http://www.culturalpolicies.net/_grafics/logoprintbw.gif
Report creation date: 14.10.2008 - 10:55
Countr(y/ies): FYR Macedonia
Chapter(s): 1,2,21,22,23,24,241,242,243,244,245,246,3,31,32,33,4,41,42,421,422,423,424,425,426,427,428,429,4210,43,5,51,511,512,513,514,515,516,517,518,519,52,53,531,532,533,534,535,536,537,538,539,5310,6,61,62,63,64,7,71,72,73,8,81,811,812,813,82,821,822,83,831,832,84,841,842,9,91,92

FYR of Macedonia/ 1. Historical perspective: cultural policies and instruments

After the Second World War, Macedonia became part of the Yugoslav Federation, and therefore, its cultural policy was subject to the state ideology of building up a socialist culture. Over the past fifty years, cultural policy went through three main development stages:

After 1945, the role of the government in culture was vastly extended. New institutions were established, programmes were set up to train qualified staff to run these institutions and the culture and the arts were popularised. In the past, Macedonian culture hardly had an opportunity to flourish as its own national culture. It is therefore understandable that there was a certain amount of national and romantic spirit throughout this period.

Following a long period of strict centralism, Macedonia entered a period of self-management in the mid 1970s which offered the country certain opportunities to develop democratic elements, similar to that of other European countries. Municipal cultural institutions were created and were completely financed by the individual local communities (of which there were 31). While promising in theory, steps towards decentralisation became "suffocated" by bureaucratic incompetence, lack of professionalism and a thicket of regulations. In the 1990s, the cultural policy of independent Macedonia once again became politically and administratively centralised. The municipalities lost all the competencies they had gained in the field of culture.

There is no explicit cultural policy document which outlines a specific strategy and / or goals of cultural development, and therefore, one can hardly speak of a consistent cultural policy after 1990. The Constitution and the 1998 Law on Culture provided a certain global orientation toward culture including provisions for civil rights and freedoms, minority rights, the obligation of the government to support and develop culture, etc. However, in practice, there is still a combination of the old and new pragmatism and ad hoc temporary solutions. Today, the term culture is still equated with the term art.

Since 1945, Macedonia has been recognised as a multicultural country. The Ministry of Culture financed the activities of institutions such as the Theatre of Nationalities (Turkish and Albanian Drama, established in 1947), as well as several cultural associations (amateur and professional), vocal and dance folk groups, etc. Daily newspapers and weekly magazines, monthly children's magazines and radio and TV programmes were available in the respective languages of different cultural communities. Writers, artists, actors, musicians etc., of all the nationalities (Albanians, Turks, Serbs, Romans etc.) were members of the same professional associations together with the Macedonians.

After 1990, the once "homogeneous" society started to slowly disintegrate. It turned out that some communities (especially Albanian) were not satisfied with the overall cultural policy in the past or with state support and provisions for cultural minorities. Certainly, the process of democratisation has encouraged the communication of different views and perspectives, also with regard to the culture of minority communities. It has also helped to point out mistakes made in the past. For example, many private publishing companies were established (over 80% of them Albanian) in a very short period of time after 1990 in order to compensate for the lack of books in the languages of different minority groups. Numerous private radio and TV stations were opened and started to broadcast programmes in minority languages (most of them Albanian and Roma). Several new festivals were established to promote the culture of minority groups. Several new associations and NGOs started to work etc. The Ministry of Culture financially supported most of these activities (except radio and TV).

On the other hand, this approach led to almost complete cultural separation along ethnic lines such as the creation of a foundation for the Association of Albanian Publishers and Association of Albanian Writers. Demands were also made to split up the Theatre of Nationalities into an Albanian Theatre and Turkish Theatre etc.

The ethnic conflict in 2001 (re-)opened certain multicultural questions and the treatment of minority rights (primarily of the Albanian ethnic population) in the field of culture. Following the conflict and the institution of the Ohrid Framework Agreement, the Constitution was amended with some specific provisions for the different cultural communities (see also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.1). Some experts say that "the Ohrid Framework Agreement is a new vision for a Third Republic, which is to be radically different from the first one established with ASNOM (Antifascist Parliament of the Peoples Liberation of Macedonia) in 1944, and the second one, inaugurated with the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia". It means specifically that the constitutional amendments from 2001 establish the citizens of Macedonia - the Macedonian people and parts of Albanian, Turkish, Serb, Roma, and Bosnian people living in Republic of Macedonia - as those adopting the Constitution. In this context, some experts say that Macedonia "should become the pilot-state of 21st century multiculturalism".

 

FYR of Macedonia/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.1 Organisational structure (organigram)

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FYR of Macedonia/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.2 Overall description of the system

Up until the beginning of the 1990s, citizens were both directly and indirectly involved in decision-making on issues considered of local importance including the field of culture. This model of self-government was, however, practically not functioning and in 1990, the independence of municipalities was abolished. Their entire competence in the field of culture was transferred to the Ministry of Culture. On July 1, 1991, the Ministry of Culture became responsible for all public cultural institutions, which had been formerly the responsibility of the municipalities. This signified the transition from a completely decentralised system, based on the principles of socialism and self-management, to (at that time) a completely centralised system.

Today, there is a single level of local self-government, consisting of 83 municipalities and the city of Skopje.

The decision-making process is shared between the Ministry of Culture, the government and the parliament. The Ministry of Culture drafts laws and documents for the government, which passes them on to the Parliamentary Committee for Culture for discussion and enactment. The Ministry of Culture appoints directors of national cultural institutions, approves their programme and work, allocates the funds etc.

In 1998, the Law on Culture was adopted, setting a framework for cultural policy decision-making and the financing of cultural activities. It includes principles and activities such as freedom of creative work; introduction of a civil concept in culture; an equal position for all public and private entities in the field of culture; introduction of a decentralised system for culture; financing of the national interest in culture by means of open competition etc. In fact, until 2003, very few items from this list have been put into practice.

The new Law on Local Self-Government (2002) gave the municipality's greater independence in the field of culture.

While society has been undergoing tremendous changes (privatisation, restructuring of the economy, unemployment above 30%, social differentiation, etc.), the cultural sector had been left untouched until 2003. At this time, the Law on Culture was amended and the National Programme for Culture 2004 - 2008 was adopted by the Parliament. In December 2003, the government passed the Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture, which started the process of decentralisation in the field of culture.

In 2004, the Parliament adopted the new Law on Territorial Organisation and the Law for the City of Skopje.

There have been certain changes to the architecture of the system in the past few years, especially after the Ohrid Framework Agreement (2001), for example, to facilitate the representation and participation of national cultural minorities in the public administration system and within the cultural policy making processes e.g. via specific councils and working groups at the Ministry of Culture etc. At the beginning of 2003, the Office for Promotion and Advancement of the Cultures of Nationalities was also established at the Ministry of Culture. It provides balanced financial support to cultural projects of all ethnic groups and since 2005; it has begun a gradual implementation of the employment policies stipulated in the Law on Culture.

In this context, in 2003 the Parliament also established the Committee on the Political System and Ethnic Relations. It consists of 19 members, including seven seats reserved for ethnic Macedonian legislators and seven for ethnic Albanian deputies. The Serbian, Vlach, Turk, Romany, and Bosnian minorities have one member each. The interests of minorities that not represented within the parliament are represented by the national ombudsman. The formation of the committee is part of the implementation of the Ohrid agreement.

See also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.1.

FYR of Macedonia/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.3 Inter-ministerial or intergovernmental co-operation

The Ministry of Culture co-operates with a number of other ministries and government agencies, namely with:

FYR of Macedonia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.1 Overview of main structures and trends

Although the federal republics had some independence, in ex-Yugoslavia the vast majority of international cultural cooperation was realised through the Federal ministries and institutions. After gaining independence and especially after its admission to the United Nations in April 1993, the Republic of Macedonia gradually became integrated into all major international governmental and non-governmental organisations in the field of culture, developing and realising its own international cultural cooperation.

The Ministry of Culture is responsible for co-operation with international governmental organisations, and also for co-operation with international non-governmental organisations within the framework of the Ministry's competencies and possibilities. It also co-operates with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in coordinating international cultural cooperation.

Especially since December 2005, when Macedonia was granted the status of candidate country, EU integration has been the most relevant issue in Macedonia. Harmonisation of the legal system with EU standards is a priority in the programmes of the government and the parliament. The EU integration process has been on the agenda of all levels of government.

FYR of Macedonia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.2 Public actors and cultural diplomacy

The Ministry of Culture (in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs) in Macedonia is the main body responsible for international, bilateral and multilateral cultural co-operation, which is realised through international conventions, other international agreements, bilateral agreements and programmes for co-operation. Bilateral cultural co-operation agreements include educational and scientific programmes as part of framework agreements that are signed for 1-3 years. Therefore, these agreements are the major but not the only instrument in international cooperation. Other instruments such as cooperation treaties, co-production agreements or state guarantees are also used.

On the other hand, local authorities are also independent in establishing and realising international cultural cooperation. At the same time, a significant part of international cultural co-operation is realised through direct co-operation between institutions and individuals and is frequently endorsed and financed by the Ministry of Culture.

