ROMANIA

 

Ministry of Public Information

Department for Interethnic Relations

 

Ministry of Education and Research

General Directorate for Education
in the Languages of Minorities

 

 

 

THE  PRESENT  TIME  IN 
THE  EDUCATION  OF  NATIONAL  MINORITIES  IN  ROMANIA

 

 

 

Achievements in 2001-2002 School Year and Perspectives

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2002


 

 

the publication was financed by
the government of romania

department for interethnic relations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The study has been elaborated by the specialists of the General Direc­torate for Education in the Languages of Minorities of the Ministry of Education and Research.

 

Sources:

annual statistical reports of school inspectorates

data of the National Institute of Statistics

Statistical Bulletin no. 9, 2001/2002 of the “Babeş-Bolyai” University of Cluj-Napoca

 

Editorial staff:  Leman ALI, Christiane COSMATU, Ivan KOVACI, Dr. Gheorghe SARĂU, Dr. Filip STANCIU, Vieroslava TIMAR

 

EDITOR-COORDINATOR:  Dr. László MURVAI


 

 

 

 

THE  PRESENT  TIME  IN  THE  EDUCATION 
OF  NATIONAL  MINORITIES  IN  ROMANIA

 

 

 

Achievements in 2001-2002 School Year and Perspectives



 

 

 


A.  General considerations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents:

                                                      1.  Description

                                                      2.  Juridical framework

                                                      3.  Measures taken


 


1. Description

 

 


In Romania access to education is guaranteed and organized in a way as to ensure equal chances to all Romanian citizens regardless to nationality, sex, race, social or material condition, political or religious belonging. The state guarantees the right of persons belonging to national minorities to learn their native languages and to be instructed in these languages. At the same time, according to the Romanian law it is compulsory to learn the Romanian language.

In 2001-2002 school year, there are three types of education for ethnic minority children in Romania:

n       Educational structures with tuition in the native language for the Czech, Cro­a­tian, German, Hungarian, Serbian, Slovakian and Uk­rai­­nian minority. These structures include 2,732 educational units in which 209,842 children and pupils learn.

n       Educational structures with partial tuition in the native language in 5 schools including 561 children and pupils. This form of study is cha­racteristic for the Croatian, Turkish and Tartar minorities for whom some vocational subjects are also taught in the native language.

n       Educational structures in Romanian language where the native languages are studied. This includes 387 schools with 30,964 pupils. Such structures are organized for the native languages of the Armeni­an, Bulgarian, Greek, Italian, Polish, Roma, Russian, Czech, Cro­a­tian, German, Hungarian, Serbian, Slovakian, Turkish-Tartar and Ukrai­ni­an minorities.

The above data are detailed in the annexed appendixes.

 

 

2. Juridical framework

 

Constitution

Art. 32.  (...)

“(3) The right of persons belonging to national minorities to learn their native language, and their right to be educated in this language are guaranteed; the ways to exercise these rights shall be regulated by law.

(...)

(7) The State shall ensure the freedom of religious education, in accordance with the specific requirements of each religious cult. In public schools, religious education is organized and guaranteed by law.”

The Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished on the basis of Art. II of Law No. 151/1999 on the approval of Government Edict of Urgen­cy No. 36/1997 for amending and completing Law No. 84/1995, published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, No. 370/03.08.1999.

“Art. 5. – (1) The Romanian citizens have equal rights of access to all levels and forms of education, irrespective of their social or material background, sex, race, nationality, political or religious belonging.”

(...)

Art. 8. (...)

(2) In each locality units, forms or study groups are organized and function with tuition in Romanian language and, if necessary, in the languages of national minorities, or their schooling in native language is ensured in the nearest possible locality.

(3) The learning of the Romanian language in school, as the official language of the State, is compulsory for all Romanian citizens irrespective of their nationality. The curricula must include the necessary number of hours and, at the same time, shall ensure the conditions to grant the mastering of the official language of the state.”

Chapter XII – Art. 118-126 of the Law on Education regulates the conditions of organizing and accomplishing education for persons belonging to national minorities.

 

3. Measures taken

 

According to the organization and accomplishment of education in Romania, the main responsibility in ensuring these rights is that of the Ministry of Education and Research and county school inspectorates (and of the Municipality of Bucharest). As state education is free of charge, the Romanian State covers the expenses for learning of and teaching in the native language within the framework of pre-university and higher education in native language.

The Ministry of Education and Research ensures the curricula and syllabuses necessary for native language educational processes, as well as the textbooks used in compulsory state education (Art. 174 of the Law on Education).

Qualified teachers, whose majority belongs to the respective minority, trained and further trained within the framework of secondary and higher educational system are provided for the educational system with tuition in the languages of national minorities.

Due to the measures taken, the most important points of reference in education in the languages of national minorities is as follows:

 

a) Network and Schooling

 

In localities with population belonging to different ethnic groups, the state ensures the organization and functioning of education with tuition in the languages of national minorities. In Romania the educational system for national minorities corresponds with the general one and includes kindergartens, primary, middle (junior secondary) and (senior) secondary schools, vocational and apprentice schools, post-secondary and master craftsman training. In state higher education there are study lines in the languages of national minorities; for ethnic Hungarian and German students courses are delivered in the respective languages at request.

