http://www.culturalpolicies.net/_grafics/logoprintbw.gif
Report creation date: 14.10.2008 - 10:10
Countr(y/ies): Denmark
Chapter(s): 1,2,21,22,23,24,241,242,243,244,245,246,3,31,32,33,4,41,42,421,422,423,424,425,426,427,428,429,4210,43,5,51,511,512,513,514,515,516,517,518,519,52,53,531,532,533,534,535,536,537,538,539,5310,6,61,62,63,64,7,71,72,73,8,81,811,812,813,82,821,822,83,831,832,84,841,842,9,91,92

Denmark/ 1. Historical perspective: cultural policies and instruments

The development of public cultural policy and institutions in Denmark is closely linked to the cultural and political movements that fostered Danish democracy and the welfare state. When Denmark adopted its first democratic constitution in 1849, responsibility for support to art and culture gradually shifted from the Royal Court to the newly constituted civil administration.Copenhagen, Nyhavn

Culture in Denmark already had a solid feudal tradition and a well-established infrastructure, consisting of absolutist secular and ecclesiastical cultural institutions, upon which to build.

In Denmark, cultural life and the authorities have had a mutual commitment to one another since the Middle Ages. The Reformation of 1536 transferred responsibility for culture from the Church to the Court. Until the June Constitution of 1849 and the advent of democracy, it was almost exclusively the King and the members of his court who, to varying degrees, showed interest in and funded culture.

Cultural policy under the absolute monarchs was elitist, but cosmopolitan compared to the new bourgeois culture that emerged from the increasingly influential merchant and civil servant classes in Copenhagen around the middle of the 18th century. The bourgeoisie, which was predominantly Danish in contrast to the mainly German aristocracy, argued for a national orientation of cultural policy. The rapprochement between the Social Democratic labour movement's class-based perception of culture and the Radical Party's popular education philosophy, during the period of reconciliation in the 1930s, laid the political foundations for the formation of the welfare based cultural policy after WWII and the setting up of the Ministry of Culture in 1961. The price paid was that culture was now perceived and defined, first and foremost, as a national phenomenon.

Although the public cultural policy was a part of the post-war national construction process, the general objectives and means were defined in the universal concepts of enlightenment philosophy. What had not been culturally realised in the traditional bourgeois public sphere since the French Revolution and the revolution of 1848 should now be realised in the framework of the welfare state. Public cultural policy, financed and organised by the state and municipalities, was meant to guarantee artistic freedom and cultural diversity. Art and culture were thought as a means for building up the cultural and aesthetic competence for all citizens, to enable them to take part in the development of a democratic welfare society. 

Allocation of grants, through autonomous arts councils, experts committees, institutions and other "arm's length" bodies, inspired by the Danish tradition of self- governance, were organised to guarantee the independence of arts and culture from economic and political interests. Ideally, the ministry's role was as an architect to build a house of culture with rooms for all. As suggested by the original name, The Danish Ministry for Cultural Affairs (Ministeriet for Kulturelle Anliggender), the role of the Ministry as state authority was first and foremost a political and administrative framework designed to improve the conditions for art and culture, but not to interfere with the content. Neither politicians nor civil servants, but independent peer groups, should grant money to the arts, i.e. through The Danish Art Foundation (Statens Kunstfond) established in 1964.

In the 1960s, the focus of Danish cultural policy was on the dissemination of professional art. The strategy was called democratisation of culture. The welfare state distributed cultural goods to all Danes, whether they lived in Copenhagen, small provincial towns, or urban districts. All parts of the country and all social groups were to have access to theatre, music, libraries, etc. of a high standard and provided by professionals. They were to have the opportunity to encounter and thereby learn to appreciate "art of good quality". Therefore, state support of the arts should be given to the very best that the Danish artistic community produced. The same applied to the public cultural institutions and activities, whether organised on national, regional or local level.

However, it soon became evident that not all Danes appreciated what some considered "incomprehensible fine art of modernism". As a result, a broader concept of culture was introduced into the cultural policies of the 1970s. The new ideals and strategies of cultural democracy showed more respect for cultural diversity and the right to pluralism. It guaranteed the right of creativity and self-expression. Decentralisation was strengthened. Decisions on cultural policy should be taken as close to the citizens as feasible. The state should support amateur as well as professional activities. In a broader sense, it also meant that the state should support diverse cultural groups including minorities.

In the 1980s, the aims of cultural politics often took another course. Cultural activities were often considered as tools to serve social purposes. Culture and art were to solve problems of unemployment of young people, attracting tourists with the purpose of economic development, securing highly skilled employees for new advanced companies, etc.

In 1992 the Ministry of Culture introduced aim- and result-management of the state institutions, with performance contracts as a steering compass. The purpose was to secure cohesion between the political expectations and the results of the institutions. The overall aim still was to support the creative arts, cultural education and research, cultural heritage, media etc. with the mission to promote general education and cultural development of the citizens. At the same time the economic rationale of cultural policy has been still more emphasised as a part of the "experience economy" since late 1990s. This line has been improved by the present government parallel with the overall aim to give priority to professional arts policy, improving the conditions for the most talented artists and to develop new artistically talents.

Finally cultural policies in Denmark in recent years has been rethought in light of globalisation, migration and digitalisation. The cultural discussion to day is to a high degree focusing on what constitutes "danishness", Danish cultural heritage and national identity as coherent narratives in a multicultural world.

Denmark/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.1 Organisational structure (organigram)

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Denmark/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.2 Overall description of the system

Danish cultural policy is both centralised and decentralised; one of the reasons is that the development of public cultural policy and institutions in Denmark is closely linked to the cultural and political movements that fostered Danish democracy and the welfare state. Different concepts of culture have been a central wheel in this process. Since Denmark adopted its first democratic constitution in 1849, social movements and a broad range of popular associations have flourished in Denmark. Liberal Movements for agricultural cooperatives, folk high schools and the later worker movement included culture as a social dimension and as a process in which everyone should participate. According to the bourgeois position in the late 18th century, cultural policy should concentrate on national art promotion dominated by the urban elite in the capital of Copenhagen. Present Danish cultural policy is constructed in this complex spectrum, from national patriotism focusing on the arts to the popular movement's broader conception of culture.

The political responsibility for public cultural policy is placed with the Danish Parliament (Folketinget), the Government and the Ministry of Culture. The state level sets the overall framework for national and local cultural policies (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.1 state level) and puts forward guidelines for international cultural exchange and cooperation.

The national level

The overall coordinating executive power for policy initiation, planning and implementation lies with the Ministry of Culture. The final legislative and budgetary powers rest with the Parliament. A special parliamentary Committee of Culture (Folketingets Kulturudvalg) deals with cultural policy issues. The powerful Ministry of Fincance (Finansministeriet) sets after amendment in the Parliament (Folketinget) the financial framework for budget allocations to arts and culture.

The competence of the Ministry of Culture encompasses creative arts, music, theatre, film, libraries, archives, museums, protection and preservation of buildings and monuments, archaeology and higher education and training. Furthermore, its responsibilities include intellectual property rights, radio and television, sport and international cultural cooperation, with a primarily focus the EU, Nordic Cooperation, the Council of Europe, UNESCO and the UN.

Since the Ministry of Culture was established in 1961, actual policy implementation and competence has been increasingly delegated to a complex framework of cultural agencies, councils, committees and cultural institutions with different tasks, competences and degrees of autonomy (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.1 organigram A and B):

The current role of the Ministry and its associated bodies is as follows:

Some of the important state institutions are: the Royal Theatre (Det Kgl. Teater), the Royal Museums of Fine Arts (Statens Museum for Kunst), the National Museum of Denmark (Nationalmuseet), the Royal Library (Det Kgl. Bibliotek) and the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Det Kgl. Danske Kunstakademi) encompassing the School of Visual Arts (Billedkunstskolerne), the School of Conservation Konservatorskolen), and the  School of Architecture( Arkitektskolen).

Approximately 700 independent cultural institutions around the country are partly funded by the state.

In principle, the independent institutions with state funding and the independent institutions financed by the state and municipalities together, in principle, will also have to follow the overall objectives defined in the legislative frameworks for the institutions and the management schemes of the performance contracts corresponding to the state institutions. However, the result obligations in accordance to realise the overall aims defined by law, the strategies, activities and administrative requirements defined by the performance contracts and demands of continual evaluation are less extensive, depending on how big a share of the the total economy of the institution the state is supplying. Examples of these institutions are the regional theatres: Aarhus Theatre, Aalborg Theatre and Odense Theatre, and the five provincial symphony orchestras of Aarhus, Aalborg, South Jutland, Odense and Zealand.

The regional and local level

Denmark is in the middle of a fundamental structural transformation of the public sector. The Local Government Reform (kommunalreformen), passed by the Parliament in 2005, has decreased 275 municipalities and 14 counties to 98 municipalities and 5 regions. The reform came into force on 1 January 2007 and will be fully implemented by 2012.

According to the reform, the former cultural responsibility of the counties, now abolished, has been transferred to either the state level or the new municipalities e.g. the state has taken over the responsibility for regional theatres, orchestras, museums etc., while the new grand municipalities have been given the full political, administrative and financial responsibility to handle cultural institutions and activities with a natural local affiliation including libraries, museums, sport facilities, amateur activities etc. In case of libraries and museums the municipalities still has to act according to the legislative framework agreed upon on a national level.

The new regions do not have ongoing responsibility for cultural activities.

The Council of Municipalities (Kommunernes Landsforening, KL) is a co-ordinating organisation for the 98 municipalities in Denmark, with the mission to promote the interests of its members. KL is an important actor in the negotiation, planning and implementation of cultural policy, especially after the abolishment of the counties and the transfer of more cultural responsibility to the municipalities.

The Faeroe Islands and Greenland

Within the framework of the United Kingdom of Denmark (Rigsfællesskabet), the Faeroe Islands and Greenland have extensive freedom to improve, manage and finance their internal affairs, i.e. public cultural policy. The Faeroe Islands is an autonomous nation within the realm of the Danish National State of Denmark, governed by the Lagtinget (Parliament) and Landsstyret (the government). Pursuant to the Faeroese Home Rule Act of 1948, the government is in charge of cultural affairs. Consequently, the parliament legislates while administration of the cultural fields is the responsibility of the Faeroese Home Rule Government.

Similarly, Greenland is an autonomous nation within the realm of Denmark. By establishment of the Home Rule Government in 1979, Greenland took over the responsibility for its own libraries, archives, museums, art institutions, high schools, Greenland Radio / TV and the church. The common constitution of the United Kingdom of Denmark primarily manifests itself in the common royal house, common currency and common foreign policy.

Levels outside the public system

Outside the system of public cultural policy, a large number of agents in the civic society and the private sector have considerable influence on the planning, implementation and innovation of cultural activities. The political parties have, according to the Danish Constitution, the responsibility for passing legislation on culture in the Parliament. The political parties, artists unions and other institutions in civic society have indirect influence on the implementation of cultural policy e.g. through the nomination of members to boards for management schemes, e.g. the Danish Arts Foundation (Statens Kunstfond) and the Danish Arts Council (Kunstrådet).

In recent years, the private sector has gained more influence in the cultural sector, due in part to the very liberal Law on Private Foundations of Public Utility, which makes it easy for private foundations, companies and individual citizens to support cultural institutions, activities and new projects with tax exemptions. In recent years, several new institutions and projects have been realised according to the private foundation model; an excellent example is the new Danish Opera House, which was opened in Copenhagen in 2005 as the new residence for The Opera of the Royal Theatre (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.5).

Denmark/ 2. Competence, decision-making and administration

2.3 Inter-ministerial or intergovernmental co-operation

Since 2000, the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Danish Ministry of Culture have through a collaboration agreement been working to promote Denmark's international cultural exchange. International Coordination is an independent team at the Danish Arts Agency (Kunststyrelsen). It acts as the operating staff to carry out the Danish Arts Agency's duties in connection with the collaboration agreement. Among others it is the to negotiate cultural agreements and programmes as authorised by the Danish Ministry of Culture and the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and to follow up on and administer cultural agreements entered into.

In their collaboration on international cultural exchange through the Danish Arts Agency, the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Danish Ministry of Culture also aim at strengthening the collaborative network among all Danish institutions etc. working with international cultural exchange.

The Danish Centre for Cultural Development (DCCD) (Center for Kultur og Udvikling) organised in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is especially taking care of international cultural exchange organised for developments purposes (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.4).

The Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs (Erhvervsministeriet) promotes cooperation between the cultural sector, i.e. Danish design, and the business sector. The Ministry of Education (Undervisningsministeriet) takes care of cultural education in schools and provides subsidies to various activities devoted to leisure and cultural minority groups. Cultural activities for children are improved by the Network for Children's Culture (Børnekulturens Netværk) established in cooperation with the Ministry of Family and Consumer Affairs (Familie- og Forbrugerministeriet) and the Ministry of Education. Voluntary organisations and amateur activities are primarily regulated and financed by the Law of General Education managed by the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Refugees, Immigration and Integration Affairs (Ministeriet for Flygtninge, Indvandrere og Integration) is responsible for several projects for minorities, immigrants and refugees, often together with the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Education.

Denmark/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.1 Overview of main structures and trends

As a small state, since WWII, Denmark has sought to play an active role in the international field of cultural co-operation, within Nordic cooperation through the Nordic Council (Nordisk Råd) (the forum for Nordic parliamentary co-operation formed in 1952) and the Nordic Council of Ministers (Nordisk Ministerråd) (the forum for governmental co-operation formed in 1972), the Council of Europe, United Nations / UNESCO and the EU.

Nordic cooperation has been, and is, essential because of the common models of public cultural policy (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 9.1 The Nordic Cultural Model ), dialogues and exchanges of common cultural experiences and a considerable cultural budget, which makes possible the implementation of several projects in the cultural field each year, e.g. joint Nordic film production (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.4.3).