The foreign agencies and institutes such as the British Council, the French Cultural Centre, IFA (Germany) etc., are an important link in the international cultural cooperation process. However, as these agencies have in mind their main goals this cooperation is mostly partial, one-sided.

The financial support for international cultural co-operation varies each year, depending on the annual budget of the Ministry of Culture and the programmed activities. However, the usual estimation is 2-3% of the annual budget of the Ministry for the programmes and activities in the field of international cultural co-operation.

The new government (September 2006) announced the idea of appointing recognised artists, writers, musicians etc., as cultural ambassadors abroad. In 2007, the Prime Minister appointed the first 3 cultural ambassadors: the world-wide known film director Milcho Manchevski as cultural ambassador to the USA, the writer Goran Stefanovski as cultural ambassador to Slovenia and the pop-singer Vlado Janevski as cultural ambassador to Croatia. These artists do not have full diplomatic status but still they are treated as ambassadors.

FYR of Macedonia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.3 European / international actors and programmes

After gaining independence, and especially after its admission to the United Nations in April 1993, the Republic of Macedonia gradually became integrated into all major international governmental and non-governmental organisations acting in the field of culture, such as UNESCO, the Council of Europe etc., participating in most of the major programmes of multilateral co-operation.

The Republic of Macedonia is also a member of Francophonie.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is responsible for implementing and monitoring all the international (bilateral or multilateral) agreements and conventions. The Ministry of Culture (with UNESCO National Commission) and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, depending on the field of interest, are responsible for implementing and monitoring the conventions in the field of culture, such as the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. The Convention was ratified on May 22, 2007.

In September 2007, the Ministry of Culture made a public presentation of the EU programme "Culture 2007 - 2013".

FYR of Macedonia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.4 Direct professional co-operation

There are three very interesting examples of sector-specific trans-national cultural co-operation in dance and theatre in the past two years.

The first one is connected with the monumental painting (24 sq.m.) and the documentary film "Planetarium" by the internationally recognised Macedonian artist Kiro Urdin. The painting and the film "Planetarium" were an inspiration for the Canadian choreographer Debbie Wilson to produce a dance performance having the same name. The performance had two premieres, the first in Toronto (Canada) on February 5, 2003 and the second in Skopje (Macedonia) on July 7, 2003. The two premieres brought together a Macedonian artist and a Canadian choreographer, 8 dancers from OMO Dance Company (Canada) and 7 dancers from the Macedonian National Theatre etc. Planetarium began with a single idea: to combine different cultures into a stronger statement, exploring universal themes that are common to all people.

The second example is the theatre project "Bones in the Stone" by the Croatian writer Slobodan Snajder, supported by EU funds. The project will combine theatres from 8 countries, including the Naroden Teatar from Bitola (Macedonia) and the "Kampnagel" Theatre from Hamburg (where the world premiere took place on 6 June 2007) etc. (see also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.3).

One of the highly appreciated projects in 2007 was the film "The time of the Comet". It is a multinational co-production (Albanian-German-Macedonian), filmed on locations in Macedonia. The German Institute for European Affairs strongly supported the film stressing that it is an excellent example of cultural development understanding and co-operation in the region.

FYR of Macedonia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.5 Cross-border intercultural dialogue and co-operation

There are no exact government programmes to support trans-national intercultural dialogue, but certain programmes are channelled via the Ministry of Culture or intergovernmental organisations. The Ministry of Culture supports specific trans-national activities for young people or youth groups, through funds available for travel grants, language or cross-cultural training courses. In 2005 the Ministry of Culture supported 14 projects focussed on developing and understanding cultural pluralism, intercultural and interethnic dialogue etc.

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs promotes national values and interests in view of the country's further European and transatlantic integration. Macedonia participates in the permanent initiatives for regional cooperation in the entire Southeast European region.

On the other hand, it should be noted that the Macedonian Cultural Centres in New York and Sofia play a role in cross-border intercultural dialogue and co-operation with ICD objectives. Their role is to promote not only the high artistic and cultural values but also the multicultural and multiethnic aspects of Macedonian culture.

For more information, see our Intercultural Dialogue section

FYR of Macedonia/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.6 Other relevant issues

One very interesting issue is the establishment of cultural links with the Diaspora. It is well known that the Macedonian Diaspora is spread all over the world, but mostly in the far distant continents such as Australia, Canada and the USA. Therefore, the activities and organisational provisions for Diaspora communities has always been a priority for the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In the summer of 2006, for example, the National Theatre from Prilep carried out a one-month tour in Australia, giving performances in the cities where most of the Macedonian Diaspora lives. However, bearing in mind the distances and the costs involved for such activities, the provisions are very limited.

Another issue connected with the Macedonian Diaspora is the question of voting rights. For years there has been a constant debate in the Macedonian Parliament and in the media about the possibilities of changing the Constitution and giving the Diaspora the right to vote, which is still unresolved. Especially, in 2007, there was a constant public and Parliamentary debate over the government's official proposal to change the Law on Electing Representatives in the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia and give the Diaspora the right to vote, which is being opposed by the opposition parties.

Another relevant issue in regional intercultural dialogue is the Macedonian minority "problem" in the neighbouring countries. In the past few years, the focus of intercultural dialogue (but only from the Macedonian side) is on the political, cultural and other rights of the Macedonian minority in neighbouring countries. There have been some attempts to implement projects that concern the Macedonian minority in neighbouring countries, but with minor results.

FYR of Macedonia/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.1 Main elements of the current cultural policy model

The general objectives of cultural policy are provided via the Constitution: civil rights and freedoms, creative autonomy, the obligation to support and develop culture, the right of the different ethnic or national groups to establish institutions for culture and art, the protection of the cultural and historical heritage, etc. The Law on Culture (1998) identifies some objectives as being of "national interest", such as establishing general conditions for the continuity of culture; creating favourable conditions for outstanding cultural achievements; encouraging cultural diversity; cultural development etc.

Additional policy initiatives in the past few years can be found in the Ministry's Annual Programme for Financing of Programmes and Projects of National Cultural Interest and in the annual budget for culture. Until 2003, there had been no significant changes within the cultural policy model itself in comparison to the previous socialist system.

Since the introduction of budget financing in the cultural sphere in 1990, financial resources are being allocated to the institutions on a yearly basis for the following items: salaries and other allowances (i.e. per diems and travelling allowances for the permanently employed staff), allowances for annual programmes, investments, heating of buildings, insurance of equipment, buildings, exhibitions, etc.

However, changes took place in the following areas:

Over the past several years, the Ministry formulated some cultural policy priorities such as:

In December 2003, the government passed the Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture. It provided the framework within which the network of the cultural institutions (national and local) was to be organised and re-allocated responsibilities for culture to the municipalities.

In 2004 a National Programme for Culture 2004 - 2008 was adopted by the Parliament. According to this National Programme, the basic principles of the cultural policy are:

See also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 3.3 for objectives of the new programme.

FYR of Macedonia/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.2 National definition of culture

 

The Law on Culture defines culture to include "creativity, dissemination of artistic creativity and protection and use of creativity".

FYR of Macedonia/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.3 Cultural policy objectives

The Law on Culture (1998) specifies some cultural objectives as being of "national interest", e.g. establishing general conditions for achieving continuity in culture; creating conditions for outstanding cultural achievements and their protection; encouraging cultural diversity; protecting and developing the cultural identity of different communities; cultural development etc.

According to the National Programme for Culture 2004-2008, the main cultural policy objectives are:

The National Programme for Culture 2004-2008 has also formulated the following cultural policy priorities:

The priority objectives of the Ministry of Culture for the mid-term are: a larger cultural budget, protection of cultural heritage, and capital investments in new buildings for cultural institutions etc.

The priorities for 2007 are to double the money for cultural projects of the institutions and capital investments, resulting in new buildings for the Macedonian National Theatre, the Macedonian Philharmonic, the Museum of IMRO and the Victims of Communism, Museum on Water in Ohrid, Memorial house of Mother Theresa etc.

FYR of Macedonia/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.1 Main cultural policy issues and priorities

The main issue in cultural policy over the past several years was the question of decentralisation and the re-allocation of the responsibilities (not only in the field of culture) to the municipalities and to the City of Skopje.

The proposal of the Ministry of Culture for a new (decentralised) reorganisation of the network of cultural institutions (on national and local levels) was followed by a wide (positive) public debate. It ended with the government's Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture passed in December 2003. According to this Decision, only 51 (from the previous 115) institutions gained the status of national institutions. It also included a major change in the re-allocation of the responsibilities for culture. Since June 2005 this decentralisation model has been put into practice.

The new government (September 2006) announced its main cultural priorities as:

FYR of Macedonia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.1 Cultural minorities, groups and communities

Officially recognised ethnic (cultural) minorities are those mentioned in the Preamble of the Constitution: Albanians, Turks, Roma, Serbs, Bosnians and Vlachs.