Beginning with 2001-2002 academic year, there are 9 specializations within the “Sapientia” Private University with branches in Miercurea Ciuc and Târgu Mureş.

Pre-university education includes 24,178 kindergartens, schools, secondary schools, vocational schools and post-secondary schools out of which 2,732 (11.29%) function as units or sections with tuition in the languages of national minorities.

In the 2001-2002 school year, pre-university education included 3,972,245 pupils, representing 17.41% of the population of the country. Out of this figure 209,842 children and pupils (5.28%) attend native language education.

Education in native language is organized in separate educational units (1,343) and Romanian-Hungarian, Romanian-German, Romanian-Serbian, etc. sections (1,389). Both in units and sections education is in native language. In the 1,389 sections (mixed units), the material basis – classrooms, laboratories, libraries, etc. – is used in common and the school has one management. In conformity with the provisions of Article 126 of the Law on Education, one of deputy headmasters belongs to the national minorities of the school. A series of extracurricular activities is organized either in Romanian, or in Romanian and in the native language.

The situation by educational levels in 2001-2002 school year is the following:

pre-school education includes 9,980 units with 616,014 children, out of which 1,327 units and sections (13.29%) attended by 46,351 children (7.59%) operate in the languages of national minorities;

primary school education comprises 5,606 units, attended by 1,028,697 pupils, out of which 491 units and sections (8.75%) with 57,814 pupils (5.62 %) operate in the languages of national minorities;

middle school education involves 7,021 units (1,291,839 pupils), 719 units and sections (10.24%) with 63,927 pupils (4.94%) operating in the languages of national minorities;

secondary school education covers 1,379 units (710,663 pupils), out of which 179 units and sections (12.98%) attended by 32,626 pupils (4.63%) in the languages of national minorities;

professional, apprentice, post-secondary and craftsman school education is attended by 325,032 pupils, out of which 9,124 pupils (2.80%) learn in the languages of national minorities.

Since the 1990-1991 school year within the pre-university education in Romania there have been introduced education alternatives of Frei­net, Waldorf, step by step or Montessori. Regarding the education for national minorities it must be mentioned that there are pre-School Clusters within Waldorf kindergartens in Cluj-Napoca, Braşov and Ora­dea, and Montessori in Odorheiu Secuiesc for the Hungarian minority and Waldorf in Târgu Mureş for the German one. At the same time, based on the provisions of Article 14 of the Law on Education No. 84/1995 republished, primary and middle school grades were set up in Cluj-Napoca – for the Hungarian minority and in Bucharest – for the German one.

In 2001-2002 academic year, 571,613 students were enrolled in higher education in Romania. 30,043 (5.25%) students belong to national minorities. In public education 424,864 students are enrolled; out of this number 24,859 (5.85%) belong to national minorities. In private education 146,749 were registered, 5,184 (3.53) belong to national minorities.

Consequently: in 2001-2002 school year, in pre-university education in 2,732 school units and sections 209,842 children and pupils studied in the 7 native languages. In higher education 30,043 ethnic students studied in over 20 university centers in Romania (24,598 Hungarians, 2,654 Germans and 2,791 other national minorities).

The school network, the number of children, pupils and students – by educational levels and languages of tuition – are presented in details in the appendixes.

 

b) Content of Education

 

In the context of the Government’s strategic options the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities considers as a priority the following objectives:

q     real insurance of basic education in the educational system for mi­no­­rities;

q     permanent actualization of school curriculums and their adaptation to the necessities of the beneficiaries;

q     forming of the basic competencies for the maintenance of the lan­guages and cultures of minorities in Romania;

q     harmonization of the quality of education for minorities to the stan­dards of performance of the countries in the European Union;

q     preparing and formation of competencies for an assessment centered on performance;

q     reorganization of the school network for minorities;

q     supply of schools with textbooks in the languages of minorities;

q     elaboration and monitoring of programs for the protection and edu­cational maintenance of persons who come from the marginalized categories of the society.

The framework-plan for compulsory education includes in the common trunk subjects as the native language and literature, the history and the traditions of national minorities.

Art. 3 of Order no. 3638/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research on the application of the educational framework-plans for grades I-VIII in 2001-2002 school year stipulates the status of the native language. – Art. 4 of Order No. 3670/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research on the application of Framework-plans for secondary education in 2001-2002 school year stipulates that the subject native language and literature is part of the common trunk. It is studied in a number of lessons equal with that of the study of the Romanian language.

In units and sections with tuition in the language of a minority, the native language and literature are studied in grades I and II in 7-8 hours; in grades III and IV, in 5-7 hours; in grade V in 5 hours and in grades VI-VIII in 4 hours.

In units and sections where the native language is studied as a subject, the number of hours allotted is of 3 during the entire schooling (grades I-XII).

The history and the traditions of each minority apart are studied in grades VI and VII. Religion can be studied in the languages of national mino­rities.

The new school syllabi were elaborated in a new form for all the minorities in accordance with the content and aim of the educational reform.