The Council of Europe is important because of the European Convention on Human Rights and the additional protocols (ratified by Denmark in 1953 and included in Danish legislation by Law no. 285 on 29 April 1992), the European Court of Human Rights, the Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (ratified in Denmark 22 December 1997 and set in to force on 1 February 1998) and concrete cultural policy actions such as the Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe (launched in 1999) and the National Cultural Policy Reviews (initiated since 1986).

Denmark is working actively to protect national minorities in connection with its membership of the United Nations - and has obliged itself to protect ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, according to the Convention of Citizenship and Political Rights from 23 March 1976, Article 27. In 1992, at the 47th UN General Conference, a resolution (47/135) on the Legal Rights of National, Ethnical, Religious or Linguistic Minorities was declared. Denmark was co-initiator to the resolution, stating several important rights for people belonging to such minorities. The declaration incorporates also an obligation for the states involved to make sure that these rights are being practiced. A resolution in this regard has been on the agenda at the UN Conference and UN Human Rights Commission. Denmark seeks membership of the UN Human Rights Council at the elections in 2007. The candidacy enjoys the support of all the Nordic countries.

Denmark has been a member of UNESCO since 1945. The Danish UNESCO Commission administration is placed at the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Culture has been the proactive body in the process of negotiating, implementing and monitoring the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in October 2005. The Convention has been approved by the Parliament, December 18, 2006. The Ministry of Culture will at least ones a year call the cultural institutions to a general conference to hear and discuss what has been implemented in the individual institution. The first conference was hold in the Ministry of Culture, January 10, 2007. The institutions represented and the members of the parliamentary Committee of Culture all welcomed and the Convention as a useful tool to improve cultural democracy and diversity on a national, European and global cultural level.

Denmark has consistently led an active role in the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) regarding the promotion and protection of national minorities. This is illustrated by the membership of a German minority representative in the Danish delegation to the meetings in OSCE. At the last meeting of the OSCE Council of Ministers, on 4-5 December 2006, the human rights obligations of the organisation were emphasised by Denmark for future focus.

Today, the EU is the most important European framework for international cultural cooperation together with the UN / UNESCO on the global scale. Denmark has been an increasingly active member of the EU since 1973 - especially in the cultural field following Denmark's proactive role in the initiation, preparation and formulation of the cultural Article 128 of the Maastricht Treaty, which states:

Denmark sets the standard with respect to fast implementation of EU regulations into national legislation and it has the lowest number of infringement proceedings before the Court of Justice. Because of the Danish tradition for open public debate and administration, Denmark is continuously arguing for more transparency in the EU system and for implementation of clear and visible results for individual citizens, artists and cultural institutions. In recent years, Denmark has worked actively to see greater enlargement ever of the European Union succeed and is participating in all the cultural programmes of EU (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.4.3).

The coordinating and treatment of EU and WTO issues is issued by the European Affairs Committee in the Parliament. All the political parties in the Parliament are represented in the Committee. A Report on reforming the Folketing´s treatment of EU issues, dealing with the inclusion of the sector committees, controlling the principle of subsidiarity, a better basis for decisions and openness, was approved by the European Affairs Committee, 10 December 2004. The report can be downloaded: http://www.eu-oplysningen.dk/english.

Formerly Denmark has still 21 bi-lateral cultural cooperation agreements with others countries most of them European Countries. The conditions for budget, cooperation activities etc. will have to be laid down in negotiations between the cultural ministries involved every second year. The last negotiation concerning bilateral cultural cooperation took place with Austria in 1995. Since then, appropriations allocated by the Ministry to bilateral national cultural cooperation have been handed over to the institutions.

Denmark/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.2 Public actors and cultural diplomacy

The Ministry of Culture co-operates with other ministries and authorities e.g. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Udenrigsministeriet) with regards to the cultural dimension in the Danish Embassies around the world, The Danish Centre for Cultural Development (DCCD, Center for Kultur og Udvikling) and the informal forum of dialogue between the Heads of State and government of 25 countries and the President of the European Commission Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM). The purpose of ASEM is to promote and deepen the relationship between Asia and Europe in three main areas 1) political dialogue, 2) economic issues and 3) social, cultural and educational issues.

Publicly mandated actors for international cooperation are the following:

The major instruments used in international cultural relations are co-operation treaties (EU, the Nordic Council of Ministers, UNESCO, WTO etc.). But also co-production agreements on specific areas (e.g. film co-productions in EU and the Nordic Council of Ministers, see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.4.3) are used. Finally all the cultural institutions directly or indirectly funded and regulated by the state i.e. The Royal Museum of Fine Arts (Statens Museum for Kunst), The National Museum of Denmark (Nationalmuseet), the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Det Kgl. Danske Kunstakademi) and other advanced educational institutions of Arts and Culture, Denmark's Radio (Danmarks Radio), Central Libraries etc. are obliged to cooperate and develop international cultural relation on a Nordic, European and global scale.

A major development in trans-national co-operation in the field of cultural education and training and other fields of international cultural cooperation in recent years has been a change from a Nordic focus to a European - especially after the wall was broken down in 1989 and the inclusion of new member countries in the EU in 2006.

It's different to assess the trends in public financial support for international cultural co-operation in your country, because it is in calculated in the general budgets of the institutions. But the international cooperation of the institutions has been increased in recant years thanks to higher priority in the performance contracts with the institutions and special initiatives taken by the Ministry of Culture. I.e. a special support scheme for young Danish Artist to go to Berlin for inspiration and educational purposes was issued by the Ministry in November 2006.

The total amount of grants in 2005 for international cultural cooperation handled by the Danish Arts Foundation (Statens Kunstfond) and the Danish Arts Council (Kunstrådet) was 43.4 million DKK. The grants were distributed to the following purposes:

Additionally, the Danish Arts Council can offer ordinary grants for several international activities over the year. The number of grants varies and it is difficult to separate the national grants from those supporting international activities. Altogether, the Danish Art Council expects to spend 16 million DKK for ordinary grants for international cultural exchanges in 2007.

Denmark/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.3 European / international actors and programmes

EU

In recent years, as a member of the EU, Denmark has been working to achieve:

UNESCO

Denmark has been a member of UNESCO since 1945. The administration of the Danish UNESCO Commission is situated within the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Culture has been the primary body for implementing and monitoring the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, which was ratified by Denmark in December 2006.

Denmark regards the Convention as a "lighthouse" for the cultural policy area and as a tool in the ongoing national, European and global fight for artistic freedom and cultural diversity. The Minister of Culture stated, at a meeting on the potential of the Convention held at the Ministry of Culture in January 2007, with Danish art organisations and other representatives from cultural life as participants:

"Culture cannot only be regarded as being determined by the market. Public support is necessary in a small country like Denmark if the country wants to obtain and develop an autonomous culture and a national identity...The Chairman of the European Commission, José Manuel Barosso, has precisely expressed the perspective of the Convention in relation to the strengthening of the EU fight for global cultural diversity: A world without culture is like a house without mirrors. A world without cultural diversity is like a house without windows".

Denmark is working actively for a joint EU, or as many EU-countries as possible, to ratify the UNESCO-resolution on cultural diversity. The meeting also pointed out that it is an essential task for the EU and its members to make sure that the aim and principles of the convention will not be affected by the bilateral agreements with the USA.

Nordic Co-operation

Within the framework of the Nordic Council (Nordisk Råd) and the Nordic Council of Ministers (Nordisk Ministerråd), Denmark has been seeking the:

A new structure for cultural co-operation was proposed and prepared during the Danish presidency of the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2005. The aim was to add more energy, visibility and new working methods to Nordic cultural co-operation and to add more focus to the national contributions. The Reform was passed by the Nordic Council of Ministers in 2006.

The most profound changes in the reform are that the Nordic cultural co-operation has been moved from institutionalised, sectarian thinking, towards thematically defined projects and time-limited programmes. This will result in more funds for new initiatives and projects and the new organisation, with less institutions and committees but bigger programmes, will make cultural co-operation more user-friendly and visible to the public. The reform also implies that the following cultural institutions were to be closed down on 1 January 2007: Nordiskt Center för Scenekonst - NordScen, Nordisk Institut för Samtidskonst - NIFCA, Nordiska musikkommittéen - NOMUS, Nordiska litteratur- och bibliotekskommittéen - NordBok.

In the Nordic cultural co-operation and in the period of 2007-2009, focus will be placed on the following:

Denmark is also taking part in the nomination of candidates for Nordic cultural prizes. The Nordic prizes are the following:

The Nordic Culture Fund (Nordisk Kulturfond) is a Nordic body of cooperation, whose task is to support cultural cooperation in the broad sense between the Nordic countries. The Nordic Culture Fund awards about 25 million DKK every year to cultural projects in the Nordic Region or Nordic projects outside the Nordic Region. The projects that are supported reflect the entire cultural life and involve all areas including visual art, theatre, music and dance, literature and new media. Education, research and trans-sector projects are also supported, but these projects must have a clear connection with art and culture. Projects that can receive support from the Fund must include at least three Nordic countries or autonomous areas (the Faroe Islands, Greenland and the Aaland Islands).

Further information on Nordic cultural cooperation is available at http://www.norden.org/. See also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 9.1 The Nordic Cultural Model.

ASEM

Among other global initiatives, that Denmark wishes to stimulate and take part in is the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' ASEM-co-operation.

Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) is the informal forum of dialogue between the Heads of State and government of 25 countries and the President of the European Commission. The purpose of ASEM is to promote and deepen the relationship between Asia and Europe in three main areas 1) political dialogue, 2) economic issues and 3) social, cultural and educational issues.

In July 1994, the European Commission had already published Towards a New Strategy for Asia, stressing the importance of modernising its relationship with Asia, and of reflecting properly its political, economic and cultural significance. The Commission Communication of September 2001 Europe and Asia: A strategic framework for enhanced partnerships reaffirmed this objective. Summit-level meetings were held in Copenhagen in September 2002, Hanoi in October 2004 and Helsinki in September 2006. The ASEM 5 Summit in 2004 adopted the ASEM Declaration on Dialogue among Cultures and Civilisations, reaffirming that cultural diversity as the common heritage of humanity is an important driving force for economic progress and social development, conducive to building a more stable and peaceful world. ASEM partners' efforts helped to rally support for the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. ASEM partners are committed to developing cultural exchanges as well as protecting and promoting cultural expressions. Two ASEM Ministerial Conferences on Culture and Civilisations were held, and the next one will be held in Malaysia in June 2007.

Several initiatives have been launched, including the Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF), with headquarters in Singapore, which strives to promote the international and inter-cultural dimension of the ASEM process. ASEF arranges and sponsors seminars, exhibitions and other international and inter-cultural events. In 2001, a secretariat was established in Seoul for the ASEM DUO Fellowship Programme, which will strive to increase the number of exchange students and researchers between Asia and Europe to up to 5 000 over 5 years.

Town Twinning

Of special interest to municipalities is Town Twinning, as a springboard to closer international cultural cooperation. Denmark has formed a historic tradition for international contacts across national borders of twin-towns. Today, local authorities are leading this international cooperation. In 2006, local authorities were cooperating with corresponding local authorities of 3 twin towns in Europe. Twin town cooperation was, to a high degree, developed between towns in the Nordic countries, often supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers. Today, the EU's Foundation for Town-Twinning is often used by the local authorities in Denmark to develop twin-town cooperation on a European scale. LGDK´s homepage (http://www.LGDK.dk/13) includes a survey of foreign local authorities requesting town twinning cooperation or local government partnership in Denmark.

Denmark/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.4 Direct professional co-operation

Numerous Danish cultural and art institutions, artists' associations and regional administrations are engaged in international cultural exchange and in the presentation of Danish culture abroad. Most importantly, artists, curators and cultural institutions from all branches of the arts cultivate contacts and networks abroad, resulting in performances and exhibitions, as well as invitations to foreign artists to visit Denmark.

In addition to artists' fees, private donations and corporate sponsorships, government funding is made available to artists who engage in international cultural exchanges. The Danish Arts Council (Kunstrådet) provides financial support for the promotion of Danish literature, music, performing arts and visual arts, and awards grants on application to support activities such as the participation of Danish artists in events abroad, translations of Danish literature, and visiting programmes for artistic or cultural representatives from abroad. The Danish Arts Council also supports the presentation of significant foreign art in Denmark.

Literature

The Danish Arts Council's Committee for Literature provides support for the following international purposes:

Libraries

The Danish National Library Authority plays an active part in international cooperation within the field of libraries, documentation and information. The Danish National Library Authority plays an active role in the work of a number of international organisations as well as participating in several networks where dialogue and cooperation can provide inspiration for continuous development of the Danish library system - i.e. IFLA, LIBER, NORON and NAPLE. International initiatives within the Danish National Library Authority are, among others, the following:

Visual arts

The Danish Arts Council's (Kunststyrelsen´s) Committee for International Visual Art (Det internationale billedkunstudvalg) realise international activities in the field of the visual arts and provision of international information on Danish visual arts. The Committee for International Visual Art: 

Furthermore the Danish Arts Foundation's (Statens Kunstfond´s) Committee for Visual Arts (Billedkunstudvalget) are purchasing and grants etc. for individual artists to international purposes.

Film

International coproducing is crucial to financing Danish films. Moreover, coproduction agreements with foreign partners provide access to funds from international subsidy schemes, for example, Eurimages and Nordic Film & TV Fund, while sharing experience and creative input across national borders in general benefits the development of Danish cinema. According to Film Policy Accord 2003-2006, the Danish Film Institute (Det Danske Film Institut, DFI) may award subsidies to foreign-language feature films and documentaries during this period. The parties to the accord later agreed to raise the limit to 30 films for the full period. Also other international activities like Copenhagen International Film Festival are financed and organised by the Danish Film Institute. The Aim of festival is stimulate film production of high artistic quality.

Committee for Film and Theatre (Film- og scenekunstudvalget), the Danish Art Foundation (Statens Kunstfond), support and stimulate individual film directors international exchange, studies etc. threw travel grants etc.