According to the latest census of 2002, the total population was 2 022 547 of which 64.18% are Macedonians (1 297 981). The rest of the population is made up of:

Table 1:     Share of ethnic minority groups, 2002

Ethnic minority groups

Total number

% share of total population

Albanians

509 083

25.17

Turks

77 959

3.85

Romans

53 879

2.66

Serbs

35 939

1.78

Bosnians

17 018

0.84

Vlachs

9 695

0.48

Others

20 993

1.04

Source:      State Statistical Office.

In 2006, there was an official demand made by Croatia to recognise the Croatian ethnic minority as a Constitutional minority, but this demand was not accepted by the Macedonian Government.

These minority groups have the constitutional right to freely express, nurture and develop their own cultural, religious, and linguistic identity and national features. The Ministry of Culture pays great attention to this, particularly in the decision-making process about projects submitted in open competitions, and in the creation of the yearly cultural programmes.

Cultural workers and expert staff from minority and ethnic groups are involved in the entire range of cultural institutions, in cultural centres, cultural and art clubs, national ensembles of opera, ballet, drama, philharmonic orchestra, in film projects, publishing, libraries, the protection of cultural monuments, art exhibitions, etc.

Following the signing of the Ohrid Framework Agreement of 13.08.2001, the following amendments have been made to the Constitution for the different cultural communities:

In April 2007, the Ministry of Education and Science announced that the government had decided to establish the Institute for Cultural Heritage of Albanians. As a public scientific institution, this Institute should conduct scientific research in the Albanian language, Albanian literature and the history of the Albanians in Macedonia etc. The government will finance the Institute.

What concerns other social groups and communities, unofficially, is that there is a gay community that consists of nearly 30-40 000 people, but it has never been officially recognised.

FYR of Macedonia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.2 Language issues and policies

The official language is Macedonian. In 1998, the Law on the Use of the Macedonian Language was passed. A breakdown of languages spoken by different cultural communities is provided in http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.1.

In this context, it should be mentioned that for several months the Committee for Culture in the Parliament is not working, waiting for the final decision whether the Rules of Procedure will change and the Parliamentary committees can be conducted in the Albanian language as well. The Parliament representatives from the Albanian political parties do not want to take part in this Committee until the "language question" in the Rules of Procedure is solved.

FYR of Macedonia/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.3 Intercultural dialogue: actors, strategies, programmes

The FYR of Macedonia is a multicultural, multiconfessional and multilinguistic country where intercultural dialogue is one of the most important issues. In fact, the whole political system is designed on these bases.

In strictly cultural terms, the main authority responsible for programmes and policies addressing the issue of intercultural dialogue at national level is the Ministry of Culture. The Ministry has also established an Office for the Promotion and Advancement of the Cultures of Nationalities.

However, having in mind that the whole system is based on a kind of intercultural (or interethnic) dialogue, then this dialogue is a priority issue and the main public actors responsible for implementing the programmes and policies to promote intercultural dialogue are the parliament and the government. The main policy document identifying intercultural (interethnic) dialogue as an objective or priority of the government is the Ohrid Framework Agreement from 2001. In that context, the general intercultural dialogue has been fostered, especially after the Ohrid Framework Agreement. ICD has been on the agenda of all the ministries and government agencies, especially the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Education and Science, the Secretariat for European Affairs, the Agency of Youth and Sport etc. ICD is an important part of several national strategies including the National Strategy for Culture; the National Strategy for Education; the National Strategy for Youth etc.

In 2003, the Parliament established the Committee on the Political System and Ethnic Relations. It consists of 19 members, including seven seats reserved for ethnic Macedonian legislators and seven for ethnic Albanian deputies. The Serbian, Vlach, Turk, Romany, and Bosnian minorities have one member each. The interests of minorities are not represented within the Parliament, but are instead represented by the national ombudsman. The formation of the committee is part of the implementation of the Ohrid Agreement.

Within the Government's General Secretariat, there is a Sector for Implementation of the Framework Agreement.

On the other hand, since this question of intercultural (interethnic) dialogue is a priority issue, it is of major interest to all political parties and other non-governmental, private, religious and other groups.

One interesting example of a "free initiative" in the area of intercultural dialogue is the initiative of the Cultural Centre "Shcupi" (Albanian for Skopje) to split the Ministry of Culture into 3 departments with: a department for Macedonian culture, a department for Albanian culture and a department for culture of other ethnic communities!

The NGO sector is a big promoter of intercultural dialogue, especially the Foundation Open Society Institute Macedonia which has several programmes for intercultural dialogue. In 2005, the Foundation Open Society Institute Macedonia held a regional conference on "Multiculturalism in Macedonia: an emerging model".

Some examples of good practice in participation in ICD related to international and EU programmes are: the International Festival "Roma and the Roma Culture"; World Conference "The contribution of religion and culture to peace, mutual respect and cohabitation" (October 2007); "Rehabilitation of Education" (with Switzerland); "Modernisation of Education" (with the World Bank and the Government of the Netherlands) etc.

For more information, see:
Database of Good Practice on Intercultural Dialogue and our Intercultural Dialogue section.

FYR of Macedonia/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.4 Social cohesion and cultural policies

The government believes that the best social policy is the one that creates new employment. So its policy is to create an efficient system of social protection and productive engagement of welfare users. Some of the mid-term priorities are:

There are also special measures for young people:

FYR of Macedonia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.5 Media pluralism and content diversity

All media are privately owned, except for the Macedonian Radio and Television Company as a Public Broadcasting Service. The Macedonian Radio and Television Company broadcasts TV programmes in seven languages (Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, Roma, Serb, Bosnian and Vlach) and radio programmes in nine languages (Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, Roma, Serb, Bosnian, Vlach, Greek and Bulgarian). The share of domestic versus imported programmes in Macedonian Television is 70:30. However, for other broadcasting companies, the percentage is much, much higher for imported programmes (mostly films!).

Table 2:     Transmitted programmes of Macedonian National Television, by language and channels of transmission, 2006

Language

Hours

Channel 1

Channel 2

Channel 3

Macedonian

11 819

7 482

-

4 337

Albanian

3 647

-

3 647

-

Turkish

353

-

353

-

Roma

80

-

80

-

Serbian

85

-

85

-

Vlach

71

-

71

-

Bosnia

74

-

74

-

Total

16 129

7 482

4 310

4 337

Source:      State Statistical Office, Report 2.1.7.20, 2006.

According to the latest statistical data (2006), there are 61 TV broadcasting companies (6 at national and 55 at local level) and 88 radio companies (4 at national and 84 at local level). The total transmission of TV programmes was 376 439 hours and of radio programmes 630 717 hours. There are 462 516 household TV and radio subscribers and 38 404 business subscribers.

In 2007, the government opened the process of privatisation of the public local radio stations (29). However, the Association of Public Local Broadcasters argued that the model for privatisation is not suitable and that no public radio station has been privatised yet. They offer a new model - city councils to appear as new founders and financiers of the local public radio stations. The process of negotiation is still open.

The last state-owned daily newspaper "Nova Makedonia" was sold to a private owner in 2002. There is no accurate data on the number of newspapers, weekly and monthly magazines etc.

Macedonian journalists usually attend training programmes organised by the Council of Europe, UNESCO and CIRCOM.

The Ministry of Culture has no responsibility over the media. See also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 5.3.8.

There are no anti-trust measures to prevent media concentration.

FYR of Macedonia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.6 Culture industries: policies and programmes

One of the burning public dilemmas in the field of culture during the last 15 years has been whether there is a cultural market in the country, and whether culture could exist under market conditions.

According to the Constitution, freedom of the market and entrepreneurship is guaranteed and the government is to ensure an equal legal position to all parties operating in the market. As far as culture is concerned, this can be carried out in a non-profit making manner through business partnerships, and in an unprofitable manner, through institutions. Based on this provision, numerous private institutions or business partnerships were established primarily in the field of publishing, film, performing arts etc. However, their "market" orientation basically meant applying for financial resources from the budget of the Ministry of Culture.

One of the arguments against a private market for culture is the small size of the territory and the modest population, as well as the small language market, for example, in the field of publishing. Together they limit the conditions required to develop a fully functioning cultural industry. It must be pointed out that no studies have been carried out on the culture industries and there is no official definition of this type of industry.

Still, in October 2006 the Ministry of Culture, together with the British Council in Macedonia, organised a two-day seminar on the cultural industries in Macedonia. It was the first time that this issue has been addressed officially on this level by the Ministry of Culture, which perhaps will generate future specific training and education programmes available for culture industry professionals. See also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.9.

FYR of Macedonia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.7 Employment policies for the cultural sector

The 1993 Government's Decision that forbids new employment in public institutions (including the cultural institutions) is still in force. Furthermore, there are several governmental programmes in place to reduce the size of the current administration (including those working in cultural institutions).

Up until December 31, 2006, there were 2 275 employees who were actively employed in cultural institutions that were financed by the Ministry of Culture.

There are no (exact or approximate) figures about the number of employees in the private sector.

The average net salary per employee (per month) in Macedonia, in June 2007, was 14 242 MKD, which equals 233 euros. The average salary for those working in public cultural institutions is around 9 000 MKD (150 euro). For highly educated staff, it is approximately 50% higher and is more or less comparable with professionals in other institutions financed by the state.