The syllabi for the history and the traditions of minorities were ela­bo­rated for the Hungarian, German, Slovak, Turkish, Roma and other mi­no­­rities; for the Hungarian language the textbook was elaborated, approved and printed. For the German and Slovak minorities the textbooks were elaborated and approved and after bidding they will be also prin­ted.

The acquiring of the Romanian language, the official language of the state, by all the citizens of Romania, has a special value within the framework of tuition in the languages of national minorities. This is so especially as far as the rights and duties of minorities and the granting of equal chances for all the citizens of the country are concerned. Specific textbooks have been elaborated for grades I-VIII in order to increase efficiency in the teaching-learning process. These textbooks insist on the active teaching-learning methods, making conscious the sources of certain typical mistakes and offering a rich set of exercises for their eradication. The textbooks have been elaborated having in mind: the objectives and the content of the curricula; they constitute a resource for activities which aim at objectives of reference subsumed to several framework objectives from different curricular areas making possible integrated teaching and develop care for environ­ment, self-confidence, positive thinking. The scientific content, artistic value of texts, as well as the esthetic quality of textbooks play an important role. These contain texts and attractive tasks for child­ren.

Original, alternative textbooks are elaborated for education in the languages of minorities for the tuition of the native language and literature, the history and the traditions of national minorities, and, in conformity with the options of the ethnic communities, for music. Otherwise, one of the alternative textbooks can be translated to which a specific part is added with the musical culture of the respective minority. For the other subjects the alternative textbooks are translated from Romanian language.

Beginning with 2002-2003 school year the Ministry of Public Information launches “Secondary School Textbooks for National Minorities” Project, contributing thus to the development of education in native language, the defense of the linguistic heritage in Romania (See for details Chapter E).

Taking into consideration the high costs of textbooks for minorities, in compliance with Order No. 3811/1998 of the Minister of Education, alternative textbooks can be elaborated in European co-operation, or textbooks from the native country of the minorities can be submitted for approval to the Ministry of Education.

 

c) Teacher Training and Refresher Courses

 

 “The Government of Romania considers that in the field of edu­cation and scientific research, Romania must firmly follow the road chosen by the developed countries. All societies, including the most developed ones find themselves in a great historical transition, that will comprise several decades in which transition from industrial-type to post-industrial, informational, intellectual and intensively cultural civi­lization shall take place. Romania must answer at the same time the provocation of internal reform and the challenge implied by the accommo­dations to the new tendencies of civilization at world level” (Chapter VI: Education, research and culture – strategic factors of deve­lopment from the Government Program).

The model offered by Romania to Europe on education with tuition in the languages of national minorities has an impact on one of the decisive factors of the educational reform, respectively the training and further training of teachers.

Under such conditions, in the education in languages of national mi­no­rities, the formative and educational training is not only a necessity, but also a central component of the educational reform.

In 2001-2002 school year, a number of 272,434 members of the educational staff were employed in pre-university educational; out of them, 16,351 worked in schools providing education in the languages of national minorities.

Kindergarten and primary school teachers are trained in secondary schools and in pedagogical colleges with tuition completely in the native language of the Hungarian and German minorities, as well as in secondary schools and pedagogical colleges in which the native language is studied. Thus, such colleges function for all the minorities in Braşov, Constanţa, Sibiu, Odorhei, Satu Mare, Suceava, Tg. Secuiesc, Timişoara, Aiud, Cluj.

The universities of Romania are encouraged to take measures to organize sections of study and specialization in the languages and literatures of national minorities as follows:

·    University of Bucharest – Hungarian, Slovak, German, Turkish, Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Romany;

·    “Babeş-Bolyai” University of Cluj-Napoca – Hungarian, German, Romany and Yiddish;

·    “Szentgyörgy István” Academy of Dramatic Art of Târgu Mureş – Hungarian;

·    Academy of Dramatic Art of Timişoara – German;

·    “L. Blaga” University of Sibiu, theatrical art department – German;

·    Medical and Pharmaceutical University of Târgu Mureş – section in Hungarian language;

·    “Politehnica” University of Bucharest – German;

·    “Politehnica” University of Timişoara – German;

·    Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest – German;

·    West University of Timişoara – Czech and Serbian;

·    University of Suceava – Ukrainian and Polish;

·    “Ovidius” University of Constanţa – Turkish.

Teachers for the educational system of national minorities are also trained abroad, in Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Turkey, Bulgaria, Serbia and Croatia.

For the education in German language the Center for the Continuous Training in German Language of Mediaş takes over the tasks of a house of the teaching staff with the difference that it achieves the further training of teachers in German at national level. The Center for the Continuous Training in German Language in Mediaş, institution subordinated to the Ministry of Education and Research established relations of partnership with two institutions of continuous training from Germany, namely: Akademie für Lehrerfortbildung und Personalführung Dillingen, Bavaria, and the Institut für Schule und Weiterbildung Soest, North Renania-Westfalia. The Center is also assisted by the Institute for Foreign Relations (ifa) in Stuttgart, the Educational Ministry of the State Baden-Württemberg, of the State Chancellery of Bavaria, and also fruitfully co-operates with the Sambachshof Popular University of Bad Königshofen, Bavaria.