Music

Performing arts

Committee for Film and Theatre (Film- og Scenekunstudvalg), the Danish Art Foundation (Statens Kunstfond), support and stimulate individual performing art directors to international exchange, studies etc. threw travel grants etc.

The Committee for the Performing Arts administrated by the Danish Arts Council (Kunstrådets Scenekunstudvalg) co-ordinates a number of international activities in the field of performing arts, provides support for guest performances by Danish theatrical companies abroad etc.

Cultural heritage

The International Council of Museums Denmark (ICOM) is the Danish national committee of the international museum organisation ICOM. The purpose of ICOM Denmark is to manage and facilitate communication between the Danish members and the international organisation.

ICOM Denmark cooperates with the Danish department of UNESCO.

Denmark/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.5 Cross-border intercultural dialogue and co-operation

Government programmes supporting intercultural dialogue and co-operation are mainly channelled via intergovernmental organisations such as the Danish Centre for Culture and Development (DCCD, Center for Kultur og Udvikling) and CIRIUS. The co-operation between the intergovernmental organisations and specific target groups is carried out in co-operation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Udenrigsministeriet) and DANIDA (Danish International Development Assistance), the ministry's agency for international development activities.

The Danish Centre for Cultural Development (Center for Kultur og Udvikling) is an independent institution related to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs by a performance contract. DCCD promotes cultural co-operation between Denmark and the developing countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Latin America, and the Middle East through presenting art and culture, from the developing countries, to the Danish public. An example of this work is organizing festivals celebrating other cultures, presenting Danish art and culture in the developing countries, and functioning as a knowledge and counselling centre for Danish institutions and organisations which, in recent years, have upgraded cultural co-operation with the developing countries. One major festival, Images of the Middle East, is presented in this compendium's Cases of Good Practice on Intercultural Dialogue.

Projects and programmes within DCCD are, among others, the following:

For more information see: http://www.dccd.dk/ and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 4.3.

Denmark is also participating in EU and Nordic programmes supporting trans-national youth exchange and co-operation within Europe, Eastern Europe, the Caucasus region and the Mediterranean countries. The programmes entitled Youth in Action and the Nordic Children's and Youth Committee Scheme (Nordisk Børne- og Ungdomskomités tilskudsordning) and are managed by CIRIUS.

The Danish government is also supporting programmes with the aim of strengthening democracy and intercultural understanding in the Middle East and developing countries. These are managed by the Danish Youth Council (Dansk Ungdoms Fællesråd). See: http://www.duf.dk/

Several Danish NGOs apply for the above mentioned funding in view of maintaining and establishing cross-border intercultural dialogue and co-operation. Danish institutions and associations also work on cross-border intercultural activities with no significant grant support, but supported by structures set up to enhance co-operation activities. Examples of such structures are the UNESCO Associated Schools Project. See: http://www.unesco-asp.dk/ - the Asia-Europe Foundation: http://www.asef.org/ - the Etwinning network: http://www.etwinning.net/.

Denmark's present development policy underlines the importance of international cultural co-operation and an increasing focus on cultural dialogue and values. Government allocations to humanitarian assistance through the Danish NGOs amounted to a total of DKK 402.3 million, corresponding to approximately 36.4 % of total Danish humanitarian assistance and 3.7 % of total development assistance in 2005.

See: http://www.um.dk/Publikationer/Danida/English/DanishDevelopmentCooperation
/DenmarksDevelopmentPolicyStrategy/index.asp

For more information, see our Intercultural Dialogue section.

Denmark/ 2.4 International cultural co-operation

2.4.6 Other relevant issues

In recent years, the Danish Ministry of Refugees, Immigration and Integration Affairs (Ministeriet for Flygtninge, Indvandrere og Integration) has been improving the use of cultural activities as a means in the integration process of immigrants and ethnic minorities. The Ministry has established a couple of funding pools to be applied by local organisations and initiatives, e.g. pools to improve participation of people with other ethnical backgrounds in sporting clubs and other leisure time activities (see also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 4.2.1).

Denmark/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.1 Main elements of the current cultural policy model

The Danish cultural model can primarily be conceptualised as a variation of the architect model. According to the architect model, the state fashions the framework for a country's cultural development through a ministry of culture, which follows overall policy objectives and approaches from a general perspective. Decisions about overall cultural policy are made - in theory - by the government, after public debate and representations to the minister and ministry of culture.

Cultural policy is designed to serve democratic objectives, training in democracy being considered an important social goal in itself, to guarantee artistic freedom by subsidising the arts and to promote equal access for all by funding centralised and decentralised cultural institutions. The state builds the house, but leaves it up to the tenants to decorate the rooms. The financial conditions faced by artists and permanent institutions depend primarily on public-sector funding and are, to a lesser extent than under the facilitator and patron models, subjected to commercial conditions in the form of sales of works, ticket sales, private donations or sponsorship (for further information, see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 9.1: The Nordic Cultural Model). Although the high degree of public funding of the cultural sector is a characteristic paradigm of the Nordic cultural architect model the present government has given high priority to improve the ticket-income of the institutions and to stimulate the private investment and funding of cultural life. So the intention is to transform the Danish cultural model towards a facilitator model (see The Nordic Cultural Model- Summary)  

This transformation of cultural policy in direction of a facilitator model has been a general trend in most European countries in recent years. However, in some respects the Danish architect model continues to stand apart from other architect models in Europe:

Denmark/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.2 National definition of culture

In Danish cultural policy since 1961 four conceptualisations of culture can be identified. These four are all of direct relevance to the analysis of the cultural policies in Denmark 2007:

Modernism secularised religion into culture. The bourgeois culture concept was of art, which was to help liberate and form the individual on a rational, enlightened and individualised basis. Art was seen as a field in its own right, a specialist profession and as a tool of education and enlightenment to develop the cultivated individual. The spirit of the Enlightenment was making itself felt as part of the modern breakthrough, with its belief in progress and democracy.

The concept of art and art as a specialised profession in modern society forms the overall basis for Danish cultural policy since World War II and especially since 1961.Under the headline, the democratisation of culture, Denmark attempted - from the 1960s to the mid-1970s - to implement goals by concentrating on dispersing information on the arts to as many population groups and geographical areas as possible within the nation state. Cultural policy was chiefly founded on ground of a humanistic concept of art and enlightenment.

During the 1970s, this strategy was transformed into a strategy of promoting cultural democracy. This did not mean that the dissemination of professional art in all its forms was demoted. It simply meant that it was supplemented with a cultural policy with a more locally based and broader cultural aim. The humanist concept of cultural policy, which focused on the arts and the dissemination of the arts, was supplemented by a sociological and anthropological concept of culture, which included the multitude of values, lifestyles and activities of everyday life.

Furthermore, the anthropological concept of culture facilitated the development of culture in the independent Danish nation Greenland, which achieved cultural autonomy in 1979.

From the mid 1980s - to the mid 1990s, public cultural policy was instrumental for social purposes due to growing unemployment, especially among young people. The concept of culture was, in several policy documents and legal acts, defined in socio-economical terms.

A new orientation in the policy of promoting artistic creativity was introduced by the report entitled Denmark's Creative Potential 2000 (Danmarks kreative potentiale 2000) launched by the Danish Ministry of Culture together with the Ministry of Business and Economic Affairs, with the purpose "to draft a new joint agenda for cultural policy and trade and industrial policy" (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 4.1). The concept of culture was defined in economical terms as a supplement to the humanistic and anthropological concepts of culture.

The follow-up report Denmark in the Culture and Experience Economy - 5 new steps, published in 2003, strengthened this focus on the economic potential of art and culture as artefacts in the global experience economy and the formation of the new creative classes. The concept of culture was distinctively defined in economic terms.

Finally, culture, parallel to this economic instrumentalisation, has been defined as the "soul of the people", as a common identity and mental amalgamation of people, language and nation.

Denmark/ 3. General objectives and principles of cultural policy

3.3 Cultural policy objectives

The political thinking behind the establishment of the Ministry of Culture in 1961 was pragmatic and administrative. The official explanation was that the Ministry of Education, which previously had the main administrative responsibility for funding culture, was becoming too big an unmanageable from a cultural perspective. As a result, "it was considered appropriate to assemble the administration of all matters concerning culture under the auspices of a special ministry." (Centraladministrationen 1960, White Paper 301, 39). The Ministry was also supposed to be responsible for in conjunction with the universities, research, art and culture - an interesting starting point in light of the contemporary debate, in which calls have been made for a closer symbiosis between art, science and teaching.

However, no explicit objectives were defined as a starting point for the setting up of the Ministry of Culture. As suggested by the original name - the Ministry of Cultural Affairs - it was, and should be, merely a political and administrative framework designed to improve the societal conditions for culture, but not interfere with the content.

The overall objectives, therefore, must be sought in the history of ideas outside the Danish Ministry of Culture, in the laws of culture implemented since then (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.2 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.3) and in the public cultural debate - The Danish Minister of Culture, Julius Bomholt on the occasion of the opening debate of the Danish Parliament, in October 1963, set up to formulate the "arm's length" principle as a motto for cultural policy, in order to allay suspicions among members of Parliament and others, who feared state control and political interference in the arts and cultural life generally:

"A true cultural policy must be extremely liberal. If one wants to cultivate democracy, one must first democratise the structural conditions determining cultural activities based on the motto: "Funding yes, control no!" (Julius Bomholt, October 1963).

Although there have been several amendments in the legislation and regulation concerning the support granted by the Danish art policy bodies since 1963, the objective and principle of the above system has remained intact. This is also the case with the new structure organised through The Danish Arts Agency, The Danish Arts Foundation and The Danish Arts Council (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 3.1 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 8.1). The most distinctive change has been the gradual extension of cultural policy to cover new areas, without arms length evaluation.

Denmark/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.1 Main cultural policy issues and priorities

From the mid-1990s, performance contracts with cultural institutions and their management has been introduced in the cultural arena to stimulate efficiency in the implementation of the overall aims. It can be argued that the general trends from that time moved in two directions.

On the one hand, the general art policy, which supported the individual artists and the main cultural and educational institutions on central and local level, was continued parallel to the decentralised strategy of cultural democracy. In 2003, the Ministry's administration of the different councils for theatre, music and literature etc. were merged into a new common administrative construction called the Danish Arts Agency (Kunststyrelsen). The separate councils for theatre, music etc. were put together in a common body called the Danish Arts Council (Kunstrådet) with the aim to stimulate a common platform for Arts policy, like the national arts councils n Norway and Sweden, a better coordination and new inter-aesthetic approaches. General support for visual art, literature, theatre, music, international art exchange etc. is now allocated by the Committees of Visual Arts, Literature, Performing Arts, Music and International Visual Arts in the Danish Arts Council.

The allocations for the individual artists are still implemented by the different arms-length committees for literature, music, visual arts, film and theatre in The Danish Arts Foundation (Statens Kunstfond). See http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.1 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2.

Other institutions such as The Danish Film Institute (Det Danske Filminstitut) and the Danish National Cultural Heritage Agency (Kulturarvsstyrelsen) are in general subsidising Danish film production, distributing state support to local Art and Cultural Heritage Museums, alongside their role as advisory bodies for the Ministry and government in artistic and cultural matters.

In recent years, the public cultural debate has, among other issues, focused on whether the symbiosis between cultural policy and experience economy (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 3.3) risks undermining the original aims of cultural policy with regard to the arts.

Parallel cultural policies in Denmark today are being rethought in the light of globalisation, migration and digitalisation. The cultural discussion is, to a high degree, focusing on what constitutes or is exemplary of "danishness", Danish cultural heritage and Danish national identity may act as a coherent narrative in a multicultural world and how to stimulate high artistically professionalism and young artists.

In December 2004, the Danish Minister for Culture announced the plan to compile a cultural canon. In April 2005, he appointed 7 canon committees corresponding to the 7 main art forms within the Danish Ministry of Culture's remit, namely: architecture, visual arts, design and crafts, film, literature, music and performing arts. The overall aim of The Danish Cultural Canon, published by the Ministry in 2006, was to stimulate public dialogues, discussions and activities on the national identity questions, but also to stimulate a discussion on how to improve and evaluate the quality of art.

The Danish cultural canon is, according to the Ministry, "a collection and presentation of the greatest, most important works of Denmark's cultural heritage". It was intended:

Denmark/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.1 Cultural minorities, groups and communities

The only official recognised minority in Denmark is the German minority living immediately north of the Danish-German Border. It is difficult to determine the precise size of the minority, for the control of matters relating to the minority has not been permitted since the Copenhagen-Bonn Declaration in 1955. However, it is estimated that the minority has 15-20 000 members in North Schleswig. Of a total population of 250 000 in the region, this number corresponds to a segment of 6-8 % of the population.

The German minority in North Schleswig runs its own private schools and a wide spectrum of social and cultural institutions. The minority, although marked by the many changes of history, today plays an important part in the borderland. Previous conflicts have been overcome, and the German minority, together with the minorities south of the border, is a good example of peaceful co-existence of minorities and majorities in Europe.

Bund Deutscher Nordschleswiger (the association of North Schleswigers) is the German minority's central organisation. Its objective is to promote and develop further the German language and culture in North Schleswig. At the same time, the minority wants to act as a bridge between Denmark and Germany and as a bridge to Europe (Further information see: http://www.bdn.dk/).

Denmark has received refugees from around 70 countries in the world. The biggest population groups are from the former republic of Yugoslavia, Somalia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Iran and stateless Lebanese from Palestine. In total, 8.4 % of the Danish population have a foreign background; this amounts to 452 095 people - 39 % of whom are Danish citizens - of a total population of 5 million.

Targeted measures and support programmes

Although no special considerations have been made in a juridical way towards cultural minorities in Denmark, with referral to the general protection of minorities in the Danish Constitution (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.1) and the different international conventions ratified by Denmark (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.4.1), several initiatives have been taken in order to give immigrants and minorities a voice in the integration process:

See also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.4.5, http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.4.6, http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.1 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 8.3.2.