FYR of Macedonia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.8 New technologies and cultural policies

The new government, which took office in September 2006, has announced a specific policy in this field. For example: a computer for every pupil in elementary and high schools throughout Macedonia (nearly 150 000 computers); free computer training for the population; free internet for every household; 5 000 students in informatics studies (500 with government's scholarship) etc. These targets should be fulfilled in the next two years, with a budget of 9 million euros from the government and an additional 13 million euros from international funds.

Instead of the previously announced new Ministry for Informatics (or Information Technology), in 2007 a minister without a portfolio was appointed in charge of this sector and the first contingent of 50 000 computers have been purchased for schools. VAT for computer technology was also reduced from 18% to 5%.

The government also realised the project "Macedonia - informatics country", introducing the possibility of free Internet access for everyone. However, statistics show that only 17% of the population has Internet access, ranking Macedonia second last in the region.

FYR of Macedonia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.9 Heritage issues and policies

The Law for Protection of Cultural Heritage (2004) defines public services in this field and all available legal mechanisms to ensure the protection of cultural monuments. Cultural heritage may be publicly or privately owned and may be exported only in exceptional cases with permission from the Minister of Culture.

Private owners have an obligation to care and maintain cultural heritage and property and to provide access to them for scientific and cultural research purposes and in some cases to provide access to the general public. Under certain conditions the owner has the right to receive compensation from the Ministry for some maintenance costs.

In 2007, the Law for Protection of Cultural Heritage was amended, in order to harmonise it with EU legislation and standards. Bigger changes were made in the procedure of restitution of cultural heritage goods, the measures for getting permission for archaeological excavations, some of the control measures etc.

In 2004, the Ministry of Culture established a new Department for Protection of Cultural Heritage.

Table 3:     Department for Protection of Cultural Heritage - financial report 2005

Department for Protection of Cultural Heritage

Total budget
in MKD

% of total

Salaries

9 892 000

50.37%

Goods and services

5 684 000

28.94%

Subventions and transfers

2 062 000

10.50%

- for the UNESCO

1 438 000

 

- for the Council of Europe

304 000

 

- for the Ministry of Finance of RM

320 000

 

Capital payments

2 000 000

10.18%

Total

19 638 000

100%

Source:      Report of the Department for Protection of Cultural Heritage for 2005

There is special legislation on the protection of archival material and its handling, librarianship, and the preservation of films and film material of historic, artistic and other cultural significance.

There are two recent major issues for heritage policies in Macedonia:

Digitisation of cultural heritage seems to be a priority in 2007 on both levels, national and local. The UNESCO donation of 300 000 euros for the Regional Centre for Digitisation of Cultural Heritage (established at the Museum of Contemporary Art in Skopje) pushed the process of digitisation of the cultural heritage at the national level. Experts from UNESCO will spend eight months in the Centre, connecting it with other institutions in the country and training the staff.

At local level, there was an initiative of the City Library "Miladinov Brothers" and several other institutions to coordinative action on digitisation of their heritage assets.  

On the other hand, July 2006 saw the completion of the very important long-term project (2002-2006) entitled "Development of the local communities and culture". The project was implemented by the Ministry of Culture and funded by the World Bank and the Macedonian Government (total of 8 million USD). The main goal was to improve protection of the cultural heritage, to identify the needs and aims in development of cultural industries based on cultural heritage, to develop cultural tourism, to improve the management of the cultural and natural heritage on the local level etc. The project was implemented in 17 communities, with 350 associated projects, included 60 NGOs, 300 000 tourists etc.

For more information, see
European Heritage Network: Country profile FYR of Macedonia

 

FYR of Macedonia/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.10 Gender equality and cultural policies

The Law on Equal Opportunities for Women and Men (2006) regulates the basic principles and special measures for equal opportunities for women and men, the responsibilities, tasks and obligations of the public entities etc. The main objective of the law is to promote the principle of establishing equal opportunities for women and men in the political, economic, social, educational and other fields of social life. The law forbids any kind of gender discrimination in the public and private sector. The agencies responsible for implementation of the principles and measures are the parliament, the government, ministries and other public offices etc.

FYR of Macedonia/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.3 Other relevant issues and debates

In June 2005, the Government Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture (December 2003) was implemented. According to this Decision, 64 of 115 cultural institutions are now considered local institutions, making local authorities responsible to finance their basic costs (salaries, running costs etc.). It remains to be seen how these cultural institutions will function under the supervision of local authorities. So far, the results have not been entirely promising, as some local authorities (e.g. the City of Skopje) have only changed the directors of the institutions. The main priority for the future will be to monitor the full implementation of this Decision.

One of the especially interesting issues in 2007 was the resignation of the Minister of Culture over a theatre play. Minister Beqiri, without any reasonable cause, tried to prohibit the premiere of a Macedonian play, part of the international theatre project "Bones in the Stone" (see also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 2.4.4), prepared by the Naroden Teatar from Bitola! Of course the premiere did take place and, under great public pressure, the Prime Minister had to ask for his resignation. This actually was the first and (so far) only resignation of a minister of culture in Macedonian history.

Another burning public issue or, better said, intercultural debate, started over the archaeological excavations on Kale site (the old fortress in Skopje, in the old city). The Albanian association "Wake up", and others, demanded that the Department for Protection of Cultural Heritage should include several archaeologists from Albania in the excavations. The motive for such a demand was based on the discovery of the foundations of a house that was claimed to be from the Iliric period (period of ancient Albanian history). The Association argued that the Macedonian archaeologists would hide the discovery or would not recognise it as being from ancient Albanian history! The Department for the Protection of Cultural Heritage responded that were already two Albanian archaeologists (from Macedonia) included in the excavations and that no traces from the Iliric period were found.

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.1 Constitution

The Constitution guarantees the following rights related to culture:

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.2 Division of jurisdiction

After 1990, despite certain laws (Law on Culture, Law on Local Self Government), there was no actual division of jurisdiction between national and local levels of government. The Ministry of Culture was in fact responsible for all the cultural institutions in the country (appointing directors of the institutions, providing funds for salaries, running costs and programmes etc.).

In December 2003, the government passed the Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture. According to this Decision, only 51 (from the previous 115) institutions gained the status of national institutions that are completely financed by the Ministry of Culture. All other cultural institutions are considered local and should be financed by the local governments (salaries, running costs etc.). The local institutions can still apply for annual funding from the Ministry of Culture for programmes and specific projects. Since June 2005 this division of jurisdiction has been put into practice.

However, there is still a lack of clarity between the central (Ministry of Culture) and local government in implementing some laws, for example the Law on Monuments and Commemorative Sites (2004). Monuments are being built without sufficient documentation or permission from the Ministry of Culture (or the Department for Protection of Cultural Heritage), even in the strictly forbidden / protected areas.

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.3 Allocation of public funds

The Law on Local Self Government (2002) re-allocated some responsibilities to the municipalities, such as: accomplishing and development of local interest in culture; institutional and financial support of cultural institutions and projects, preserving of folklore, customs, old crafts and similar cultural values; organizing cultural events; encouragement of various specific forms of art.

According to the Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture 64 cultural institutions are considered local institutions. It means that the local authorities are responsible to provide the financing of the basic costs (salaries, running costs etc.) of these institutions. The local institutions can apply for annual funding from the Ministry of Culture for programmes and specific projects. Since June 2005, this has been put into practice.

On the other hand, the Minister of Culture has the discretion (on the basis of the Law on Culture) to dispose of public funds. According to Article 10 of the Law on Culture, the Minister establishes the annual scope of the national interest in culture; according to Article 66 the Minister approves the annual programme of funding the cultural institutions; according to Article 67 the Minister has the discretion to independently allocate 10% of the annual budget for culture, etc.

The 2007 Programme of Funding the National Interest in the Cultural Field was criticised by the opposition parties, some intellectuals, cultural workers and cultural associations, especially the programme for funding publishing houses, film etc. The growing public criticism even caused the Prime Minister to intervene and, for the first time in this period of transition, to demand changes to the Publishing Commission. The main criticism was that the biggest percentages of the funds were being allocated according to "party standards", meaning to people and firms close to the ruling political party. This especially concerned the work of the Publishing Commission. The Prime Minister intervention demanded change of the members of the Commission and new distribution of the fund for publishing houses. So it was done and a new Commission was appointed.

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.4 Social security frameworks

General social security measures apply in the same manner to the culture field as for any other sector. This also applies to unemployment schemes.

General social security measures also apply to freelance artists who have gained their status in appropriate procedures and have been confirmed by a proper Act of the Minister of Culture.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.5 Tax laws

In a formal sense, there is a legal basis to stimulate private support (sponsorship etc.) for culture through tax exemptions. Sponsors can partially deduct their donations from their income tax depending on the amount of financial resources invested. Unfortunately, the reality is that investments in the field of culture are still insignificant. This is due to the fact that the country is not industrially developed enough, its economy is weak, and there is a high percentage of unemployment.

In the past few years, there has been a public demand to increase the amount of benefits for private investments in culture.