 

d)  The General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities

 

It includes two departments:

1.     The Department for the Education of Minorities and

2.     The Department for the General and Specific Problems of Under­privileged Children.

The main objectives of the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities were established based on Chapter VI of the 2000-2004 Government Program. The strategy of the formation and reshaping of human resources is the main objective of educational policies that the Government of Romania shall promote in order to ensure economic and social modernization.

In the context of the Romanian Government’s strategic options, in the field of education, the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities shall observe the priorities of present-day education.

 


e)  Tasks  of  the  General  Directorate  for Education in the Languages of Minorities

 

The main objectives of the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities have been established on the basis of Chapter VI of the 2000-2004 Government Program entitled Education, research and culture – strategic factors of development.

The strategy of the formation and reshaping of human resources shall be the main objective of educational policies promoted by the Government of Romania to insure economic and social modernization.

In the context of strategic options of the Government of Romania, in the field of education and research, the General Directorate for Educa­tion in the Languages of Minorities shall observe the following major objectives:

   real insurance of basic education in the educational system for mi­no­rities;

   permanent actualization of school curriculums and their adaptation to the necessities of the beneficiaries;

   forming of the basic competencies for the maintenance of the lan­guages and cultures of minorities in Romania;

   harmonization of the quality of education for minorities to the stan­dards of performance of the countries in the European Union;

   preparing and formation of competencies for formative assessment and examinations centered on performance;

   reorganization of school network for minorities;

   supply of schools with textbooks in the languages of minorities;

   elaboration and monitoring of programs for the protection and edu­ca­tional maintenance of persons who come from the marginalized categories of the society for different reasons.

In order to fulfill these objectives, the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities takes the following measures:

Organizes:

   education with tuition in the languages of national minorities;

   educational reform of minority education;

   relations with governmental and non-governmental organizations for problems concerning minority education;

   its own managerial framework for specific activities;

   activities of control and advice for educational institutions with tui­tion in the native language.

Co-ordinates:

   the application of the strategy for development and reform within minority education;

   the activities of the departments within the general directorate.

Collaborates with all the general directorates and departments within the ministry for the specific problems of minority education.

Elaborates:

   notices, announcements, syntheses and other papers on the activity of the General Directorate.

   criteria for specific problems concerning the assessment in education with tuition in the native language of national minorities.

Reports:

   on the documents regarding the management or auxiliary literature in the education with tuition in the languages of national minorities;

   on the rules, instructions and methodologies regarding the specific activity in education with tuition in the languages of national minorities;

Approves:

   the draft answers to the registered correspondence of the general directorate;

   the methodology and themes of inspection, as well as the agenda of the field trips proposed by the directorate.

 

The Department for the Education
of Minorities

 

 

The department has the following main tasks:

Assures:

   the enforcement of the legislation on the right of national minorities to learn and to be instructed in their native language;

   the enforcement of normative acts concerning the teaching of the native language, of the culture and traditions of the Hungarian, German and other mino­rities;

   the proportional representation of the teachers belonging to the Hungarian, German and other minorities in the leadership of educational units and institutions with groups, grades, sections with tuition in the languages of the national minorities, bearing in mind, at the same time, their professional competence;

   the circulation of information concerning education for the Hun­garian, German and other mino­rities.

Elaborates:

   draft normative acts, orders, methodologies, instructions, regulations, notices, announcements, syntheses and other papers which refer to tuition in Hungarian, in German and in other languages;

   draft answers to the registered correspondence of the department;

   draft syllabuses and curricula for pre-university education with tuition in Hungarian, in German and in other languages;

   the agenda of activity for national committees on subjects;

   the thematic plans for inspections on subjects;

   the subjects for secondary school entrance examinations and school leaving examination;

   the questionnaires, assessment examinations and criteria for certain ele­ments of content (syllabuses, curricula, textbooks).

Organizes:

   the application of the strategy of development and reform in pre-university education with tuition in Hungarian, in German and in other languages;

   the secondary school entrance examination, examination on subjects, school leaving examination;

   the activity of national committees on subjects.

 

In fulfilling its tasks the Department:

Collaborates:

   with the other departments of the ministry for solving specific problems;

   with institutions of higher education, research institutions, ministries, economic agents, the cultural office of the Embassy of Hungary, Ger­many, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Bulgaria, Turkey, Yugo­slavia, Poland, Ukraine, Greece, Armenia and Italy in Bucharest, domestic and foreign, governmental and non-governmental establishments and organizations, prefects’ and mayors’ offices on the specific problems of the department;

   at the elaboration of programmes concerning specific informatics and database;

   at the elaboration of regulations for supplying school equipment.

Monitors and controls:

   the results obtained at capacity examinations, secondary school entrance examinations, school leaving examination and national examinations on subjects;

   the proposals concerning the improvement of the framework curricula, analytical school curricula and pre-university textbooks in the languages of national minorities;

   the result of the questionnaires, assessment examinations and criteria for certain elements of content (syllabuses, curricula, textbooks);

   the composition of national committees on subjects, for examinations on subjects, for secondary school entrance examinations, for school lea­ving examinations, for post-secondary school leaving examina­tions;

   the methodology, theme and agenda of field trips.