Denmark/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.2 Language issues and policies

There is no official statutory document that nominates Danish as the national language for the Kingdom of Denmark - although Danish is spoken by almost all of its inhabitants and it is the official language in all official documents, e.g. the Constitution (Grundloven), and it used in the Parliament (Folketinget), as well as in the army. The Danish language has also formed the structure of the Danish sign language used by those who are deaf and hard-of-hearing.

There is no legislation on Danish language and spelling. Danish language policy is not meant to be normative but to serve as a recommendation and guide, according to the Danish Ministry of Culture. This was the purpose of the Danish language authority (Dansk Sprognævn)a scientific institution founded in 1955 is to set out guidelines and give advice on the use of the language, and not to set rules or control the evolution of the Danish language, which has been spoken for more than a thousand years. 

In 2004, a report (Sprogpolitisk redegørelse) was launched by the Danish government, in which the importance of the Danish language as carrier of the Danish identity is stressed. According to the report, it is the Danish language that binds the nation together. It is therefore important to maintain its capacity as a complete language that can be used in order to express thoughts and ideas in all aspects of existence, not just as a means to exchange information but also as a social element and a carrier of civil society and every day life in Denmark.

Several concrete initiatives have been taken in recent years including:

Denmark/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.3 Intercultural dialogue: actors, strategies, programmes

There is no specific legislation covering interculturalism, apart from the very important legislative frameworks for the Home Rule of the population in Greenland and the Faeroe Islands. In compliance with the Danish tradition of self-governance, responsibility for the implementation of cultural policy and cultural projects for cultural minorities, groups and communities lies with the institutions, institutes, councils and boards.

The Centre for Cultural Development / DCCD, The Danish Cultural Institutes and CIRIUS are the major organisers of intercultural dialogue in Denmark and abroad, financed by private and public funding. 

To some extent the councils and boards within the agencies of the Ministry of Culture, the state cultural institutions and the local cultural institutions, spread over the country and funded partly by the state and the municipalities, also take responsibility in developing special programmes and measures for "the new Danes", refugees and other new audiences.

Examples of initiatives promoting intercultural dialogue:

For more information, see:
Database of Good Practice on Intercultural Dialogue and our Intercultural Dialogue section.

For more information on the government's National Strategy for the European Year of Intercultural Dialogue please see: http://ec.europa.eu/culture/eac/dialogue/strategies_en.html

Denmark/ 4.3 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.4 Social cohesion and cultural policies

Social cohesion at national and local level is an underlying consideration in all major parts of Danish cultural policy and in the general political debate in Denmark. Almost every Danish Minister of Culture has put special emphasis on the common Danish cultural heritage as a way of understanding oneself as a people - and as means to meet other cultures with an open mind in an ever more globalised and multicultural world.

An explicit policy in the field of social cohesion has yet not been formulated, but new initiatives have social cohesion as an underlining theme:

Further examples are available, but the above-mentioned are probably the most pronounced in the overall picture.

Denmark/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.5 Media pluralism and content diversity

Geographically, the Danish radio and television field can be divided into three levels:

Ownership: The Danish TV and radio ownership structure cannot be divided into public, commercial and non-for-profit, whereas TV 2 Denmark is owned by the state, but funded by advertising. TV 2 - which is planned to be sold - is therefore both public and commercial, and the station has to fulfil certain public service obligations. The Danish radio and TV stations (in 2003 a total of 330) can be divided as follows:

Ownership:

Public: 17

Private: 313

Financing:

Commercial: 117

Non-commercial: 213

All terrestrial TV and radio stations must apply for a license, while satellite- or cable-stations only need a registration to the Radio and Television Board. Non-commercial private TV and radio stations can apply for government support.

Daily Newspapers: In September 2006, Denmark has 30 daily newspapers that were published 5-7 times a week; 16 are distributed on a national level, 7 on a regional level, and 17 on a local level. 8 of the national and regional newspapers are being freely distributed, the rest of the newspapers are sold by subscription. Two media companies each own 4 of the 16 nationally distributed newspapers.

Domestic Media and Programmes: There are no anti-trust measures to prevent media concentration in Denmark. However, the Danish Competition Authority regulates the media as well as all other companies. There are almost no imported radio programmes on Danish radio channels. The Danes preference for programmes in the Danish language limits the import of foreign programmes.

No national survey has been made on how many programmes are shown and produced in Danish Television. However, it is well proven that the number of Danish television programmes shown on TV is lower than the amount of programmes in Danish on the radio stations - although even commercial Danish TV-stations abroad broadcast programmes with Danish content, in order to attract Danish viewers.

In the Table below, the share of Danish TV-programmes is shown as 78 % of the share of television viewing in Denmark.

Table 1:     Share of domestic TV-programmes, 2005

TV-station

Share of viewers

Share of Danish produced programmes*

DR TV

33%

64%

TV 2 (2004)

40%

60%

TV Danmark

5%

31%

Total

78%

59%

Source:      MedieStatistikBanken: http://www.mediedanmark.dk/statistikbank and yearly reports from the TV-stations.
*                 including co-productions and transmissions from abroad in the Danish language, e.g. sports events). The numbers show the share of the total broadcasting time used for Danish produced programmes, including repeats.

The total share of domestic media programmes is considered to be lower than the above, whereas the commercial TV stations - for example TV Danmark - do not have a public service obligation and therefore are free to show a greater share of imported programmes.

The 8 regional TV 2-stations, which are subject to their public service contracts with the state and their share in the income of license fees, are obliged to produce and broadcast local content. Regional radio channels of DR are required by DR's public service contract. Local, private TV stations, in a 24 hours national network, must have at least 30 minutes per day of local news or other programmes focusing on the local community. Other local radio- and TV-stations are not obliged to broadcast programmes with local content, unless this is part of their broadcasting license.

Culture and Media Education: There are no TV channels designated solely to arts and culture in Denmark, but DR's radio channel P2 is specially designated to classical music and culture programmes. The public service television channel DR2 and the private television channel DK4 both have a quite a large share of programmes on arts and culture, including some regular programmes.

Scholars with a degree in humanities have the possibility to take a special degree in journalism at the Danish School of Journalism. Since the late 1990s, journalism has also been offered as a degree at Roskilde University and The University of Southern Denmark, with the purpose of educating journalists with a more academic profile. Those students reading journalism at Roskilde University also have to study a second subject (e.g. in humanities) to obtain a higher qualification (e.g. Master's degree). In September 2007, the Danish School of Journalism is going to co-operate with Aarhus University in providing a degree in journalism. With this training, journalists with a regular qualification in journalism will have the possibility of taking a university degree in journalism which deals with arts and cultural issues.

Main recent debates:

In spring 2002, the Danish government decided to privatise the television station TV 2, which had been partially financed by license fees since its foundation in 1988. However, even though the station is to be privatised, it must still abide by certain public service obligations with respect to news and current events and a continued economic commitment to Danish film. Writing in 2006, TV 2 has not yet been sold, because of unfinished lawsuits in the EU. TV 2 has been accused of receiving illegal state support (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.1 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 4.2).

The digitalisation of the television net will, in the long term, change conditions for, especially, TV 2. TV 2's advantage of being the only commercial TV-station with access to the public TV-net will be diminished over time, and TV 2 will, therefore, in the long run give up its public service obligations.

Denmark/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.6 Culture industries: policies and programmes

Two reports published by the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Business and Economic Affairs dealt with the definitions of the culture industries and the culture and experience economy. In the report "Denmark's Creative Potential" published in 2000, the Danish cultural industry is defined as including the following areas: music, theatre, literature, art, film and video, the press, radio and television, architecture and design, and entertainment parks and toys. In the report "Denmark in the Culture and Experience Economy" from 2003, this definition is widened to include: fashion, advertising and tourism.

In the year 2000/2001, the Danish culture industries made approximately 175 million DKK, which is comparable to 7.3 % of the total trade of the private business sector in Denmark. Approximately 12 % of the Danish work force was employed in the culture industries in that year.

In the year 2000/2001, the value of Danish culture industries exports amounted to 68 million DKK, which compares to 16 % of total Danish exports.

Against the background of the above-mentioned reports, the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs will, in the coming years, work to:

Specifically, the two ministries have, to date, commenced 11 initiatives - with more to come.

Examples of concrete initiatives to promote the interplay between culture and business:

Culture industry companies are often evolved around one or more creative persons. However, often, the creative persons do not possess the business competences, such as management, salesmanship and budget planning. The main challenge to small and medium sized culture industry companies, therefore, is the ability to develop business competences and implement a business strategy in their company.

Since 2005, Roskilde University has provided a Masters degree in experience management, educating people from the culture and experience business to meet the challenges of the experience economy.

Many of the art training institutes are also focused on educating their students to be able to operate in the labour market of the culture industries, e.g. two new courses of study for music producers were established at the Danish rhythmic music conservatories in 2002 (see also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 8.3.1).

Denmark/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.7 Employment policies for the cultural sector

In Denmark there are no special employment policies for the cultural sector. The employment policies for art and culture follow the current Danish labour laws, which are valid for all Danes regardless of their profession. See http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.4, http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.5, http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.6.

Denmark/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.8 New technologies and cultural policies

Denmark/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.9 Heritage issues and policies

Danish heritage policy is being implemented and managed through the Danish National Cultural Heritage Agency which was established in 2002 (issues of cultural heritage were formerly divided between the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Culture). In this way, an integrated approach to heritage policy is being promoted.

Recent debates and developments:

Denmark/ 4.2 Recent policy issues and debates

4.2.10 Gender equality and cultural policies

Denmark/ 4. Current issues in cultural policy development and debate

4.3 Other relevant issues and debates

For the last five years, the Danish debate on cultural politics has focussed on the following general topics:

Other questions raised in the public debate are:

One important topic which has also been dominating the debate is the sale of TV 2, which, in 2005, was appealed to the Court of the European Union in Luxemburg, with reference to the EU-articles on state support and competition, which are formulated in the vague wordings of the sections on cultural and media politics (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 4.2.5 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.3.8).

Denmark/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.1 Constitution

There are no articles in the Danish constitution directly related to cultural rights or questions of cultural politics. These are indirectly included in the agreements of protection of human rights as defined in the Danish constitution, on chapter 7 relating to religion, and chapter 8 on personal freedom, in particular on property rights, freedom of speech and freedom to gather. Positive human rights, e.g. the right for social security and the right for free education, are also protected.

According to the constitution, personal freedom is inviolable. Restriction of liberty can therefore not be used against people with particular religious or political convictions. The court controls the legality of the restriction of liberty.

These constitutional freedoms came into prominence with the "cartoon crisis" of 2006, where the Danish press, to a great extent, including the daily newspaper "Jyllandsposten" in which the controversial drawings of the Islamic prophet Muhammed were first published, and the cartoonists who had made the drawings, all supported the publication by referring to the constitutional provision of freedom of speech. Others, meanwhile, including some Islamic communities, argued against the Act by referring to the provisions of freedom of religion and freedom of personal violation.

The Danish court has, lately, not shown reticence in the question of the protection of human rights internationally. In 1992, the European Convention on Human Rights was legally made a part of Danish justice and has, since then, formed the basis for the criticism of not only administrative decisions, but also the legislation.

Denmark/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.2 Division of jurisdiction

In accordance with the new local government reform, passed by the Parliament in 2005, the competence for culture by a number of new laws has been legally divided by in a new way between the national, regional and local / municipal levels of government (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.3).

Denmark/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.3 Allocation of public funds

Neither the Ministry of Culture nor the Minister of Culture can dispense or intervene in the allocation of public funds for culture, according to the Laws of the State Arts Foundation and the Danish Arts Council. This has not been changed in recent years (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.2 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 4.1).

However, through tax allowances for companies, foundations etc., private investments in art and culture are favoured by, for example, allowing gifts for cultural institutions or investments in art to be tax allowances (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.5).

Denmark/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.4 Social security frameworks

Besides the regular labour market legislation, there are no special social security arrangements for artists and cultural workers in Denmark. Several initiatives, however, have been taken to improve the conditions for this group of citizens. Among other things, a proposal has been suggested in Politics of Culture in Denmark, the most comprehensive work on Danish cultural policy initiated by the Ministry of Culture (see Duelund 1995, http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 9.1), to establish a special unemployment fund for people with no income - since artists do not lack jobs, only their jobs often have no financial outcome. Moreover, a proposal in the report suggested establishing a security arrangement in the form of a minimum payment to all citizens, including artists and cultural workers. None of these suggestions, or similar initiatives, has been realised. Artists operate under the same social security system as all other citizens (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.3.9).

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

Denmark/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.5 Tax laws

As mentioned in http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.4, culture is taxed on the same basis as regular tax regulations, according to the present Danish law. However, some special agreements have been made in order to stretch the random income of Danes employed in the cultural sector. Artists with a maximum income of up to 539 000 DKK per year can store the amount in up to approximately 10 years for later taxation. This does not count for performing artists (Act nr. 1062 of December the 17th 2002). Medals of honour that are granted, and that are not applied for by the artists themself, are also exempted from taxation.

Act nr. 1389 of 20 December 2004 has made it easier for companies to invest in art or culture, in general, and public supported institutions, without any sponsoring restrictions. When a company buys a painting, 25% of the price can be deducted for tax purposes. Buying art for private companies has also given artists the possibility to actually earn a reasonable living from selling their works of art - and at the same time to give greater exposure to art among the Danish people in general.

In recent years, a great number of private Danish foundations have sponsored museums and art and music festivals due to lucrative tax arrangements that make donations to culture possible by advantageous tax regulations and deductions for private companies. Foundations are considerably favoured in the question of taxation. Foundations are, more or less, in charge of deciding when to pay the taxes themselves. In the calculation of the yearly taxable income, foundations are allowed to subtract all donations awarded but also appropriations for set aside for later donations.