According to the Law on Value Added Tax, the turnover of cultural institutions, as well as that of other taxpayers who perform cultural activities, is exempt from VAT, provided they have approval from the Ministry of Culture. A privileged tax rate of 5% is applied to the turnover of publications, instead of the general rate of 18% that also applies to audio and visual products.

The Law on Income Tax stipulates that donations and sponsorship made to public culture institutions from personal or company income can be calculated as deductible expenses up to a rate of 3% of the total income.

The Law on Personal Income Tax states that professional independent artists can deduct a fixed percentage share of their income as expenses generated by their creative work. The rates vary depending on type of activity and range between 25% to 60%; for example, sculptures 60%; painting 50%; classical music, ballet, theatre and film performances 30%; for pop and folk music 25%, etc. Income tax is not charged on earnings generated from awards or on scholarships to pupils and students granted by government agencies and foundations.

The Law on Customs Duty list the following items which do not bare to pay import fees: printed material; objects and materials in the field of culture that are imported according to international agreements; goods that are brought into the country free-of-charge and are used for non-profit making cultural purposes; goods that are not produced in the country that are used for non-profit making cultural activities and are not intended for further sale; objects imported by museums, galleries, and the National and University Library that are intended for public use; objects exhibited during fairs and exhibitions; objects intended for cultural and artistic events and film-making; works of art that artists declare as their own works; awards and other objects received at foreign exhibitions, performances, etc., and objects received from foreign donors.

Macedonia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.6 Labour laws

General labour laws apply in the same manner to the culture field as in any other sector that is funded from the government's budget. There is also (more or less) a unified system of salaries for those working in the public sector. However, in June 2007, the Syndicate of the Macedonian National Theatre announced that they would sue the Ministry of Culture because of the lower salaries in their institution compared with other Macedonian theatres. 

The new Retirement Law that came into effect in September 2007 made huge changes in the general retirement policy that seriously affected the cultural sector. Changes were made to the beneficial status of some groups in the cultural sector. It especially concerns the ballet dancers in the Macedonian National Ballet, who now are required to work more years longer then before. The old law had guaranteed a beneficial status to this profession - one year was calculated as a year and a half - so the ballet dancers could retire after 20-25 years work (at the age of 40-45). Now, according to the new law, the beneficial status is still appreciated but the calculations have changed: 1 year for every third year! So the ballet dancers will have to work for nearly ten more years. The same problem applies to all the brass instrumentalists in the Macedonian music institutions.

On receiving complaints from the Macedonian National Ballet, the Ministry of Labour stated that no revision was possible and that the problem should be solved by re-deploying the older ballet dancers to other working duties.

There is also standardised collective bargaining agreements used when negotiating contracts with state run institutions. The first Collective Agreement was signed in June 2005 (as a first of its kind in the period of Transition) and it was amended in March 2006.

In 2006 the Syndicate of the workers in education, science and culture made some attempts to improve the status of the workers in the field of culture, especially on increasing the average salary. Also, a several day strike was organised by the same Syndicate, which ended with an Agreement between the Syndicate and the Ministry of Culture and a minimal increase of the monthly salary. In 2007, the musicians from the Macedonian Philharmonic Orchestra organised a strike for bigger salaries in front of the government's building.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

Macedonia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.7 Copyright provisions

Copyright and related rights are regulated by the Law on Copyright and Related Rights (1996). Although this law generally provides copyright protection according to international standards, additional amendments are required to harmonise articles in line with the directives of the European Union.

In the period of transition, especially prior to 1996, violations of copyright were widespread such as the unauthorised copying of literary works, multiplication and distribution of videotapes, musical and film CDs and computer software. Since the establishment of many private broadcasting companies and cable operators, the unauthorised broadcasting and re-broadcasting of audiovisual works is ever more present.

The Ministry of Culture has several inspectors to investigate copyright violations as part of their official responsibility and upon request from rights-holders. Collecting bodies, competent courts, customs bodies and other government agencies are all involved in the direct implementation of the law and the protection of copyright.

In 2003, the Ministry of Culture undertook a huge "operation" to publicly destroy over 39 000 illegal videotapes, CDs and computer software. It did strengthen the public interest and awareness of the problems of copyright and reduced the amount of piracy to a certain degree.

Author's rights remain in force 70 years after his / her death. Audiovisual rights, also remain in force 70 years after the legal publishing of a work. In the case of multiple authors, property rights remain in force until the death of the last living author.

Moral rights are applied. While there has not been any specific debate about moral rights, there has been a constant public debate (initiated by authors and the media) on the protection of author¢s rights in popular and classical music.

The law was amended in January 2005 in order to harmonise it with EU standards and regulations, as agreed on in the Stability Pact.

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.8 Data protection laws

2007 saw the implementation of three important laws: the Law on Free Access to Public Information, the Law on Safety of Classified Information and the Law on Protection of Personal Data. Public attention was mostly focused on the Law on Free Access to Public Information and the Law on Protection of Personal Data.

According to the NGO sector (Foundation Open Society Institute, "Metamorphosis" and other 13 organisations included in the monitoring system), improvement in the implementation and application of these laws is necessary. This especially applies to the Law on Free Access to Public Information. 625 applications have been submitted to 75 institutions at central level and 31 at municipal level; with only 38% having been answered at central level and 58% at local level.

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.9 Language laws

The Constitution and the Law on the Use of the Macedonian Language (1998) determine its official status and its use in the public sphere.

According the Ohrid Framework Agreement (2001), in the units of local self-government, where at least 20% of the population speak a language other than Macedonian, that language and its alphabet will be used as an official language, in addition to the Macedonian language and its Cyrillic alphabet (see also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.1).

Macedonian Radio Television as a Public Broadcasting Service fosters the use of the Macedonian language and the Cyrillic alphabet in radio and television programmes. The Second Channel of Macedonian Radio Television is completely open to programmes in the languages of the cultural communities, namely: Albanian, Turkish, Serbian, Romany, Vlach etc. (see also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.5).

 

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.2 Legislation on culture

The main law in the field of culture is the Law on Culture (1998) which was meant to be a unified law for the cultural field. When it was passed in 1998, partial co-ordination was achieved between the existing constitutional system and the new social, political and economic conditions in the country. It also guaranteed the freedom of creative work and related rights; made possible the introduction of a civil concept of culture; an equal status for public and private entities that work in the field of culture; introduction of a decentralised system for culture; financing activities in the "national interest" through an open competition, etc.

On the other hand, it is important to note that past experiences with the Law on Culture revealed many weaknesses and pointed the necessity for amendments. It became clear that a re-evaluation of the Law on Culture was necessary. Subsequently, the Law on Culture was amended in July 2003 and September 2005 to include: provisions for the re-allocation of competencies for culture (from the parliament to the government and from the government to the Minister of Culture); clarification of the position of local governments in financing cultural activities of local interest; simplification of the mechanisms for decentralisation; setting up procedures for annual competitions, etc.

Since proclaiming independence in 1990, several new laws were passed in the field of culture including:

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.1 Visual and applied arts

In the last decade the visual arts have been characterised by artistic diversity, ranging from "classical" painting and sculpture to contemporary works using video, installations, performances, computer art and alternative forms of expression.

There is a relatively well-developed network of museums and galleries that, in one way or another, deal with visual arts. However, only 2 institutions are entirely and professionally dedicated to studying and representing the visual arts: the National Gallery of Macedonia and the Museum of Contemporary Arts. The work of other institutions is important, too. Although not entirely dedicated to visual arts, it is part of the overall programme of activities of e.g. the Museum of the City of Skopje, the Cultural Information Centre in Skopje, the Art Gallery in Bitola, and the Art Gallery in Strumica etc.

Fine art gatherings are organised once a year (for 15 or 20 days) in artist colonies. Invited artists (local and foreign) attend and create work, and usually leaving afterwards several of their art works to the colony. They are significant actors in the production and especially popularisation of the visual arts. It should be pointed out that some of these colonies and especially the older ones (Prilep, Strumica and Resen) possess great and important collections of local and international art.

According to the latest data, in 2006 there were 619 art exhibitions organised by 74 institutions / organisers, with 3 378 artists participating from Macedonia and abroad. 25 art colonies were also organised, with the participation of 344 artists, from which 227 were from Macedonia and 117 from abroad.

Table 4:     Art exhibitions in Macedonia, by type, 2006

 

Art exhibitions organisers

Type of exhibition

Visitors

Total

One-man

Group

Retrospective

Museums

16

129

80

49

-

66 768

Art galleries

2

54

34

18

2

10 000

Houses of Culture

12

87

52

32

3

20 545

MANU**

1

3

2

1

-

2 000

Cultural centers

20

239

127

107

5

79 020

Associations of artists

4

15

2

13

-

5 500

Others

19

92

40

52

-

41 150

Total

74

619

317

292

10

224 983

Source:      State Statistic Office, Report 2.1.7.12.
*                 Macedonian Academy of Arts and Science.

There are no special regulations for visual arts as they are mentioned in the Law on Culture.

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.2 Performing arts and music

Today, there are 13 professional and 8 amateur theatres. The professional theatres perform an average of about 80 premieres yearly, while the amateur theatres and alternative groups have a production of 20 to 30 premieres. The theatrical performances are annually attended by an average of approximately 280 000 visitors. The capacity of the professional theatres is 3 178 seats. These theatres have a physical space of 18 436 m².