Accounts for:

   the training and refresher courses organized for the teaching staff em­ployed for the education in the languages of national minorities;

   the activity of its subordinated specialized school inspectors;

   the report on the situation of the translation of alternative textbooks.

 

The Department for the General and Specific Problems of Underprivileged Children

 

General tasks:

   observance of the legislation in force regarding the rights of children so that pupils, students who belong to the marginalized categories of the society for different reasons: economic, ethnic, denominational, geographically underprivileged etc. take part in institutionalized instruc­­tion and education in conformity with the principles of the Constitution of Romania and the international documents Romania is party to;

   elaboration of public acts concerning education for this category of pupils;

   elaboration and monitoring of programs or projects of the Ministry of Education and Research that have this objective;

   observance of conventions and agreements signed by Romania with international organizations, institutions in co-operation with the Gene­­ral Directorate of the Ministry.

Accounts for:

   enforcement of the legislation in force regarding the equal access to education and instruction of the above mentioned categories;

   manner of organization of education with this destination: network, schooling, adaptation;

   creation of the data base for the elaboration of the public acts specific for this kind of education.

Organizes, co-ordinates, elaborates and drafts the elements of the ini­tial and further training of the teaching staff in education with this destination, as well as the methodology of the application of this strategy.

Cooperates with:

   all the general directorates in problems that concern education for pupils in marginalized situations;

   ministries whose activities are linked to the above mentioned problems;

   domestic and international nongovernmental institutions;

   organizations of national minorities.

Position in the informational flux: The department is lead by a deputy-managing director, subordinated to the managing director of the GDELM.


 

 

 

 

B. Types of education for minorities found within
the educational system
in Romania

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents:

                              1.  Educational structures with tuition in the native language

                              2.  Educational structures with partial tuition in the native language

                              3.  Educational structures with tuition in Romanian language with the study of the native language


 

 


Education in the languages of national minorities is the most eloquent form of training the future multicultural citizen. In Romania this education is organized and carried out in three types. The first category of pupils and most numerous is the one that studies all subjects in the native language (except for the Romanian language and literature, the history of the Romanians and the geography of Romania). The second category of pupils, according to their wish, studies only a part of the subjects in their native language. The third category comprises those pupils who belong to a minority, prefer to complete the pre-university studies in Romanian language, but study simultaneously their native language in three or four classes weekly.

 

 


1. educational Structures with  Tuition in the native language

 

 

§  Education in Czech Language

 

Number of educational units:  4

Number of children and pupils:  109 in pre-school and primary edu­cation

Number of teaching staff:  8

The Czech minority lives mainly in Caraş-Severin and Mehedinţi Counties.

In Caraş-Severin County education goes on in Gârnic, Sfânta Elena, Ravensca and Bigăr. In Mehedinţi County pupils have the possibility to study their native language, the Czech language as a subject.

The localities from Caraş-Severin and Mehedinţi Counties where ethnic Czechs are living received financial aid from the Czech state. One of these aids was materialized in the construction of a new school in the village of Sfânta Elena, Caraş-Severin County, bearing the name of the great pedagogue J. A. Komenský. The school was equipped by the Ministry of National Education in Romania.

Number of schools with tuition in Romanian where pupils study the Czech as a subject:  5

Number of pupils:  175

Number of teaching staff for this type of education:  6


§  Education in German Language

 

Number of educational units and sections:  262

Number of children and pupils: 19,803 in all types of pre-school (except vocational and apprentice) education

Number of teaching staff:  585

Number of students:  2,654

Education provided in German language is integrated in a traditional system of school units and sections in native language with the teaching staff and managing bodies belonging to this minority. It includes the children and the young people who want to study in their native language, but it is also accessible to Romanian children and those belon­ging to other minorities.

Pre-university education in German language is represented in Alba, Arad, Bihor, Bistriţa Năsăud, Braşov, Caraş-Severin, Cluj, Hunedoara, Mamureş, Mureş, Satu-Mare, Sibiu, Timiş Counties and in the muni­cipa­lity of Bucharest. In Mehedinţi, Sălaj and Suceava Counties there is pre-school and primary school education with tuition in German language, while in Constanţa there is only pre-school education with tuition in German language.

During the last years new secondary school sections have been established with tuition in German language as native language at the following school units: “A. Valhuţă” in Bucharest, “L. Rebreanu” in Bistriţa, “O. Ghibu” in Sibiu, “National Gaz Scool” in Mediaş, “I. Papiu Ilarian” in Târgu Mureş, “Gustav Gündish” in Săcele, “Colegiul Bănăţean” in Timişoara, etc.

In schools with education in German language there are ethnic German teachers from Romania, teachers of other ethnic origin who know the German language. There are also teachers from the Federal Republic of Germany for different subjects on the strength of the agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning educational co-operation.

Teachers for pre-school and primary school education teaching in German language are trained at the “Andrei Şaguna” Academic Secon­dary School in Sibiu, as well as the “Andrei Şaguna” Pedagogical University College in Sibiu within the “Babeş-Bolyai” Univeristy. The German language teachers are trained at the universities of Bucharest, Timişoara, Cluj-Napoca, Iaşi, Sibiu. In order to meet the demand to study the German language and literature, the universities of different centres (Northern University – Baia Mare, Transilvania University – Braşov, Ovidius University – Constanţa, Craiova University, Oradea University, Ştefan cel MareSuceava) offer studies of German philo­logy.