Moreover, the foundations are allowed to subtract an amount, up to a maximum of 25 % of the yearly donations, a so-called allowance of consolidation, for the purposes of public utilities or charities. Foundations often take advantage of this system when supporting cultural projects.

The private sector has, in recent years, gained more influence in the cultural sector in accordance with the laws passed by the Parliament. The Law on Tax Exceptions in the Cultural Area (Law nr. 1389), passed by the Parliament in December 2004, made it possible for private companies to buy visual art with tax reductions. It was the first law dealing with tax reduction in public cultural policy ever passed by the Parliament in Denmark. The very liberal Law on Private Foundations of Public Utility makes it easy for private foundations, companies and individual citizens to support cultural institutions, activities and new projects with tax exemptions. In recent years, several new institutions and projects have been realised according to the private foundation model. The best example is the new Danish Opera House, opened in Copenhagen in 2005. The Opera House was initiated, financed and built by the private A.P. Møller Foundation.

As previously mentioned, one of the latest and biggest cultural activities financed by a private foundation, is the building of the Opera House in Copenhagen, thanks to a gift of 2.5 billion DKK from the Almenfond of the A.P. Møller Group - one of the biggest shipping companies in the world.

This has given rise to a discussion on the taxation privileges of foundations, in acknowledgement of the fact that it is the taxpayers who provide the charity for the foundations in the end, because of the favourable tax rules that are offered to private companies and foundations.

In 2004, this lead to an enquiry in the Danish parliament (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2), which suggested an analysis of the development of the donations from 1995-2003 - divided into areas of activity, institutions and regions, as well as defining genres and types of art and culture. The enquiry concluded in a report (Samspillet mellem private fonde og den offentlige kulturpolitik) published by the Ministry of Culture the same year. The report showed that, including construction projects, approximately 8.7 % of the income of the Danish cultural institutions in 2003 came from private donations. Questions of a more qualitative character, which had been the reason for the enquiry in the first place, were not evaluated in the report.

The number of private foundations in Denmark in 2006 was approximately 14 000, which is high compared to other European countries. There are no official statistics on Danish foundations, whereas the exact amount of money donated to philanthropic purposes is inapplicable. Many foundations are very small and locally rooted, and they, therefore, choose not to be registered at the Danish Commerce and Companies Agency. Nevertheless, it is a fact that the number of foundations is rising.

The Danish rate of VAT on cultural services and goods is 25%. Books and music CD's are also taxed at 25% in Denmark.

Denmark/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.6 Labour laws

As mentioned in http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.4 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.5, there isn't any specific labour law in Denmark that applies to artists or other people employed in the cultural field. The current Danish labour law is valid for all Danes, regardless of their profession.

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

Denmark/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.7 Copyright provisions

In Denmark, protection of copyright lies in the field of cultural policy, and the Copyright Act (Consolidated Act on Copyright, 2006), Bekendtgørelse af lov om ophavsret, nr. 763 of 30 June 2006) is the responsibility of the Ministry of Culture. The Act specifies and defines the mutual rights and obligations of the author, producer and user. The Danish artists' rights protection represents the "droit d'auteur" tradition, which asserts the authors' and performers' economic and moral interests.

According to Danish and Nordic tradition, copyright laws must primarily protect the rights of the creator and, ideally, serve as the undisputed guarantor of aesthetic freedom and financial revenue to the artists. Under the Danish Copyright Act, the originator of a literary or artistic work holds copyright in that work. The Act was thoroughly reviewed by Parliament in 1995 and has subsequently been amended in 1996, 1998 and 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2007 with the primary purpose to implement the different EU directives with relevance for copyright in the Act.

Examples of protected works are literature, music, theatre, film, the visual arts - including photography, architecture, decorative arts - and computer programmes. It is the expression of the work which is protected - that is to say, the work's singular design or presentation. Protection does not extend to ideas, concepts, procedures, methods or algorithms. Copyright applies from the moment of creation of the work. Thus, protection does not depend on any kind of registration. The copyright runs for 70 years following the death of the copyright holder.

Infringement of copyright may incur civil liability and criminal liability in the form of fines or imprisonment. Provisions aimed at protecting neighbouring rights e.g. performing artists (actors, musicians, dancers, etc), audio producers (record companies), film producers, radio and TV companies, photographers and producers of catalogues, tables and databases etc are also covered by the Copyright Act. The term of protection for these rights is 50 years from the time of production. The term of protection for databases etc, however, only runs for 15 years from production or publication. Registration is no prerequisite for protection in this field either.

The Copyright Act fulfils Denmark's international obligations with regard to the protection of rights set forth in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), the Berne Convention, the Rome Convention, and the European Agreement on Protection of Television Broadcasts. The Act also complies with European directives on the protection of computer programmes, rental and lending rights, satellite broadcasting and cable re-transmission, the term of protection, and the protection of databases.

The Danish (and Nordic) copyright legislation provides for organisations made up of copyright holders entering into collective agreements with users and producers regarding compensation for individual works and performances, the size of royalties, etc.

Rights holders under the Copyright Act have established collecting societies, which administer the copyright on behalf of the holder. Examples of collecting societies in Denmark are COPY-DAN, KODA, NCB and Gramex. Under the COPY-DAN umbrella, such societies recover and distribute remuneration paid in connection with cable re-transmission of television programmes, the sale of blank audio and video tapes, as well as the copying of protected material. COPY-DAN also administers remuneration for the commercial resale of works of art (droit de suite) and the exclusive rights of painters and sculptors. KODA is in charge of authors' rights to public performances of music. The Nordic Copyright Bureau takes care of the mechanical rights of music in connection with the distribution of CDs, films, etc. Gramex controls the remuneration to performers and producers from sound recordings in connection with public performances on radio and television and other public performances.

In principle, all the main aspects of copyright legislation in Denmark and the other Nordic countries have been identical for many years. The pan-Nordic unit of jurisdiction may be considered as a practical provision to encourage cultural development and exchange in the Nordic countries as well as a tool to improve general understanding of specifically Nordic solutions for international copyright co-operation, especially under the auspices of the EU.

Copyright in the Nordic countries is based on § 2 of the national Copyright Acts. However, in all of the countries, copyright is limited by a number of exemptions to secure "fair use". The legitimate economic interests of the copyright holders to protect their rights are weighed against public demand for free utilisation of protected works. Technically, this weighting is carried out by imposing limits on the rules. Three different legal constructions restrict copyright in principle:

This latter model, the collective agreement license, in particular clearly illustrates the common perception of the basic problem facing copyright legislation in the Nordic countries: Finding a balance between the copyright holder's right to control of, and remuneration for, the exploitation of his / her own work and society's need for quick and easy access to knowledge, information, etc.

Recent changes, debates and challenges

Thus, the Danish / Nordic approach to solving the basic copyright problem is pragmatic. Voluntary agreements between the parties provide as flexible a clearing mechanism as possible. Digital innovations have increased the need for pragmatic solutions to the clearing problem. In the right form, the Nordic agreement model and collective administration could be one of several answers to this challenge.

The European Union's copyright policy, so far, in most areas has been advantageous to authors and performers as an alternative to the Anglo-American copyright legislation, where artists enjoy only a minimum of protection. But, in recent years, the Commissioner of the Internal Market has to a higher degree handled the intellectual property rights from the point of view of trade and industry rather than a mean of cultural policy, i.e. the economic and moral rights defined in the tradition of authors' rights.

In particular, the following issue is of concern: modifying the so called "Non-binding recommendation", raised by Commissioner Charlie McCreevy of the EU-Commission in 2005, in which the governance of on-line cross-border music licences in the EU is handed over to 2-3 multinational companies. The recommendation is a threat to the Nordic and Danish tradition of administration on copyright. The recommendation is a so-called "soft-law-approach", meaning not binding. It will, however, from a Danish point of view, lead to chaos in the European declarations on copyright and cause problems for small countries and music areas. This expected development is working against the UNESCO Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions, which the EU has worked so hard to encourage member countries to adopt in a co-ordinated manner. Now, Europe's cultural diversity would be seriously jeopardised if the current system of collective management of creators' rights is going to be carried out, as it is argued by The Danish Artists Council. The modifying suggestions were to be discussed at a meeting in January 2007.

From a Danish point of view, one of the most important challenges for copyright protection in the years to come is how to prevent piracy in the global reality of digitalisation. The issue requires an international answer from the UN, UNESCO, GATS or another global organisation. On the internal lines, Denmark will have to renew the Copyright Act according to the digitalisation of Danish cultural heritage organisations such as Denmark's Radio and Television (DR) (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.3.8), the museums etc.. The purpose is to create a "win-win" situation for both the right-holders, producers and the citizens by means of the collective agreement license.

Denmark/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.8 Data protection laws

See http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.7.

Denmark/ 5.1 General legislation

5.1.9 Language laws

As mentioned in http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 4.2.2, there is no official statutory document stating Danish as the national language for the Kingdom of Denmark. Since 2002, Denmark has to a hight degree followed the EU-regulation (BEK nr. 618 of 22/07/2002) in which all citizens from the European Union are entitled to receive instruction in their native language. This also includes citizens from the Faeroe Islands, Greenland and the Danish minority in northern Germany. Native language teaching for Danes living south of the Danish border in Germany has been regulated since the Copenhagen-Bonn Declaration from 1955.

Greenland and the Faeroe Islands have had their own language policy since the introduction of home rule in 1948 and 1979. The Greenlandic language policy, insisting on Greenlandic as the county's main language, has been subject to several internal and external discussions over the years. To day Greenlandic is the main language. But Danish and English is also emphasised as second and third languages in schools and the society to avoid ethnic isolation and as proactive mean to participate in the globalisation process. "Wee will not have to build Chinese wars around Greenland, as the present Minister of Culture in Greenland" pronounced at a conference on Greenlandic culture policy organised in capital Nuuk, December 2005.

The national TV and radio-stations (DR and TV2) are obliged to live up to their public service responsibilities and broadcast national and local programmes, including news programmes, in Danish, according to the recent Act on Media from 2006. Danish minorities in northern Germany are benefiting from this public service agreement, as well as inhabitants in Greenland and the Faeroe Islands who are still members of the Danish Kingdom. Please see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.3.8 on media legislation.

Major public institutions like DR, The Royal Theatre and the Museum of Art are more and more regarded as a means to create awareness of Danish identity, cultural heritage and language. Although Danish language authorities prefer to set guidelines and not to legislate for the use of Danish - there has been a tendency to prioritise Danish culture and language, when new cultural initiatives are taken. The preservation of the Danish language and its impact on Danish identity is an underlying theme in the present cultural policy and it enjoys the attention of leading politicians and scientists.

Denmark/ 5.2 Legislation on culture

In resent years a number of new laws have been amended within the specific sectors of cultural policy in accordance with the new local government reform, passed by the Parliament in 2005. The local government reform implied that the competence for art and culture has been legally divided in a radical new way between the national and local / municipal levels of government (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.3).

Denmark/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.1 Visual and applied arts

In general 3 levels of legislation are regulating and defining the overall aims of the cultural institutions and activities in the specific fields of art and culture in Denmark:

The present Laws on Visual Arts encompass the following institutions and issues:

The Danish Arts Foundation and the Danish Arts Council are the basic bodies in Danish Cultural Policy for supporting the Arts in the different fields (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2). Both councils have a special committee for the visual arts to manage subsidies to the visual and applied arts.

The first Law concerning the Danish Arts Foundation (Lov om Statens almindelige Kunstfond nr. 170 af 27 maj 1964) was passed by the Parliament May 15, 1964.Three-year working grants are awarded by the foundation as subsidies to promising young talent and lifelong subsidies are awarded to artists recognised for long-term accomplishments within the arts. Three-year working grants are awarded by the foundation as subsidies to promising young talent and lifelong subsidies are awarded to artists recognised for long-term accomplishments within the arts. Travel scholarships are awarded to artists wishing to find inspiration abroad (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2).

The law has been amended several times since then with the purpose to extent the laws to new fields of the arts. E.g. subsidy- schemes for applied arts was enclosed in 1969, architecture in 1978, film and theatre in1994.

The first Law concerning the Danish Arts Council (Lov om Kunstrådet, nr. 230, 2. April 2003) was passed by the Parliament Marts 20, 2003. The purpose was to construct a comprehensive subsidy structure for the different form of arts administered by the Danish Arts Agency (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2). There have been no amendments to the law.

The Departmental Order on Visual Arts in 2003 (Lov om billedkunst, nr. 1004 af 29. november 2003) stated the right to compensation for works of the visual artist displayed in exhibitions halls concerning. The order was tightened in 2006 (Bekendtgørelse nr. 1062 af 25. oktober 2006).

Denmark/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.2 Performing arts and music

Theatre

The first comprehensive framework for state aid to performing arts and theatres was set out in the Theatres Act in 1963 (Lov nr. 202 af 31. maj 1963 concerning Theatre passed by the Parliament 14 May, 1963)

The purpose was to establish the basis for continuous development of Danish dramatic art and culture. The Act was designed to enhance the choice of theatre available to audiences, emphasising quality, diversity and innovation. Ensuring ample geographic distribution and guaranteeing the needs of diverse audience groups also come within the remit of the Act.

The first Theatres Act has subsequently been amended on more than twenty occasions since 1963. Among the most recent are restrictions concerning the reimbursement of state support to local theatres (Lov nr. 1104 passed by Parliament December 21, 1994) and new rules for support to local theatres (Lov nr. 103 om ændring af teaterloven og lov om regionale kulturforsøg passed by the Parliament February 22, 1996).

The most recent most recent Law on Theatre (Lov nr. 519, passed by Parliament 21 June 2005) related to the implementation of the Local Governmental Reform in the field of Theatre.