According to the Government's Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture (December 2003), few of the professional theatres will become a part of local cultural centres in the cities of Kumanovo, Prilep, Strumica and Stip. The Theater of Nationalities in Skopje was reorganised as two separate national institutions: Albanian Theater and Turkish Theatre. The new minister of culture has recently announced the necessity of opening a new professional theatre in Tetovo.

In 2005 the Ministry of Culture financially supported 57 premieres (43 in the professional theatres and 14 independent projects - 5 in Macedonian language, 8 in Albanian and 1 in Turkish language) and 35 amateur projects.

Table 5:     Theatres in Macedonia, by type, 2006

Type

Number

Performances

Employees

Visitors

Professional

12

954

676

228 312

Prof. children

1

174

18

19 399

Amateur

8

117

-

25 463

Total

21

1.245

694

273 174

Source:      State Statistical Office.

The three leading musical institutions are: the Philharmonic Orchestra, the Opera and the Ballet (all of which are in Skopje). Their main objective is to present works from world music literature from various stylistic periods and promotion of works by local composers. Apart from these, several chamber ensembles are active, as well as many individual musicians. There is an initiative from the local government to establish an Opera House in Bitola.

The concert life is mainly concentrated in Skopje (as capital city), whereas in the other towns it is occasional, depending on the conditions and possibilities to stage concerts, the interest on the side of the audience and the tradition of the performing arts practice. Concerts in smaller towns are, almost without exception, chamber concerts.

The Ministry of Culture also supports the programme activities of the professional folk dance group Tanec, which fosters vocal, dance and vocal-instrumental folklore tradition.

In 2005 the Ministry of Culture supported 179 concerts and musical performances in the leading national institutions, attended by 85 000 people. Besides concerts and musical performances the Ministry of Culture usually supports the activities of several choirs, mandolin orchestras and other professional and amateur groups, music festival, jazz festivals etc.

There are no specific regulations for the performing arts as a separate field and are rather mentioned in the Law on Culture.

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.3 Cultural heritage

There are 11 200 buildings registered as part of the immovable cultural heritage (4 421 archaeological sites; 1 726 churches and monasteries with over 150 000 square metres of mural fresco paintings; etc.) and 500 000 museum pieces. Institutional responsibility for cultural heritage (by types) rests with the Institutes for the protection of cultural monuments (immovable cultural heritage) and museums, libraries and the national cinématheque (moveable cultural heritage).

There are 7 Institutes responsible for the protection of immovable cultural heritage (1 national and 6 with regional scope), including conservation and restoration. These institutes are legally obliged to register the monuments designated as cultural heritage. As a result of their work, 11 200 immovable objects from different periods have been recorded. The period of time required to complete the validation process is quite slow in comparison to the speed at which objects are recorded (proportion 10:1). In the period 1991-1997 the share of the protection of the immovable cultural heritage in the total budget for culture ranged from 8 to 13%. In contrast to this, in the period until 1991, the percentage of protection funds used to be as much as 35 %.

In 2004, the new Law for Protection of Cultural Heritage was adopted by the Parliament.  It defines public services in this field and all available legal mechanisms to ensure the protection of cultural heritage (immovable and movable). Cultural heritage may be publicly or privately owned and may be exported only in exceptional cases with permission by the Minister of Culture. Private owners have an obligation to care and maintain cultural heritage and property and to provide access for scientific and cultural research purposes and in some cases to provide access to the general public. Under certain conditions the owner has the right to receive compensation from the Ministry for some maintenance costs. According to this law the newly established Department for Protection of Cultural Heritage is the main responsible body in this field. The government appoints the director of this Department.

In 2005 the Ministry of Culture supported the protection of cultural heritage with 6.96% of the budget (86 500 000 MKD = 1 395 161 euro). 69.09% of that budget was spent for protection and conservation of immovable heritage, 3.61% for conservation of frescoes, 1.72% for conservation of icons etc.

Museums are mainly responsible for the protection of moveable cultural heritage. To a certain extent, the National and University Library (for medieval manuscripts) and the National Cinématheque (for films) also play a role. There are 22 museums that are open to the public: 1 museum of Natural History, 2 historical museums, 17 general (complex) museums, 1 Museum of Contemporary Art and 1 National Gallery. All 22 museums are state owned.

Little has been done to encourage the opening of private museums.

Table 6:     Museums in Macedonia, 2006

Museums

Total

Regarding the ownership

Public (national and local)

22

Private

-

Regarding the subject of work

General national

10

Specialised national

5

General local

6

Specialised local

1

Private

-

Total

22

Source:      State Statistic Office, Report 2.1.7.11.

According to the latest data, the total number of museum pieces stored in Macedonian museums is around 490 000; most are archaeological artefacts and zoological museum pieces. Of these, the most important are the archaeological artefacts that have been collected and preserved in Macedonian museums. The majority are housed in the museums in Skopje - about 33 000, as follows: 21 000 in the Museum of Macedonia, 12 000 in the Museum of the City of Skopje, 15 000 at Stobi Archeological Museum, more than 13 000 in Ohrid, etc. As for other kinds of moveable heritage, 22 855 icons have been recorded, nearly 450 medieval Slavic manuscripts in Macedonia and 698 abroad (it is estimated that a few thousand are housed in foreign libraries, museums, archives and private collections), over 4 500 oriental manuscripts, tens of thousands of ethnological pieces, about a hundred thousand pieces of film and photographic material, etc.

Table 7:     Exhibits by type of collections, 2006

Type of inventoried exhibits

Number

Archaeological

72 954

Ethnological

34 222

Historical

58 402

Arts

12 193

Technical

365

Paleontological

17 960

Geological

14 491

Zoological

256 200

Botanical

14 877

Other

7 795

Inventoried exhibits - total

489 459

Exhibits on display

33 614

Source:      State Statistic Office, Report 2.1.7.11.

There is no official museum policy document yet, but the key issues and priorities have been stated in the National Programme for Culture 2004-2008:

There is no national museum association or formal network, but some of the museums are members of ICOM.

In 2004, the new Law on Museums was adopted by the Parliament. It defines public services in this field, the work, types (national, local and private) and organisation of the museums etc. It specifies certain rules for founding a museum: financial means, building and equipment, highly educated staff etc. The Minister of Culture decides whether these rules are met. The law also defines the responsibility of the government to cover the insurance costs for certain foreign exhibitions. The law also established the National Council for Museums.

In 2005 the Ministry of Culture supported 217 museum projects (59 archaeological, 59 ethnological, 44 historical, 16 natural history, 19 arts, etc.).

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.4 Literature and libraries

After the privatisation of the state-owned publishing houses (12) in 1995, the period of transition saw the appearance of many new publishers. The number of entities registered for publishing activities reached 250-300. The financial resources that were allocated for publishing increased, both in the official language and in the languages of the minorities: Albanian, Turkish, Vlach etc.

Government support is accomplished through the traditional forms of annual open competitions for financing of publishing projects. The Ministry of Culture continually allocates financial resources for the stimulation of literary creative work. These resources are intended to support authors (paying author's fee, literary awards) and publishers (preparation and printing expenses).

In 2005 the Ministry of Culture supported the publishing of 251 books and 35 magazines.

Until 1992, the municipalities (the local government) acted as founders of the public libraries (32). The government established the National Library as a public institution in 1945 and financed it completely. In the period of transition all public libraries were completely financed from the Budget of the Ministry of Culture. The total number of holdings in public libraries amounts to 4 707 000 monographs and 1 500 000 volumes of serial publications as library units (not titles). This indicates that there are 2.3 books per inhabitant, which is below the minimum standard. That has led to an extremely small number of readers, which amounts to about 60 000. The size of the libraries comprises a total of 30 135m2 functional space, which is also below the European average.

According to the Government's Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture (December 2003) only 2 libraries (the National and University Library in Skopje and in Bitola) are considered as national institutions. All other public libraries are municipal (local) libraries and financed by the local government.

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.5 Architecture and environment

The Law on Space and Urban Planning (1996) defines the types, the content and conditions under which architectural and environmental plans are to be drawn up and eventually accepted by the government. This law defines both the Space Plans of the state and the Urban Plans (General Urban Plan, Detailed Urban Plan, Urbanity Documentation for an Inhabited Place and Urban Plans for Border Areas and Sites with Buildings of Public Interest). All these plans should be drawn up according to certain standards that would ensure protection of the environment, cultural monuments, archaeological sites etc. The government decides on an annual programme to implement and finance these plans from the overall state budget.

The 1996 law also defines the procedure for selling state property and building sites through a public auction) and for acquiring building permits for construction etc.

Other relevant laws that have an impact on architecture and the environment are the Law on Building Sites (1996) and the Law for the Protection of the Environment (1996).