New syllabuses were elaborated for grades I-XII. The syllabuses and textbooks for music also include a specific repertory.

In order to assist the activities of kindergartens with tuition in German language, a workgroup coordinated by a pedagogical consultant from the Federal Republic of Germany in cooperation with the Ministry of Education and Research elaborated the textbook of kindergarten teachers.

The Olympic Contest of German language as native language has a great success each year among the students of secondary schools/sec­tions with tuition in German as emphasis is laid on creativity. Yearly, the Department for Pedagogical Exchange from the Federal Republic of Germany offers a number of scholarships to pupils who obtain special results at the Olympic Contest of German language as native and modern language. The Cultural Department of the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany offers books as prize for the winners of the national contest of German language.

In the process of European integration an important step forward was made by the so-called “meeting classes” within the special sections in Bucharest and Timişoara.

In 2002, the Academic Secondary School “H. Oberth” in Bucharest was conferred the title of Goethe German Academic College by Order of the Minister of Education and Research, on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of German education in Bucharest.

Syllabuses for special sections comply with the curricular requirements of both sides. The study is finalized for the graduates of these sections with a German and a Romanian certificate of final examination (baccalaureate).

Certain university centers offer different specializations in German language or double specialization (German language and a non-lin­gui­stic profession):

·    “Babeş-Bolyai” University in Cluj at the following faculties: Ma­the­matics and Computing, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bio­logy and Geology, Geography, Philology, Political and Admi­nis­trative Scien­ces, History and Philosophy, the Faculty of Psychology and Pedagogy, respectively the Teacher-training University College in German Lan­guage in Sibiu;

·    Technical University in Cluj (Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering);

·    “Politehnica” University – Timişoara (Faculty of Architecture, Facul­­ty of Mechanics);

·    Academy of Economic Studies – Bucharest (Faculty of Economic Studies in Foreign Languages).

The continuous instruction of teachers for pre-university education with tuition German language is performed in university centers and within the framework of the Center for the Continuous Training in Ger­man Language from Mediaş, with a branch in Timişoara. At request, the Center organizes further training courses in other localities for teachers who teach German language or other subjects in German language.

Taking into consideration that school is a priority for the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania, its Educational Committee gives a perma­nent assistance to the Ministry of Education and Research. Thus several textbooks have been translated from Romanian for post-compulsory education.

The Protocol of the IX Session of the Romanian-German Government Committee for the question of ethnic Germans in Romania and the Sub­committee of cultural assistance for German minority signed in March 2002 showed: “The German party considers the Romanian model of edu­cation with tuition in German language as a native language exemplary for East and Central European countries and highly appreciated the sup­port and commitment of the Romanian Government for the Center for the Continuous Training in German Language from Mediaş.” Both parties underlined in particular the advantages of sending teachers from the Federal Republic of Germany mainly in schools with tuition in German.

In order to increase the number of pupils who study in German language, the county school inspectorates and the Inspectorate of the Municipality of Bucharest are invited to support constantly the educational units with tuition in German language, the special sections as well as educational units which provide candidates for the examination finalized in the German Language Diploma for Second Language organized by the Permanent Conference of the Ministers of Education of the Federal States of Germany and educational units which offer tuition in German language.

Number of schools in Romanian language where German is studied as a subject:  4

Number of pupils:  82

Number of teaching staff for this type of education:  7


§  Education in Hungarian Language

 

Number of educational units and sections:  2,384

Number of children and pupils:  187,156 in all types of pre-school education

Number of teaching staff:  15,537

Number of students:  24,598

Education in Hungarian language in Romania represents a well-organized system of units and sections with teaching staff and managing bodies belonging to the Hungarian minority, which includes pupils who wish to study in their native language.

After December 1989, several changes took place in the system of education in the languages of the national minorities in Romania, which reflect the wishes of the respective minorities. Thus, some of the measures taken in the educational field by a paternalist state were repaired. Thus following a policy of forced assimilation concerning minority education until the beginning of the 1989/1990 school year all the secondary school units with tuition in the languages of a national minority i.e. in our case the Hungarian language, were closed down. The secondary school network included only 107 units in schools with tuition in Romanian.

Due to measures of opening up in educational policy, in 1990/1991 school year the number of the reopened secondary school units with tuition in Hungarian reached 28, and the number of sections where there were forms with tuition in Hungarian reached 108. Consequently, 136 secondary schools functioned either only in Hungarian language (28) or in secondary schools with tuition in Romanian where there were forms with tuition in Hungarian language (108). Thus, many of the Hungarian pupils who studied in Romanian secondary schools chose secondary schools with tuition in the native language.

In 2001-2002 school year the number of secondary schools units and sections with tuition in Hungarian language was 143, i.e. 10.36 of the total of 1379 secondary schools in Romania according to the data of the National Institute of Statistics. The county school inspectorates give an account of only 133 secondary schools with tuition in Hungarian language. Probably the NCS considered that post-secondary schools are independent secondary schools.