Music

Denmark became the first country in the world to adopt definitive legislation in the field of music. Subsidies in the field of music are granted pursuant to the Music Act, which was passed in 1976 (Lov nr. 306 af 10. juni 1976 om musik passed by the Parliament 26 May 1976)

The main purpose was to support the permanent symphony orchestras, the development of Danish art of music and other initiatives such as development of regional institutions of music. The Act has subsequently been amended on many occasions, most recently in 2000, with an addendum on rhythm music studios (Lov nr. 341 af 17. maj 2000 om ændring af musikloven passed by the Parliament 11 May 2000) 

The Danish Arts Foundation (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.3.1) has a special committee for Three-year working grants awarded by the foundation as subsidies to individual composers. Lifelong subsidies are awarded to composers recognised for long-term accomplishments within the art of music.

The Danish Arts Council (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.3.1) has special committees to manage subsidies to arts of stage as well as the art of music.

Denmark/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.3 Cultural heritage

Museums

Museums are regulated by the Danish Museum Act (Lov nr. 118 af 15. april 1964 om Statstilskud til Kunstmuseer passed by the Parliament April 3, 1964). The Act establishes the function of museums within each museum category (culture, art and nature), conditions for state recognition, and subsidy arrangements. The Act also includes provisions on archaeological research conducted by museums, Danefæ (official treasure trove) and Danekræ (natural history finds). The law has been amended on several occasions. In 1974 the Law on Cultural Heritage Museums passed by the Parliament Marts 14, 1974 (Lov nr. 193 af 29. marts 1974 om ændring af lov om statstilskud til kulturhistoriske museer). Most recently a Law concerning Compulsary Deliveries of Publiced Material has been passed by the Parliament (Lov nr. 1439 passed by the Parliament 22 December 2004).

Archives

The first Danish Act on Archives was passed by the Parliament May 8 1992 (Lov nr. 337 af 14. maj 1992 om offentlige arkiver m.v.). The Act lays down the overarching principles governing public archives and how public bodies are to treat their records. The Public Archives Act requires public bodies to submit their records to the State Archives so that they can be made accessible to the public after a period of thirty years. Municipalities are not obligated to submit their records to the public archives.

The Act has been amended twice most recently in 2005 (Lov nr. 563 af 24. juni om ændring af en række love på kulturområdet (Udmøntning af kommunalreformen på kulturområdet) related to the Local Government Reform which implies more local responsibility to the Municipalities (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2).

Denmark/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.4 Literature and libraries

Literature

Denmark's first Literature Act was adopted in the spring of 1996 (Lov nr. 477 af 12. juni 1996 om litteratur passed by the Parliament May 31, 1996). The objective of the Act is to promote literature and access to literature in Denmark, while also promoting Danish literature abroad. The Act applies to Danish and translated literature, including prose, poetry, drama, children's and young adult literature as well as cultural literature and non-fiction. The most recent Law on Literature was related to the foundation of the Danish Arts Council (Lov om Kunstrådet, nr. 230, 2. April 2003 passed by the Parliament 20 Marts 20 2003). According to the law a special committee to manage subsidies to literature was established as a part of the Arts Council (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.3.1).

Libraries

The public lending right remuneration scheme, introduced originally in 1946, represents the most significant funding of Danish literature. Pursuant to objective criteria, remuneration is distributed to authors and translators of books published in the Danish language for use in public libraries.

In 2000, Parliament adopted new legislation on libraries: The Libraries Act of 17 May 2000 (Lov nr. 340 af 17. maj 2000 om biblioteksvirksomhed passed by the Parliamant 4. May 2000). The Act primarily aims at providing a better framework for public libraries to carry out their information and cultural policy duties in an information society. In addition to books and audio books, the Act now requires that public libraries provide musical recordings, Internet access and digital multimedia.

The most recent Act on Libraries was amended in 2002 (Lov nr. 1053 af 17. december 2002 om ændring af lov om biblioteksafgift passed by the Parliament 11 November 2002). The Act dealed with a change in the margin of expenditure to public lending rights fee.

The Danish National Library Authority (Biblioteksstyrelsen) is the Danish government's central administrative and advisory body to the public libraries and the research libraries and is an independent agency under the Ministry of Culture.

The Authority advises the government on the organisation, co-ordination and strategy for the Danish library service and gives professional advice to ministers and public authorities, as well as local authorities, libraries and information services etc. The Authority plays an active part in international cooperation within the field of libraries, documentation and information.

The Authority administers a number of statutory government grants for library purposes and is responsible for retrieving and collating statistical information about Danish libraries. Furthermore, the Authority acts as the secretariat for Denmark's Electronic Research Library.

The Danish National Library Authority distributes remuneration to authors and translators of books published in the Danish language for use in public libraries (the public lending h fee). Complaints against the Authority's decisions may be brought before a board established specifically for that purpose.

Denmark/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.5 Architecture and environment

Architecture is not regulated by law in Denmark. But several institutions and activities are initiated and financed by public as well as private means. E.g. the Danish Centre for Architecture is a commercially run foundation. Its objective is to act as an information and development centre for architecture and building culture with a view to generating contacts and building bridges between architecture as art and building as a commercial enterprise. The centre is also entrusted with increasing interest in and awareness of quality in our physical surroundings.

The Danish Arts Foundation Committee of Architecture allocated scholarships, work and travel grants individual architects (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2). It is also within the committee's remit to support architectural competitions and the preparation of outline projects.

Denmark/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.6 Film, video and photography

With the adoption of the 1972 Film Acc (Lov nr. 236 af 7. juni 1972 om film og biographer passed by the Parliament 31 May 1972) the old film fund was abolished and replaced by the state-administered Danish Film Institute. At the same time, the cinema licensing system was abolished, and film now came within the province of the Finance Act.

Today, the Ministry of Culture is responsible for the overall administration of state institutions connected with the Danish film industry.

The most recent Film Act came into force in March 1997 (Lov nr. 186 af 12. marts 1997 om film passed by the Parliament 27 February 1997). The Act fused the formerly independent film agencies - the National Film Board of Denmark, the Danish Film Institute and the Danish Film Museum - into one agency now known as the Danish Film Institute. The Media Council for Children and Young People was also established at this juncture to replace the National Film Censorship Board, the agency responsible for censoring films and videos aimed at children and young people following the abolition of adult censorship in 1969.

The Danish Film Institute is responsible for promoting the art and culture of film in Denmark by granting financial support to film production and other initiatives. It supports the development of film as an art form and Danish film and cinema culture.

Support granted to feature films is two-pronged: (1) the Consultant Scheme, which supports the development and production of films, based on an evaluation of the artistic merits of the individual project; and (2) the 60-40 scheme, which allows the Film Institute to grant subsidies of up to 60 per cent without the necessity of the foregoing consultancy. The Film Institute also supports short and documentary films that promote educational, artistic and cultural activities.

Video is regulated according to the Film Act of 1994 (Lov nr. 435 af 1. juni 1994 om mærkning af videogrammer) passed by the Parliament May 24, 1994.

Denmark/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.7 Culture industries

Information is currently not available.

Denmark/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.8 Mass media

According to the present Danish Broadcasting Act (see Bekendtgørelse af lov om radio- og fjernsynsvirksomhed from May 2nd 2006), all TV and radio-stations require a license or a registration by the Danish Radio and Television Board.

DR, TV 2 Danmark A/S and the regional TV2 stations are all part of the Danish public service radio and television. By living up to the public service requirements, they obtain access to the nationwide broadcasting net and - except TV 2 Danmark A/S - a share of the income from the license fees. DR and the regional TV 2 stations each have a public service contract with the Ministry of Culture. TV 2 Danmark Ltd. has, instead of a contract, a public service license.

In the public service contracts / license, the TV and radio-stations commit themselves to providing the Danish public with a broad selection of programmes and services including news coverage, information, education, arts, culture and entertainment. They also commit themselves to quality, comprehensiveness and multiplicity, and in programme planning, they are obliged to consider freedom of speech and to aim at objectivity and impartiality. Moreover, the public service TV and radio stations are obliged to consider Danish language and Danish culture.

The public service broadcasters each have specific quotas for news coverage, Danish dramatics and programmes for children, which they are obliged to follow. The public service broadcasters are also obliged to broadcast programmes on arts and culture, but there are no specific quotas that they must adhere to.

There are no ownership regulations. Concerning quotas on the share of foreign programming, Danish broadcasters only have to adhere to the EU-directives relating to a certain quota for European programmes. There are no regulations concerning the share of Danish programmes that must be broadcast, although the public service contracts and licenses include the request for consideration of the Danish language and culture.

Every fourth year, the different parties of the parliament enter into a media agreement regulating the media area, including the contents of the public service contracts and licenses.

Recent / impending amendments

Denmark/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.9 Legislation for self-employed artists

There is no special legislation for self-employed artists other than the general law, for example the tax laws (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.4-6).

For more information, see our Status of Artists section

Denmark/ 5.3 Sector specific legislation

5.3.10 Other areas of relevant legislation

Copyright

In Denmark, protection of copyright lies in the field of cultural policy, and the Copyright Act (Consolidated Act on Copyright, 2006, Bekendtgørelse af lov om ophavsret, nr. 763 of 30 June 2006) is the responsibility of the Ministry of Culture. The Act specifies and defines the mutual rights and obligations of the author, producer and user. The Danish artists' rights protection represents the "droit d'auteur" tradition, which asserts the authors' and performers' economic and moral interests.

Examples of protected works are literature, music, theatre, film, the visual arts - including photography, architecture, the decorative arts and computer programs. It is the expression of the work which is protected - that is to say, the work's singular design or presentation. Protection does not extend to ideas, concepts, procedures, methods or algorithms.

Copyright applies from the moment of creation of the work. Thus, protection does not depend on any kind of registration. The copyright runs for 70 years following the death of the copyright holder.

Infringement of copyright may incur civil liability and criminal liability in the form of fines or imprisonment.

Related rights

Provisions aimed at protecting performing artists  musicians, dancers, etc), audio producers (record companies), film producers, radio and TV companies, photographers and producers of catalogues, tables, databases etc are also covered by the Copyright Act.

The term of protection for these rights is 50 years from the time of production. The term of protection for databases etc, however, only runs for 15 years from production or publication. Registration is no prerequisite for protection in this field either.

Denmark/ 6. Financing of culture

6.1 Short overview

The ambitions in recent years to finance a bigger part of cultural activities by private means e.g. tax reductions (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.5) has, in 2006, raised a debate on changes in the public financing of culture: Has the public budget been reduced or increased? A conservative estimation from the Ministry of Culture is an increase of about 300 000 DKK in 2006, compared to 2001. Research conducted by the Artists organisation DJBFA (Danish Jazz, Beat and Folk music Authors) concluded that there was a reduction of approximately 400 000 DKK. It is impossible to draw the right conclusion without an independent investigation.

The share of the state budget allocated for culture in 2005 was 2.3 %. The total amount of state expenditure in 2005 was DKK 389 362.0 million (not including interest, taxes and duties). The household spending on cultural activities and goods (including tickets for cinema, theatre, concerts, museums and zoos, books, newspapers and periodicals, movie rentals, CD's, videotapes and camera films) was, in the period 2002-2004, on average DKK 6 034 per household per year. This corresponds to 2.5 % of the total household budget. These figures were produced by Statistics Denmark (http://www.dst.dk/)

Denmark/ 6. Financing of culture

6.2 Public cultural expenditure per capita

Public culture expenditure per capita, in 2005, was DKK 2 639.35. This corresponds to 0.97 % of the GDP per capita. The public cultural expenditure for 2005 is compared here with the GDP for 2004, which, in October 2006, was the latest figure available. The GDP per capita in 2004 was DKK 272 000.

Denmark/ 6. Financing of culture

6.3 Public cultural expenditure broken down by level of government

Table 2:     Public cultural expenditure: by level of government, in million DKK, 2005 (budget figures)

Level of government

Total 2005

% 2005

Total 2003

% 2003

Total 2000

% 2000

State (federal)*

8 919.5

62.5%

8 409.8

63.1%

7 550.3**

64.7%

Regional (amter + HUR)

519.9

3.6%

485.0

3.6%

407.4

3.5%

Local (kommuner)

4 843.2

33.9%

4 427.8

33.2%

3 711.0

31.8%

TOTAL

14 282.6

100.0%

13 322.6

100.0%

11 668.7

100.0%

Source:      The Danish Ministry of Culture.
*                 Including TV / radio licenses (DKK 3 479.0 million in 2005) and receipts from the state football pools (tipsmidler - DKK 1 022.9 million in 2005). It also includes expenditure from the Ministry of Traffic for press distribution support and money transferred to regions for cultural agreements.
**              The amount added from the Palaces and Properties Agency budget of 2000 cannot be compared directly with the amounts from 2003 and 2005. In 2000, the Agency was not yet divided into two sections and the amount included in the Table above consists only of expenditure for certain large renovation projects for historic buildings. The numbers from The Palaces and Properties Agency included in the Table above are: 33.3 in 2000, 226.8 in 2003 and 232.5 in 2005).

In 2003 and 2005, an additional level of government appears in the budgets of the Ministry of Culture, namely The Greater Copenhagen Authority (HUR), which is a politically-governed regional organisation covering the Greater Copenhagen Region. In the above Table, the culture expenditures of HUR are added to the regional level, although the municipalities in the capital region supply part of the funding for HUR.

By 2007, both HUR and the existing regional governments (amter) will be abolished. Instead, five new regional governments will come into existence. These will only have limited influence on cultural policies. The prime amount of expenditure of HUR and the regional level (amterne) will, in 2007, be transferred to the state (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2).

The expenditures for sports have been subtracted from the budget figures in the above Table. Sports, however, are a considerable part of Danish cultural policy. In 2005, the public funding to sports amounted to DKK 4 163.8 million, corresponding to 23 % of the total budget for culture. This expenditure is mainly provided by the municipalities.