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.6 Film, video and photography

Film production has undergone fundamental transformations since 1991 which has resulted in the reorganisation and financing of films. After the establishment of the first private production house in 1989, the number of producers grew to over 100 firms. However, reality indicates that this unexpected and highly illogical increase in the number of production firms was not motivated by a willingness to promote film production. Quite the opposite, the motivation was to have an opportunity to access public money. Nonetheless, some production firms have initiated a new model of co-productions and search for new co-financers from within the country and abroad.

The only national producer is Vardar Film, which at one time managed to maintain a certain rate of production including several feature films and documentaries. In the period between 1991 and 2000, 12 feature films and 47 short films were produced. According to the Government's Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture (December 2003), Vardar Film will be reorganised as a film centre.

In 1954, there were 77 movie theatres located throughout the country, 86 in 1972 and since 1980 the number has continually decreased. Today, movies are screened in 21 film theatres and 41 cultural centres. In 2003, 704 films were shown, of which 22 Macedonian, 674 foreign and 8 coproductions. The number of visitors was 277 211. Almost 95% of the foreign movies originate from the USA, whereas the number of movies from European and other countries is significantly low.

In May 2006, the Law on the Film Fund was adopted by the Parliament. This is actually the first attempt to create a fund for financing culture as a kind of arms length body of the Ministry of Culture. Twice a year (May and September) the Film Fund is to announce a public competition for funding film projects of national interest. Only registered film producers can apply for the competition. A minimum of 75% of the budget should be spent locally. The Film Fund should mostly finance films that can return some of the invested money. The Film Fund should also establish contacts with international producers and distributors and assist in the promotion and marketing of films etc. The Film Fund will start in January 2008.

In 2005, the Ministry of Culture supported the production of 7 feature films, 2 short films and 2 documentary films.

The beginning of video production (as an independent art form) is closely connected with Macedonian Television. Starting in 1985, it produced over 20 videos (financed by the Programme for Culture and Arts) and 2 experimental video films. Since the 1990s, the Soros Foundation was also involved in video production - mainly video installations.

Photography is considered part of visual art and photo exhibitions are usually organised by museums and galleries. There is also a National Centre for Photography (founded as a private initiative) which is the only cultural institution completely dedicated to photography, but the Ministry of Culture has not paid serious attention to its activities yet.

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.7 Culture industries

See http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gifchapter 4.2.5.

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.8 Mass media

According to the latest statistical data, there are 110 broadcasting companies of which 60 broadcast radio programmes and 50 TV programmes.

The following quotas are listed in the 1997 Law on Broadcasting:

One of the main debates in the past few years was the percentage of commercial programmes broadcast on the state-owned public broadcasting service. Since it is (mostly) financed by a compulsory monthly tax (300 MKD = 5 euro), the Association of Privately owned TV stations demands that the Macedonian Radio Television as a public broadcasting service should not be allowed to broadcast commercial programmes.

There is no accurate data on the number of newspapers, weekly and monthly magazines etc.

There are no additional laws or regulations which encourage the production of indigenous programmes with cultural or artistic relevance.

A new Broadcasting Law is currently being prepared.

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.9 Legislation for self-employed artists

According to the former Law on Independent Artists (1982), the legislator acknowledged the special status of independent (unemployed) artists in comparison with other cultural workers. According to this law, the Ministry of Culture recognised their status as independent artists and provided budgetary resources to cover monthly fees on health, retirement and disability insurance.

In 1998, this law was abolished with the passing of the Law on Culture that distinguishes between independent professional and amateur artists. Every person, regardless of age, sex, education and religion has the freedom and the right to engage in creative work. The law defines an artist as a person who creates or performs an authored artistic activity.

If an individual chooses art as a profession (the only one from which an income is earned), then he / she must legally register him / herself as such with the court in order to obtain the legal legitimacy as an independent artist. Related rights and obligations that are available for independent professionals in the other fields accompany this professional status.

Independent artists are responsible for paying their health, retirement and disability insurance taxes. However, the Ministry can provide them with some financial resources from the budget to cover these taxes. The Minister of Culture decides which individuals will receive these funds based on specific criteria including the type, scope and quality of creative work, in a procedure and a manner determined by law.

In the year 2000, a Book of Rules was published. It outlines the selection criteria to be used in the allocation of public funding to independent artists; derived from the budget of the Republic. An annual competition is announced each September in the newspapers. In 2001, 31 independent artists were successful; 39 in 2002 and the same number (39) in 2003.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

FYR of Macedonia/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.10 Other areas of relevant legislation

Information is currently not available.

FYR of Macedonia/ 6. Financing of culture

6.1 Short overview

The Ministry of Culture is responsible for distributing public funds for culture on the basis of an annual plan, which is developed by the Ministry at the end of the year for the following year. The allocation of the overall state budget to different sectors is prescribed by law (annual Law on the National Budget). Culture's share of the state budget in the past five years ranges from 2.40% to 1.80%. In 2005 culture's share of the state budget was 2.227%.

The Ministry of Culture is the main source of funding for culture. It provides annual funding to the national cultural institutions (salaries, investments, running costs such as heating, insurance of equipment, buildings, exhibits, etc.) and to specific programmes that distribute funds on the basis of competition. The amount of money reserved to pay the salaries of those employed on a full time basis in cultural institutions represented a share of 62% of the total budget for culture in 1992. This figure decreased to 59% in 1995, 39% in 2000 and 35% in 2002.

In 2005, the structure of the cultural budget was: 45.12% for salaries; 2.65% for heating; 0.99% for insurance and other services to the institutions; 2.65% for capital investments (reconstructions, equipment etc.) and 44.24 % for programmes and projects.

In 2006, the total budget for culture was 1 413 465 000 MKD (23 171 557 euros) and in 2007, it was 1 545 870 000 MKD (25 342 131 euros).

Over the last ten years, the number of institutions financed by the Ministry has continuously decreased. In 1991, they provided funding to over 170 institutions; in 2002 this figure decreased to 115.

In December 2003, the government passed the Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture. According to this Decision only 51 (from the previous 115) institutions gained the status of national institutions that are completely financed by the Ministry of Culture. All other cultural institutions are considered local and should be financed by the local governments (salaries, running costs etc.). The local institutions can apply for annual funding from the Ministry of Culture for programmes and specific projects. Since June 2005, this has been put into practice.

FYR of Macedonia/ 6. Financing of culture

6.2 Public cultural expenditure per capita

From 1995-2002, cultural expenditure represented 0.53% of the GDP. This figure represents a decrease from the periods 1993-96 (0.56%) and 1986 (0.61%).

FYR of Macedonia/ 6. Financing of culture

6.3 Public cultural expenditure broken down by level of government

There is no data available on the local (municipal) government expenditure on culture.

It is believed that more than 90% of the total public expenditure on culture comes from the Ministry of Culture. For the year 2005, the total public expenditure from the Ministry of Culture was 1 354 635 000 MKD (21 848 951 euros).

However, within the new re-organisation of the network of public cultural institutions and the re-allocation of some responsibilities to the municipalities, it is believed that this figure will change in near future.

FYR of Macedonia/ 6. Financing of culture

6.4 Sector breakdown

Table 8: State cultural expenditure: by sector, by level of government in MKD, 2005

Field / Domain / Sub-domain

Transfer to institutions

% share of total

Cultural Goods

 

 

Cultural Heritage

 

 

Historical Monuments

84 500 000

6.96

Museums (and the National Cinemateque)

45 000 000

3.71

Archives

 

-

Libraries

19 500 000

1.61

Arts

 

 

Visual Arts 

17 000 000

1.40

Performing Arts

Music and Theatre

 

148 900 000

 

12.27

Multidisciplinary

42 500 000

3.50

Media

 

 

Books and Press

 

 

Books

60 000 000

4.94

Press

 

 

Audio, Audiovisual and Multimedia

 

 

Film

71 000 000

5.85

Radio

 

 

Television

 

 

Other

 

 

Interdisciplinary

 

 

Socio-cultural

 

 

Cultural Relations Abroad

46 000 000

3.79

Administration (salaries)

547 595 000

45.12

Grants for young artists

2 500 000

0.21

Capital investments

32 160 000

2.65

Other transfers to the cultural institutions (running costs, insurance, etc.) and local governm.

 

 96 980 000

 

 7.99

Total

1 213 635 000

100

Source:   2005 Annual Report of the Ministry of Culture.

In 2005, the structure of the cultural budget was: 45.12% for salaries; 2.65% for heating; 0.99% for insurance and other services to the institutions; 2.65% for capital investments (reconstructions, equipment etc.) and 44.24 % for programmes and projects.

The figures in Table 2 represent the direct budgetary transfers from the Ministry of Culture to the cultural institutions. The Ministry of Culture does not finance the press, the media, the archives etc.

On the other hand, the figures in Table 2 do not show the income of the cultural institutions from certain services or rental fees, donations etc. According to the 2005 Annual Report of the Ministry of Culture, income generated by the public cultural institutions was 157 547 000 MKD (2 541 080 euros). But there is no available data broken down by domains or sub-domains.

FYR of Macedonia/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.1 Re-allocation of public responsibilities

The Law on Local Self Government (2002) re-allocated some responsibilities to the municipalities, such as: development of local interest in culture; institutional and financial support of cultural institutions and projects, preserving folklore, customs, old crafts and similar cultural values; organizing cultural events; and encouragement of various specific forms of art.