Essential changes took place in the whole network of education in Hungarian language. If in 1989-1990 school year the number of schools and sec­tions (kindergartens and schools) with tuition in Hungarian language was of 2,145, in 2001-2002 their number was of 2,384 (9.86%).

Another change was the reestablishment of private and theological schools with tuition in Hungarian language after 1990. This change also took place in the entire Romanian educational system.

In 1989-1990 academic year, actually there was no higher education in Hungarian language, only certain courses were taught in three of the 44 higher educational institution in Romania. In 2001-2002 academic year, educational lines in Hungarian language were created within the “Babeş-Bolyai” University at 50 specializations, within the Medical and Pharmaceutical University in Târgu Mureş specialization in general medicine, pediatrics, stomatology, pharmacology, etc., within the “Szentgyörgy István” Academy of Dramatic Art of Târgu Mureş. We mention as a novelty the Reformed and Roman-Catholic Theology within the “Babeş-Bolyai” University in Cluj. Otherwise, in 2001-2002 academic year, out of the 31,627 students of the “Babeş-Bolyai” University 7,486 (23.66%) were ethnic Hungarians. Out of the total number of ethnic Hungarian students, 5,391 (72%) learn in Hungarian language. Out of 1,585 students who enrolled for thorough study and master degree 1,297 (17.66%) are ethnic Hungarians. (See “Babeş-Bolyai” University Info, Cluj-Napoca, Statistical Bulletin no. 9, 2002, pg.109-121)

In 1998-1999 academic year, university colleges were established with Hungarian educational lines in Gheorgheni, Miercurea Ciuc, Târgu Secuiesc, Sfântu Gheorghe and Satu Mare.

The “Partium” Christian University in Oradea represents private higher education with tuition in Hungarian language since 1990. In 2001-2002 academic year, 9 specialization received a temporary operational permit in Miercurea Ciuc and Târgu Mureş within the Hungarian Language Private University „Sapientia” with its Rector's Office in Cluj-Napoca.

Consequently, tuition in Hungarian language in the Romanian higher education is achieved within universities, teaching lines and groups in 9 towns in Romania.

As far as the percentage of children and pupils in pre-university education is concerned, the situation is as follows: in Romania 3,972,245 children and pupils were enrolled in 2001-2002 school year. Out of this figure 187,156 children and pupils attend kindergartens and schools with tuition in Hungarian language, representing 4.71%.

The situation of schooling in higher education in Romania shows a growing tendency. If in 1989-1990 academic year in Romania 165,507 students were enrolled, in 2001-2002 academic year their number reached 571,613 i.e. the number of students during the last decade was tripled. The number of ethnic Hungarian students grew from 7,091 in 1989-1990 to 24,598 in 2001-2002. The growth is similar to the national situation. The percentage of the ethnic Hungarian students was 4.3% in 1989-1990 and remained 4.3% in 2001-2002 as well.

In conformity with the Agreement between the Ministry of Education and Research from Romania and the Ministry of Education from Hungary, more than 50 students and PhD students from Romania, including ethnic Hungarian ones too – study in Hungary. The same number of students from Hungary study in Romania on a reciprocity basis.

In 2001-2002 school year, out of 15,537 members of the teaching staff teaching in Hungarian language education 2,009 are pre-school teachers, 3,415 primary school teachers and 10,113 teachers and craft teachers.

Through the provisions of Article 125 of the Law on Education No. 84/1995 (republished), the training and further training of the teachers necessary for the activity of teaching and learning in and of the native language is ensured. Due to the reform process, pedagogical colleges func­tion for the training of pre-school and primary school teachers with­in the “Babeş-Bolyai” University in Cluj, with lines with tuition in Hun­garian in Aiud, Cluj, Odorheiu Secuiesc, Satu Mare, Târgu Secu­iesc.

As concerns the qualified teaching staff in schools providing edu­cation in Hungarian language, the situation is in general identical with that of the entire educational system in Romania.

The school inspectors general in Covasna and Harghita Counties and one of the deputy inspectors general in Arad, Bihor, Braşov, Cluj, Mureş, Satu Mare and Sălaj Counties are ethnic Hungarians. A number of about 50 school inspectors of Hungarian nationality ensure a direct guidance and control of education in Hungarian language in Romania. It must be mentioned that following the restructuring of the Ministry of Education and Research and the county school inspectorates, the percentage of the teaching staff in leading and executive functions was not diminished.

Beginning with 1995, the syllabuses, respectively the textbooks for education with tuition in Hungarian language are renewed with the help of the World Bank. The elaboration of alternative textbooks at different subjects also began by the translation of textbooks elaborated for education in Romanian language. At present, pupils who study in Hungarian have new alternative textbooks for grades I-VIII.

The schools providing teaching in Hungarian language, have a long historical past, which certifies the traditions accumulated in the domain of education. Many of them have celebrated 3 or 4 hundred years of existence. The best known schools are the Reformed College (Secondary School) from Cluj, established in 1560, the “Bolyai Farkas” Reformed College from Târgu Mureş, established in 1557, the Catholic School from Odorheiu Secuiesc, established in 1593, the School from Aiud from the l6th century, transformed into college by Bethlen Gábor in 1662, etc.