Denmark/ 6. Financing of culture

6.4 Sector breakdown

Table 3:     State cultural expenditure: by sector, 2005 (budget figures in million DKK)

Field / Domain / Sub-domain

Direct expenditure(state)1

Transfers (to other levels of government)2

Counties

Munici-palities

Total

% total

Cultural Goods

1 852.3

49.2

129.1

3 050.0

5 080.6

35.6%

Cultural Heritage

898.5

49.2

127.6

431.9

1 507.2

10.6%

Historical Monuments3

274.8

0.0

0.0

0.0

274.8

1.9%

Museums and zoos

623.7

49.2

127.6

431.9

1 232.4

8.6%

Archives

330.3

0.0

1.5

0.0

331.8

2.3%

Libraries

623.5

0.0

0.0

2 618.1

3 241.6

22.7%

Arts

1 324.5

82.1

312.1

691.7

2 410.4

16.9%

Visual Arts (including architecture and design)

125.4

0.0

4.8

2.7

132.9

0.9%

Visual arts

86.2

0.0

4.8

2.7

93.7

0.7%

Architecture and design4

39.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

39.2

0.3%

Performing Arts

1 199.1

82.1

307.3

689.0

2 277.5

15.9%

Music

305.5

27.8

65.7

521.9

920,9

6.4%

Theatre and Musical Theatre5

893.6

54.3

241.6

167.1

1 356.6

9.5%

Multidisciplinary

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Media

4 394.2

0.0

0.0

14.5

4 408.7

30.9%

Books and Press

550.5

0.0

0.0

0.0

550.5

3.9%

Books

221.2

0.0

0.0

0.0

221.2

1.5%

Press6

329.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

329.3

2.3%

Audio, Audiovisual and Multimedia

3 843.7

0.0

0.0

14.5

3 858.2

27.0%

Cinema

369.4

0.0

0.0

14.5

383.9

2.7%

Radio and television7

3 474.3

0.0

0.0

0.0

3 474.3

24.3%

Other

1 217.3

0.0

78.7

1 087.1

2 383.1

16.7%

Interdisciplinary

1 013.1

0.0

4.5

2.7

1 020.3

7.1%

Socio-cultural

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

n.a.

Cultural Relations Abroad

43.4

0.0

0.0

0.0

43.4

0.3%

Administration8

130.8

0.0

n.a.

n.a.

130.8

0.9%

Educational Activities

838.9

0.0

4.5

2.7

846.1

5.9%

Not allocable by domain

204.2

0.0

74.2

1 084.4

1 362.8

9.5%

TOTAL

8 788.2

131.3

519.9

4 843.2

14 282.6

100%

Source:      The Danish Ministry of Culture. Kulturpengene 2005. Finanslov 2005. Decimals can differ.
1                 Including receipts from the state football pools.
2                           Since 1999, groups of municipalities have had the possibility of establishing a cultural agreement with the Minister of Culture for the period 2004-2007. By such an agreement, the groups of municipalities take over a part of the state's tasks and obligations - and therefore also a yearly cultural framework budget for allocation. These are the only cultural amounts that are transferred from the state to other levels of government. In consequence of the local government reform, all cultural agreements will have to be renegotiated before the end of 2006. In January 2007 all the agreements has renegotiated.
3                           Including expenditure for cultural assignments of the Palaces and Properties Agency granted from the Ministry of Finance.
4                           Architecture is included in the Table above. In Denmark, architecture is considered as part of the cultural sector. The expenditure for supporting architecture was, in 2005, approximately DKK 11.1 million and the part of the education budget earmarked for architecture was DKK 243.9 million.
5                           In 2005, the government granted a special amount of DKK 167.8 million for the building of a new Theatre House for The Royal Theatre. This amount is included in Table 2.
6                           The distribution support for the press is supported by the Ministry of Traffic. This expenditure will be transferred to the Ministry of Culture by 2007. The figure in the Table also includes DKK 39.5 million, funded by the Ministry of Culture, for cultural magazines and periodicals. Moreover, certain periodicals and magazines are exempted from VAT, which thereby provides indirect support.
7                           Radio and television are almost exclusively supported by license funding, which is not included in the state budget. The division between radio and television cannot be made up. Some municipalities support or run local TV and radio-stations, but there is no information available on the total amount of these expenses.
8                           It is not possible to allocate the administration expenditure on the regional and local level.

Sports are a part of the expenditure of the Danish Ministry of Culture. However, in this Table - as well as in the previous one - the expenditure for sports has been subtracted from the total budget.

Major changes in specific fields

The following numbers are regulated according to inflation, for better comparisons:

Denmark/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.1 Re-allocation of public responsibilities

There has been no re-allocation of public responsibility for culture in recent years, e.g. privatisation or outsourcing of activities. However, the ambition is that a bigger part of the cultural activities and institutions should be financed by private means, from companies, foundations and patrons (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.3).

Denmark/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.2 Status/role and development of major cultural institutions

Most of the cultural institutions have undergone major changes in the legal and financial status according to the Local Government Reform that came into force on 1 January 2007. The reform implies a new responsibility between the state and local level in the Danish cultural model (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.3). No institutions have been transformed to e.g. private companies.

Denmark/ 7. Cultural institutions and new partnerships

7.3 Emerging partnerships or collaborations

In recent years, the government has be active in stimulating a new partnership between public cultural institutions and private sponsors and foundations through the contract management system (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 4.1), experimental projects for artists and the cultural industries (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 4.2.6) and tax exemptions for private companies, foundations and sponsors (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.3).

Denmark/ 8. Support to creativity and participation

8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

See http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 8.1.1.

Denmark/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.1 Special artists funds

Denmark has separate state support systems for individually creative and practising artists, just as the other Nordic countries (Finland, Norway, Sweden and Iceland). This is an exceptional dimension in the so-called Nordic Cultural Model (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 9.1 The Nordic Cultural Model)

The role of The Danish Arts Foundation (Statens Kunstfond) is to promote Danish creative artists. By use of the arms-length principle, the Danish Arts Foundation distributes funding and grants to individual artists in the form of scholarships, bursaries, commission honoraria and prizes, purchases of works of visual art, crafts and design for depositing in state institutions and providing visual art works in public buildings and facilities. The Danish Arts Foundation was established by the Danish government in 1964. The Foundation's sphere of activity is defined by the Arts Foundation Act passed by the Parliament in 1964. The Foundation's appropriation is determined by the annual government budget.

Since 2003, the secretariat of The Danish Arts Foundation has been administered by The Danish Arts Agency.

The role of the Danish Arts Council (Kunstrådet) is to promote the development of art in Denmark and Danish art abroad. The Council has two principal tasks:

The Danish Arts Council may take independent initiatives and express itself on matters that fall within its area of competence. The Council's sphere of activity and tasks are defined by the Arts Council Act (Law on the Danish Arts Council, nr. 230 of April 2. 2003 The scope of the Council's grants is determined by the annual Finance Act. The Danish Arts Council was established on 1 July 2003 to replace a list of independent councils on individual cultural areas.

The Danish Arts Agency (Kunststyrelsen) is an administrative unit under the Danish Ministry of Culture. The agency administers the financial support provided for artists and artistic activities by the Danish state, which is mainly granted by the two arms-length bodies: the Danish Arts Council and the Danish Arts Foundation. The Danish Arts Agency is also responsible for the international cultural exchange programmes of the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and facilitates continuous cultural exchange between Denmark and foreign countries in the fields of literature, music, the performing arts and the visual arts.

See also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.2 on legislation for culture and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.7 on copyright.

Denmark/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.2 Grants, awards, scholarships

It is a characteristic element in The Nordic Cultural Model (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 9.1) that the award landscape since the 1960s has been dominated by grants, scholarships for training, travel bursaries, work grants etc. organised by public institutions like the Danish Arts Foundation, the Danish Arts Council and the Danish Arts Agency (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2).

In recent years individual artists as well as public cultural institutions have increasingly also received grants, awards and scholarships by some private Danish foundations. One of the reasons is the status quo of the total public budget for culture (see chapter 6). Another is that the private sector has gained more influence in the cultural sector, due in part to the very liberal Law on Private Foundations of Public Utility, which makes it easy for private foundations, companies and individual citizens to support cultural institutions, activities and new projects with tax exemptions. In recent years, several new institutions and projects have been realised according to the private foundation model; an excellent example is the new Danish Opera House which was opened in Copenhagen in 2005, thanks to a gift of 2.5 billion DKK from the Almenfond of the A.P. Møller Group - one of the biggest shipping companies in the world (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.5).

Among other important old and new private foundations in Denmark 2007 with scholarships, travel bursaries, work grants, awards etc. are: The new Carlsberg Foundation and the Tuborg Foundation, established by the biggest breweries in Denmark, the Augustinus Foundation (established by a former tobacco company). A few years ago BG-Bank, one of Denmark's well consolidated banks, sponsored the organising of BG Bank Literary Award for authors among others also for authors which has published their first book.

The number of private foundations in Denmark in 2006 was approximately 14 000, which is high compared to other European countries. There are no official statistics on Danish foundations. Many foundations are very small and locally rooted, and they, therefore, choose not to be registered at the Danish Commerce and Companies Agency. Nevertheless, it is a fact that the number of foundations is rising.

There is no official statistics on the amount of money donated by private bodies to awards, work grants, institutions etc. in the cultural field. A report Samspillet mellem private fonde og den offentlige kulturpolitik ( The relation between private foundations and the public cultural policy in Denmark) published by the Ministry of Culture 15 December, 2004 on request of the parliamentary Committee of Culture showed that, including construction projects, approximately 8.7 % of the income of the Danish cultural institutions in 2003 came from private donations. The donations for cultural activities and artists were in fact lower (ca. 2.2 %) because 75 % of the donations were allocated as support for constructions projects in the period investigated (1995-2003).

Questions of a more qualitative character, which had been the reason for the enquiry in the first place, were not evaluated in the report. But in fact e very small parts of the award landscape in Denmark are private financed. That is also due to grants for start-ups or newcomers.

See also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2, http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.4, http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.5 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 7.

Denmark/ 8.1 Direct and indirect support to artists

8.1.3 Support to professional artists associations or unions

Denmark has not public support for the activities of artists associations or unions regulated by law. According to the basic elements in the Nordic Cultural Model (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 9.1) it is up to the artists themselves to organize and finance their associations or unions threw taw-free subscription. As collective bodies for the artist the unions can apply for support to special projects etc. in the Ministry of culture. The individual members can as well as non-organised artists apply for grants in the different councils, committees and other public bodies build up to support the individual artists , i.e. the Danish Arts Foundation (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2).

According to Danish and Nordic tradition, copyright laws must primarily protect the rights of the creator (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 9.1 The Nordic Cultural Model).

The Danish (and Nordic) copyright legislation provides a legal framework for organisations made up of copyright holders entering into collective agreements with users and producers regarding compensation for individual works and performances, the size of royalties, etc. Rights holders under the Copyright Act have thus established collecting societies, which administer the copyright on behalf of the holder. Collective agreement license is a special Danish / Nordic construction, which involves users entering into an agreement with a representative organisation, granting users the right to use all of the copyright holders' works of the type in question, including works that do not fall under the auspices of the organisation. In other words, agreement licenses are based on voluntary agreements entered into between the parties, but also involve an element similar to compulsory licenses in relation to outside copyright holders.

See also http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 5.1.7.

Denmark/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation

8.2.1 Trends and figures

Since 1993, there has, in general, been an increase in the amount of time spent watching television. This can be seen as the result of an increase in the supply of television broadcasting and a decrease in the participation at museums and theatres and other classical, public financed and organised cultural institutions, especially for people aged over 60 years. Instead, there has been an increase in participation in rhythmical concerts and cinema going.

Reasons for changes in cultural habits seem to be:

Compared to the rest of Europe, Denmark and the other Nordic countries have higher cultural participation rates and higher use of public cultural institutions, from libraries to symphony concerts (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 9.1 The Nordic Cultural Model).

Table 4:     Participation in cultural activities, percentage of adults over the age of 15

Type of activity

 

1987

1993

1998

2004

Heavily subsidised by the state (having participated at least once during the last year)

Theatres (including opera, musical, ballet)

40

37

41

39

Art exhibitions / museums

37

44

38

35

Museums other than art museums

36

44

41

32

Classical concerts

12

16

17

14

Rhythmical concerts

29

33

39

42

Cinemas

58

52

59

66

Libraries

63

64

60

66

Without large public subsidies

Reading newspaper on a daily basis

83

75

68

56

Reading fictional literature on a weekly basis

36

29

29

31

Watching television more than 2½ hours on weekdays

 

 

29

37

Listening to radio more than 3 hours on weekdays

 

 

35

28

Listening to recorded music daily

50

36

43

36

Watching video / DVD almost weekly

22

33

35

30

Using the Internet daily during leisure time

 

 

5

43

Playing computer games almost weekly

 

 

 

17

Capturing participation rates at local level for popular culture events (no data available)

Source:      Trine Bille et al: Danskernes kultur- og fritidsaktiviteter 2004 - med udviklingslinjer tilbage til 1964. Akf forlaget 2005.

Main development trends

There has been an increase in the amount of time spent watching television over the last ten years. This can be seen as a result of an increase in the supply of television broadcasting.

On the contrary, the share of inhabitants reading a daily newspaper has decreased over the last ten years. This can be seen as a result of new possibilities for being updated on news via television and Internet.

There has been a decrease in visits to museums and theatres over the last ten years. Instead, there has been an increase in attendance at rhythmical concerts and cinema going.

The cultural activity of the Danish inhabitants is very much dependent on differences, with respect to social, demographic and geographic circumstances. The degree of cultural activity is very much connected to the level of urbanity, education, employment, country of origin and lifestyle. People living in rural districts are the least culturally active, whereas people living in the capital are the most cultural active with regard to the number of different cultural activities in which people participate. People without education and people without employment are also the least culturally active, whereas the longer the education and the bigger the salary the more culturally active people are on average.

With regard to gender, there is a significant difference in respect of people not participating in cultural activities. 26 % of men have neither been to a ballet, musical, opera, drama, classical concert, museum or library during the last year, whereas this only counts for 16 % of women.