According to the Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture, 64 of 115 cultural institutions are considered local institutions. It means that local authorities are responsible to provide financing of basic costs (salaries, running costs etc.) of these institutions.

According to the new Law for the City of Skopje, the City of Skopje is responsible for:

FYR of Macedonia/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.2 Status/role and development of major cultural institutions

According to the Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture (2003) there are 51 national institutions that can be considered as major cultural institutions. They all are legally independent but financed (nearly 100%) by the Ministry of Culture (salaries, running costs, programmes etc.). The Minister of Culture appoints the directors based on a public competition.

FYR of Macedonia/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.3 Emerging partnerships or collaborations

Of particular importance was the collaboration between the current Ministry of Culture and the Open Society Institute - Macedonia (FOSIM) to support the process of decentralisation and to support programmes carried out in cultural centres, the training of museum staff and electronic publishing and translation. However, in June 2005, FOSIM announced that it will focus on other priorities (civil society, education, women, publishing, media, law, public administration etc.) and will gradually cut support to cultural programmes, especially the programme on research and debate on cultural policy. The explanation broadcasted by the media was that the Ministry of Culture did not consider the debates and their effects on the current national policy to be significant.

FYR of Macedonia/ 8. Support to creativity and participation

8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

Cultural creativity is supported on the state level in several ways:

FYR of Macedonia/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.1 Special artists funds

There are no special artists' funds provided by the government.

FYR of Macedonia/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.2 Grants, awards, scholarships

In order to make up for a deficiency of artists and experts in the field, the Ministry of Culture created annual competitions awarding scholarships to young and talented artists for post-graduate professional development, for regular academic education, as well as for specialised or professional development abroad, especially in those fields for which there are no educational institutions available in the country.

Other examples of direct support include: an annual open competition for artists to spend time at Cité International des Arts in Paris and the "11th October" Award which is the most important national award. It is a money award given every year for special achievements in the field of culture and to artists for their lifetime work.

The Ministry of Culture provides funding for the annual awards given by professional artists association to their members for special achievements.

FYR of Macedonia/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.3 Support to professional artists associations or unions

Until the end of 2000, professional artists associations were treated as national institutions and were completely financed (salaries, running costs, annual programmes etc.) by the Ministry of Culture.

Pursuant to the government policy of reducing the number of employees in public administration and in accordance with the Law on Citizens' Associations and Foundations, professional artists associations are now treated as civil associations i.e. only their projects that are funded.

FYR of Macedonia/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation

8.2.1 Trends and figures

Table 9:     Number of visitors in specific cultural fields, in thousands, 1996-2006

Year

Professional theatres

Cinemas

Museums

Philharmonic and professional orchestras

1996

354

278

-

38

1997

298

459

172

28

1998

307

568

-

34

2000

297

625

173

25

2002/2003

292

277

163

11

2005/2006

247

-

163

13

Source:      State Statistical Office.

Heavily subsidised activities (e.g. theatres, museums, concerts etc.) have, more or less, a stable number of visitors.

There is no accurate data on participation in activities that are not publicly subsidised (e.g. press, private or cable television, Internet etc.).

There have been no surveys taken in recent years on the cultural activity of social groups differing with respect to gender, age or education. There are no special surveys monitoring the participation of national minority groups or immigrant groups in the cultural life of a community or the composition of the audience at multi-cultural festivals.

On the other hand, in October 2004, there was a special programme of films for homosexuals in the Museum of Contemporary Arts in Skopje that was publicly announced for the first time. Although advertised in nearly all daily newspapers, the party that took place afterwards was kept a secret.  

FYR of Macedonia/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation

8.2.2 Policies and programmes

There are no specific programmes or policy initiatives to promote participation in cultural life or an explicit policy linking participation in cultural life to the broader issues of civic participation, citizenship, civil society development / cohesion etc.

Special segments of the population (school children, students) pay 50% of the full ticket price for museums, but this can hardly be called a programme or policy initiative.

FYR of Macedonia/ 8.3 Arts and cultural education

8.3.1 Arts education

The education of artists and experts takes place within the framework of the secondary and higher education institutions in the country, that fall within the departmental competence of the Ministry of Education and Science. The Ministry of Culture does not have the competence to participate in the preparation of the curricula and in the establishment of the network of educational institutions. However, within the framework of inter-departmental co-operation, it can influence educational policy, from the point of view of culture.

On the other hand, the Ministry annually supports education and professional development programmes for staff employed in culture institutions. Thus, in order to make up for a deficiency of artists and experts in the field of culture, the Ministry of Culture awards scholarships for post-graduate professional development of young and talented artists, for regular academic education, as well as for studies abroad in fields where there is a lack of possibilities to undertake the same programmes in Macedonia.

The Bologna process on higher education, on their structures, curricula or programmes has just started to occupy the public attention. It is too early to talk about any results.

FYR of Macedonia/ 8.3 Arts and cultural education

8.3.2 Intercultural education

The educational process, as well as intercultural education, is administered by the Ministry of Education and educational policy making bodies. The principal objectives of the intercultural education programmes are focused on intercultural / interethnic understanding and equality, religious tolerance and multilingualism, etc.

Religious values are a topical issue, especially religious education that will be introduced for the first time in elementary schools in 2008. It will be the first time since the Second World War that religious education will be part of the education process. The religious communities (Orthodox, Islamic etc.) were in favour of this initiative. There was (and still is) a kind of public debate about this development, regarding the way it should be organised, who should be allowed to teach etc. Religious symbols were also a relevant issue, but only few years ago. The main effect of such issues has been a growing awareness of the need for ICD.

For more information, see our Intercultural Dialogue section

FYR of Macedonia/ 8.4 Amateur arts, cultural associations and community centres

8.4.1 Amateur arts

Amateur arts have always played an important role in the cultural life of the country. Amateurism is mainly developed through the formation of clubs in the field of music, theatre, film, literature, folklore, fine arts, etc. The Ministry of Culture provides modest financial support for some of their activities.

The Cinema Union is comprised of 19 amateur film clubs from several towns. Since 1996, it has been a legitimate member of the International Union of Amateur Film whose head office is in the Netherlands. During the period 1956 and 2000, it is estimated that 1 353 amateur films have been made in the country.

According to the latest data, there are 8 amateur theatres in Macedonia, with 202 active members. In 2006, they have given 117 performances, attended by 30 000 visitors.

Until December 2000, 15 amateur clubs were designated the status of national cultural institution which meant that the Ministry of Culture provided salaries for approximately thirty employees. Since the beginning of 2001, these clubs have been receiving funds only for programme activities.

FYR of Macedonia/ 8.4 Amateur arts, cultural associations and community centres

8.4.2 Cultural houses and community cultural clubs

The primary mission of cultural houses and cultural centres is to conduct activities in the field of culture and to facilitate cultural life on the local level. In addition to professional programmes, amateurism is (was) a special target of these institutions, through the establishment of amateur clubs in the field of music, theatre, film, literature, folklore, fine arts, etc.

Some of these cultural houses did function on a satisfactory level, performing continuous and varied activities, while there were some whose existence was noticeable only in the payrolls of the Ministry of Culture. Until the 1990s, there were around 50 cultural houses located throughout the country.

According to the Government's Decision on the Network of National Institutions in the Field of Culture (December 2003), cultural houses have become local institutions financed by the local government. Very few of them, located in Bitola, Prilep, Strumica, Stip etc., will be transformed into cultural centres which would unify several institutions into one including professional theatres, libraries, art galleries etc. Hopefully, this process of decentralisation will make it possible for cultural centres to function in line with the cultural needs of the local population.

FYR of Macedonia/ 9. Sources and Links

9.1 Key documents on cultural policy

Council of Europe, CDCULT: Cultural Policy in "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" - Experts' Report. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, CDCULT, 2003. 

Council of Europe, CDCULT: Cultural Policy in "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" - National Report. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, CDCULT, 2003. 

Drћaven zavod za statistika na RM: Statisti·ki godiљnik na Republika Makedonija, 2001. Skopje: Drћaven zavod za statistika na RM. 

State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia: Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia. Skopje, 2001.  

Magdalena Dikovska: Normativno reguliranje na kulturata (zbirka propisi). Skopje: Direkcija za kultura i umetnost, 1998. 

Magdalena Dikovska: Normative regulation of culture (collection of regulations). Skopje: Culture and Arts Board, 1998. 

Zlatko Teodosievski: Drzava - kultura, Naucno-kulturni sredbi "Deset dena Krusevska Republika". Krusevo, 1998. 

Zlatko Teodosievski: State - Culture. Scientific and Cultural Meeting "Ten days of the Republic of Krusevo", Krusevo, 1998.

FYR of Macedonia/ 9. Sources and Links

9.2 Key organisations and portals

Cultural policy making bodies

Ministry of Culture
http://www.kultura.gov.mk

Cultural research and statistics

State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia
http://www.stat.gov.mk

Culture / arts portals

Culture in the Republic of Macedonia
http://www.culture.in.mk

 


The Council of Europe/ERICarts "Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 9th edition", 2008