everybody" is the motto of the Social Centre in Dogana. These social centres located throughout the country have always been open to associations, groups and companies and have always made their seats and instruments available for amateur cultural events. They benefit from financial support and the grants issued every year by the Department of Education, Culture and the University.

Centrarti was created in 2005 as a laboratory for arts and contemporary culture, research and cultural production. Centrarti is the first multidisciplinary centre where people have the possibility to experiment with their own creativity through music, theatre, cinema, contemporary art, dance, singing, exhibitions, etc. This Centre, also called the "new art factory", organises participatory events through the development of all artistic disciplines with workshops, performances, initiatives and competitions. It aspires to become a point of reference for the professional growth and visibility of young and talented artists, as well as of anyone wishing to elaborate his / her own expressive capacities.

San Marino/ 9. Sources and Links

9.1 Key documents on cultural policy

AA.VV.: Storia Illustrata della Repubblica di San Marino - vol. III-V. San Marino: AIEP, 1985/1995/2005. 

AA.VV.: I Goti a San Marino. Il Tesoro di Domagnano - catalogo mostra 4/6-5/9/1995. Milan: Electa, 1995. 

AA.VV., Cinema e Storia. I Meeting Internazionale 20/23 marzo 1996 - catalogo e itinerario audiovisivo. San Marino: Tipolitografia Giusti, 1996. 

AA.VV.: Vent'anni del Centro Sociale di Dogana (1979-1999). San Marino: AIEP, 1999. 

AA.VV., San Marino al Cinema. Proiezioni, Mostre, Incontri e Collezioni sulla Cultura Universale del Cinema. Rimini: Tipografia Garattoni, 2001. 

Battistini, Lorenzo: La Tutela dei Beni Culturali nella Repubblica di San Marino (1825-1943), 2002. 

Bonelli, Renzo: I Beni Culturali nella Legislazione Sammarinese. San Marino: Studi Sammarinesi, 1987. 

Centro Sociale Sant'Andrea (curated by): La Condizione Giovanile nella Repubblica di San Marino: un Universo al Plurale. San Marino: Centro Sociale Sant'Andrea, 1997. 

Ciavatta, Augusto (curated by): Il Fondo Musicale. San Marino: Cosmopolitan s.r.l., 2000. 

Conti, Michele (curated by): Condempnationes 1365-1371. San Marino: Ente Cassa di Faetano, 2004.

Gasperoni, Walter (curated by): Galleria d'Arte Moderna e Contemporanea - catalogo. San Marino: Edizioni del Titano, 1996. 

Gatti, Rosa: Vita Teatrale a San Marino nell'Ottocento - vol I. San Marino: ATE, 1992 

Gatti, Rosa: Vita Teatrale a San Marino dal 1900 al 1950 - vol II. San Marino: ATE, 1993 

Gatti, Rosa: Vita Teatrale a San Marino dal 1950 al 1996/97 - vol III. San Marino: Studiostampa, 1997 

Gino Zani (curated by): La Sede Nova della Repubblica. Rimini: Pazzini, 1996 

Morganti, Leo Marino: Il Patrimonio dello Stato. L'Architettura Storica della Repubblica di San Marino. San Marino: AIEP, 2001 

Morganti, Leo Marino: L'architettura. Manufatti o immobili con valore di monumento. San Marino: Studiostampa, 2007 

Pasini, Pier Giorgio (curated by): Il Museo di Stato della Repubblica di San Marino. Milan: Federico Motta Editore S.p.A., 2000 

Pedini Angelini, Maria Lea: Istituto Musicale Sammarinese. Ventennale 1975-1995. San Marino: Ramberti, 1995 

U.A.S.C. (curated by): CittÓ e Cultura. Riapertura del Teatro Titano. Stagione Concertistica 1986. San Marino: Studiostampa, 1986 

San Marino/ 9. Sources and Links

9.2 Key organisations and portals

Cultural policy making bodies

Ministry of Education and Culture, University and Social Affairs

Ministry of Internal Affairs, Civil Protection and Government Plan Implementation

Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Political Affairs and Economic Planning (it includes a specific section on San Marino Military Corps)

Ministry of Tourism, Sport, Telecommunications, Transport and Economic Cooperation

Professional Associations

Council of Cultural Associations, Centres and Cooperatives

San Marino Amateur Photography Association (ASFA)

Grant-giving bodies

Ente della Cassa di Faetano Foundation

San Marino - Cassa di Risparmio della Repubblica di San Marino - S.U.M.S. Foundation

Banca Centrale Foundation

Cultural research and statistics

Law archive and institutional bodies

Office for Economic Planning and Centre for Data Processing and Statistics

University of San Marino

Equal Opportunities

Observatory on Adult Population

Trade Marks and Patent State Office

Culture / arts portals

Documentary sources of the State Archive

State Library

Permanent Study Centre on Emigration and Museum of the Emigrant

State Museums

San Marino Radio and Television Broadcasting Company

Radio San Marino

Philatelic and Numismatic Company

ARTMIX Project, San Marino young artists (Office for Social and Cultural Activities)

CENTRARTI - Multidisciplinary research, experimentation and production centre

Theatre season

Portal of the Republic of San Marino

Portal providing information on San Marino

Naturalistic Centre

San Marino Music Institute

Alliance Franšaise (portal devoted to French culture in Italy, with a section dedicated to San Marino)


The Council of Europe/ERICarts "Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 9th edition", 2008