With regard to age, cultural participation starts to decrease when people pass the age of 60. For the younger age groups, there is no difference in activity between different age groups.

Inhabitants in Denmark with another ethnical background than Danish do have a significant distinction from the average pattern. One of these distinctions is in the rate of library use; 9 % of ethnical Danes use libraries almost every week, while for immigrants with a western background the number is 20 %, and for immigrants with a non-western background the number is 37 %. The survey also suggests that immigrants use free newspapers and Internet news sites more than ethnical Danes. On the contrary, there are some cultural activities which immigrants attend less than ethnical Danes, namely theatre, rhythmical concerts and sports arrangements. Regarding the rest of the different cultural activities, there are no significant differences between the participation in cultural activities of ethnical Danes and immigrants.

Denmark/ 8.2 Cultural consumption and participation

8.2.2 Policies and programmes

There is no explicit Danish policy linking the overall aim of equal access to cultural life to broader issues of civic participation, citizenship, civil society development / cohesion.

Examples of initiatives in the last 5 years to improve cultural participation are:

Debates on cultural participation:

Denmark/ 8.3 Arts and cultural education

8.3.1 Arts education

The Ministry of Culture is responsible for most of the tertiary education and training in the arts and for courses provided by the Royal School of Library and Information Science.

All studies coming under the heading of education and training in the arts are tertiary and conducted at state or self-regulating institutes and colleges within the fields of architecture, design, the visual arts, conservation, music, film, theatre and dance. Courses are conducted over a period of four to six years.

The comprehensive educational system of teaching and research in art and culture at Danish Universities are placed in the Ministry of Education (Undervisningsministeriet).

Institutions

The higher arts education institutions under the Ministry of Culture include education in design, architecture, theatre, acting, dance, film, art, music and librarian education.

The largest schools are the schools of architecture, the Royal School of Library and Information Science and the schools of design, which together account for two-thirds of all students. The six music academies account for roughly one-quarter, while the remainder of students are distributed among film, theatre, the visual arts, and arts and crafts studies.

In 1999, the Ministry of Culture established three education councils. The councils provide general advisory services to the ministry with respect to administering its institutes of higher learning. These are: The Education Council for Architecture, Design, Visual Arts and Conservation; the Education Council for Film and Theatre; and the Education Council for Academies of Music.

All of these institutes have no tuition fees. To be admitted to most of the courses, students have to pass an exam.

In October 2001, there were a total of 6 170 students enrolled in educational programmes within the province of the Ministry of Culture. 1 040 students graduated from the institutions in 2001.

Finance

From January 2007, all the institutions, except two, will be financed solely by the state. More than half of the budget for the two decentralised arts academies in Odense and Århus will hence forward continue to be financed by the municipalities in concern according to the agreements in the Municipality Reform (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2).

Until January 2007, the decentralised arts academies and the decentralised acting schools were also supported by the regional level (counties), which by 2007, will cease according to the municipality reform (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2).

Total public spending on educational programmes within the remit of the Ministry of Culture, in 2002, was DKK 778.6 million, of which the state's share is 775.1 million.

Amendments, aims and debates

The Ministry of Culture is the main governmental body responsible for arts education and training in Denmark. In the last five years, the main programmes and initiatives have been: 1) to develop the training to also improve employment for graduates, 2) to improve the profile of the individual institution, also in an international perspective, and 3) to implement the impact of the Bologna process.

The focus on increasing employment after training at the higher arts institutes has led to a decision by the Ministry of Culture to lower the number of students admitted to courses as there is concern that too many are being educated for too few jobs. Moreover, the school managements are obliged each year to deliver a report on what the institution is doing to improve the employment of the graduate students. Advisory boards have also been established, including representatives from the labour market, with the purpose of having a systematic dialogue between the educational institutions and the labour market and thereby developing the more opportunities for employment.

To improve the profile of the individual institutions, there have been initiatives to raise the quality of education e.g. the yearly budget for the institutions has not been decreased, even though the number of students has. In the future, there will be extra focus on attracting foreign students to the Danish higher arts institutions.

The Bologna process has had a big impact on the Danish higher arts institutes. The architecture schools and the academies of music have introduced bachelor degree as well as new Master degrees. Also, the design schools and the arts academies will introduce the new degrees before 2010.

The ECTS-system has been introduced to most of the institutes.

Moreover, each course is in progress of formulating so called qualification frameworks to describe the achieved competences of the graduates. This will be finished before 2010.

All the courses are expected to follow the developments of new technology in order to prepare the students for the labour market, although there have been no specific programmes. In the political agreement on cultural education for 2003-2007, extra funds were allocated for IT-improvements.

Denmark/ 8.3 Arts and cultural education

8.3.2 Intercultural education

Denmark has initiated or takes part in several trans-national exchange and cooperation programmes within education. Intercultural dialogue and co-operation are encouraged in all these programmes.

Some programmes focus particularly on intercultural dialogue in the sense of inclusion, personal development, active citizenship and democracy. Among these programmes are:

Others schemes are based on bilateral agreements between Denmark and foreign governments or regions, for example:

However, the majority of education programmes available are the result of intergovernmental co-operation mainly within EU and the Nordic area. EU's Lifelong Learning Programme (Grundtvig is part of this) and the Nordplus programme support European cross-border co-operation at all education levels, and there are EU programmes for co-operation at higher education level with all continents. The decentralised funds within LLP and Nordplus are administered by CIRIUS, an authority within the Ministry of Education that supports the internationalisation of education and training in Denmark. Further information is available at http://www.ciriusonline.dk/.

For more information, see our Intercultural Dialogue section

Denmark/ 8.4 Amateur arts, cultural associations and community centres

8.4.1 Amateur arts

Denmark has traditionally been very active for in the voluntary cultural area, thanks to the public movements behind Danish cultural policy (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 1). In 2006, an inquiry "Kultur i lyst og nød" on the role and status of amateur art and voluntary socio-cultural activities in the last decades was published by the University of Southern Denmark, stating that cultural amateurs are doing well and the field is very proactive. The major problems are the recruitment of new members, especially young members. However, voluntary organisations primarily financed and regulated by the Law on General Education, managed by the Ministry of Education, are still favoured by the politicians.

Danish cultural policy has also traditionally been very active in the area of culture for children, especially in the making of TV-programmes, many of which are well known all over the world today in children's theatres and music schools. Culture for children has been an important and official part of the work of the Ministry of Culture, with its own department, working groups and secretariat since the 1970s. Result-oriented contracts are encouraging the institutions to give their activities for children a top priority. The Danish Film Institute has its own funding support for the production of children's films etc.

In 2006, the report "Children's Culture for all of Denmark" was published by the Network of Children's Culture, together with a status-report on its work in 2005 and a plan of action for 2006-2007. The Network of Children's Culture was established on 1 January 2003. The Network consists of the Danish National Library Authority, the Danish National Cultural Heritage Agency, the Danish Arts Agency and the Danish Film Institute. The aim of the network is to initiate and to co-operate on present and future culture initiatives for children. The network should bring new projects to life across existing cultural fields - and find amendments on the existing culture-for-children-policy. The experiences of the activities improved by the Network of Children's Culture in 2005 have been positive in all parts of children's everyday life. The vision of the new plan of action for 2007 is that all children shall meet art and culture, that all professional public cultural institutions will have to contribute to this aim and that all forms of art will have to be available for children.

Finally, the Network of Children's Culture has published a book "Children's Culture in the Municipality" with ideas and inspiration to initiate projects for children's culture after the Local Governmental Reform. The reform of the regions and municipalities has given visible and clear division of responsibility between the new municipalities and the state. It is expected that this will strengthen local culture, including amateur culture. The new municipalities are now responsible for local music schools, theatres, museums etc. (see http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.1 and http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/icons/intern.gif chapter 2.2). The voluntary work within the local amateur communities is - as it was before the reform came in to force in January 2007 - still coordinated and run by the municipalities.

More information on the work of the network at http://www.boernekultur.dk/

Denmark/ 8.4 Amateur arts, cultural associations and community centres

8.4.2 Cultural houses and community cultural clubs

Denmark has had a public and deeply rooted tradition for cultural houses, since the late 18th century and the establishment of village halls as part of the Danish co-operative society-movement. In the 1960s and 1970s, the movement was re-awakened by self-organised citizens on the wave of the cultural and political changes in 1968. One of the first of this kind of houses was Huset (the "House") in Copenhagen. The "House" established rooms for musical and theatrical performances, exhibitions, debates and political activities, just like the rest of the other self-organised houses in the big cities of Europe at that time.

In the 1990s, more interest was given to prestigious and well-established cultural houses in the municipalities. The former village houses and community centres and their weight in social gatherings and political involvement was weakened in the promotion of professional art. The audience moved from being participants to spectators in the new "cultural palaces". The art was isolated from its context. The development of the cultural houses has been highly marked by the transition from industrial society with a focus on solidarity and socio-cultural behaviour - to the focus on art, experiences and creative classes in the experience society. This development is now hosted by the new cultural houses, together with the blooming café-life of the cities that has succeeded the old community clubs.

There are no statistics on how many visitors there are to the new cultural houses, nor is there any statistics on the informal cultural lives of the cafés, private galleries, etc. However, it is estimated that around 5 million Danes yearly are using the community centres. There is no legislation or permanent funding available in this area.

Many community centres and cultural houses, cultural amateurs and voluntary organisations are members of Joint Cultural Councils in Denmark ("Foreningen af de Kulturelle Samråd i Danmark"). The council is a national association of cultural councils, which are umbrella organisations for local associations within the area of culture and leisure-time activities. The association's tasks are, among other things, to advise, inform, arrange meetings and conferences and liaise between existing associations. In addition to these roles, the association handles all contact with the authorities, co-operates with similar cultural associations, national as well as international, and assists in establishing new councils.

Cultural councils existed in approximately 90 of Denmark's 270 municipalities before January 2007. Members of "Joint Cultural Councils in Denmark" are cultural councils, associations or similar unions which again are umbrella organisations within the area of culture and leisure-time activities. The main purpose of "Joint Cultural Councils in Denmark" is to inspire and develop the cultural area, and to influence, initiate, debate, exemplify etc. in order to create the best possible conditions for all cultural activities. "Joint Cultural Councils in Denmark" is working closely with the rest of the cultural voluntary associations on a national basis. What will happen to the "Joint Cultural Councils in Denmark" after the Municipality reform is still unknown.

Further information see http://www.kulturellesamraad.dk/

Denmark/ 9. Sources and Links

9.1 Key documents on cultural policy

Duelund, Peter: The Nordic Cultural Model. Copenhagen: Nordic Cultural Institute, 2003, 601 pp. The book is a summary of the most comprehensive study of public cultural policy in Denmark and the other Nordic countries since WWII. The research project was started in 1998 and was completed during the autumn of 2002. In all, 60 researchers from within the Nordic Region, as well as outside it, were involved in the project. The project has, among other things, shed light on the cultural political goals of the Nordic countries, their financing and administration methods, the cultural habits of the population and the role of Nordic cultural politics in an international context. Light has also been shed on the conditions for culture in the autonomous areas - The Faroe Islands, Greenland and The Aland Islands - as well as on Sami cultural politics. More information on the project is available at (or to order the book): http://www.nordiskkulturinsitut.dk/.

Duelund, Peter: Kulturens politik (Politics of Culture in Denmark) in 18 volumes, commissioned by the Danish Ministry of Culture (1993-1996). The final volume of the report - Den danske kulturmodel (the Danish Cultural Model) (Duelund 1995) - summarizes the results across the various branches of culture, and submits a catalogue of ideas/proposals on the renewal and further development of cultural policy.

Denmark in the Culture and Experience Economy. The culture and experience economy is a growing field in Denmark. The booklet explores the future of stronger ties between the arts and corporate sector in Denmark and presents the government initiatives on five new target areas. The publication can be download at: http://www.kum/dk/english.

Canon of Danish Art and Culture. The intensive work that lasted well over a year came to an end in 2006. A group of Denmark's most important artists and most knowledgeable art experts extensively examined hundreds of works of Danish art. The final results have been published: A Canon of Danish Art and Culture. Read more at: http://www.ku.dk/english.

Denmark/ 9. Sources and Links

9.2 Key organisations and portals

Cultural policy making bodies

The Ministry of Culture (links to all the institutions, agencies, committees and other sub-headings)
http://www.kum.dk/

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs
http://www.um.dk/

The Ministry of Interior and Health
http://www.im.dk/

The Ministry of Refugees, Immigration and Integration Affairs
http://www.nyidanmark.dk/en-us

The international cultural cooperation of the Municipalities
http://www.lgdk.dk/

Contacts for the Municipalities
http://www.kl.dk/

Contacts for the Regions
http://www.regioner.dk/

About the Local Government Reform
http://www.kum.dk/
http://www.im.dk/
http://www.kl.dk/
http://www.regioner.dk/

EU Cultural Co-operation
http://www.ec.europa.eu/culture
http://www.euobserver.com/

The Nordic Cultural Co-operation
http://www.norden.org/

ASEM-samarbejde:
http://www.um.dk/da/menu/udenridspolitik/internationaleorganisationer/ASEM

Professional associations

The Danish Artists Council (with links to all the artists' organisations etc)
http://www.dansk-kunstnerraad.dk/

The Danish Council for Copyright (with links to the collecting societies)
http://www.ophavsret.dk/

Copyright and Fair Use, Stanford University Libraries
http://www.fairuse.stanford.edu/

Grant-giving bodies

The Danish Arts Foundation
http://www.statenskunstfond.dk

The Danish Arts Council
http://www.kunstraadet.dk

Cultural research and statistics

Statistics Denmark (Danmarks Statistik)
http://www.dst.dk/

Culture / arts portals

For general information of cultural institutions, activities etc.
http://www.kuas.dk/

 


The Council of Europe/ERICarts "Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 9th edition", 2008