Number of schools in Romanian language where Hungarian is studied as a subject:  62

Number of pupils:  2,906

Number of teaching staff:  240

 


§  Education in Serbian Language

 

Number of educational units and sections:  33

Number of children and pupils:  802 in pre-school, primary school, middle school and secondary school edu­cation

Number of teaching staff:  66

The school inspectorates that organized the study of the native language for ethnic Serb pupils are: Timiş, Caraş-Severin, Arad, Mehe­dinţi.

Due to the tradition of education in Serbian language in Romania the study of the native language was never interrupted. The representative localities in this respect are: Timişoara, Belobreşca, Cenei, Diniaş, Sân­martinul Sârbesc, Sânpetru Mare, Variaş, Gelu, Câmpia, Sânnicolaul Mare, Saravele, Radimna,, Socol, Zlatiţaa, Beregsăul Mic.

The first attempt to organize middle school in Romania was made in 1921, when in the locality of Gelu (Ketfelj) the inferior private Serbian school was established. On the basis of the 1934 Romanian-Yugoslav Convention on the regulation of primary schools for minorities in Banat, the Inferior Serbian Secondary School was established. In 1943 it was transformed into the Superior Serbian Secondary School which continues to operate uninterruptedly since then. Beginning with 1990, the secondary school became autonomous, and bears the name of the great Serbian Enlightenment personality, Dositei Obradovici, the prime minister of education in Serbia. The present secondary school has elementary, middle and secondary school departments.

Today ethnic Serbian children attend two educational forms: kindergartens, classes and schools with tuition in Serbian language and school units with tuition in Romanian language where the native Serbian language is studied.

The competition in Serbian language and literature is being orga­nized every year for pupils in grades VII-VIII. The national contests up to now have given evidence of a good knowledge and use of the native language and lead to eminence of young talents.

The study of the Serbian language in higher educational units at the Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Department of Serbian Language and Literature of the University of Bucharest and the West University of Timişoara ensured well-trained teachers and continues to offer secondary school graduates the possibility to study pedagogy at higher educational institutions.

Within the School Inspectorate of Timiş County there is a school inspector for Serbian language who is in charge with Caraş Severin, Arad and Mehedinţi.

Curricula for Serbian language and literature for primary, middle and secondary school level were elaborated by a group of ethnic Serbian teachers. The corresponding new textbooks are to be elaborated. At the same time, the curriculum was finished for the subject History and the traditions of the Serbian minority in Romania for grades VI-VII. The new textbook shall be elaborated on the basis of this curriculum.

The Ministry of Education and Research, in co-operation with the Union of Serbs in Romania tries to solve all the problems concerning the study of the Serbian language as a native language.

Number of schools in Romanian language where Serbian is studied as a subject:  17

Number of pupils:  547

Number of teaching staff:  21

 

 

§  Education in Slovak Language

 

Number of kindergartens and schools:  33 from pre-school to secondary school level included

Number of children and pupils:  1,241

Number of teaching staff:  116

During the two centuries of existence on the present territory of Romania, the Slovaks have maintained their linguistic, ethnic, cultural and spiritual identity due to education. As an integral part of the national educational system, education with tuition in Slovak language has a firm network formed of kindergartens, primary and middle schools, as well as two secondary schools.

The Slovak minority is concentrated in Arad, Bihor, Sălaj and Timiş Counties.

The two forms of education organized for the Slovak minority are:

  educational units with tuition in the Slovak language;

  educational units with tuition in Romanian language where the native Slovak students study the Slovak language as a subject.

Most of the schools have qualified teaching staff. Pre-school and primary school teachers for these school units are trained at the “Jozef Gregor-Tajovský” Secondary Industrial School from Nădlac, Arad County. In 2000 the graduates obtained two specializations as pre-school and primary school teachers. Beginning with 2001-2002 school year a form with pedagogical profile was re-established. Fifteen ethnic Slovak pupils study there from Arad and Bihor Counties.

For other specialization (mathematics, physics, etc.) ethnic Slovak teachers are employed, graduates of higher educational units from Roma­nia or Slovakia.

The further training of the teachers from schools with tuition in Slovak language is ensured every year through activities organized by the county school inspectorates, as well as the refresher courses organized by the Methodological Center of the Matej Bel University from Banska Bystrica, Slovakia. According to the interdepartmental Agreement, yearly 25 teachers from all educational levels and all specializations benefit of these further-training courses.

On the basis of the same agreement a teacher from Slovakia specialized in Slovak language and literature teaches at the “J. Kozáček” Theoretical Secondary School from Budoi, Bihor County.

At the same time, conferences are organized every year for the teaching staff of schools with tuition in Slovak language, opportunity to exchange experience for the servants of education.

Every year pupils from grades VII-XII of the already mentioned schools compete at the Olympic contest in Slovak Language and literature. Besides the prizes offered by the Ministry of Education and Research, the Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs in Romania also rewards the winners with book. The Department for Interethnic Relations of the Ministry of Public Information organizes and finances excursions in Romania and abroad for the winners of the Olympic contest.

In order to observe the quality of teaching the Slovak as native language, two methodologists were appointed in Arad and Bihor Counties. 

Number of schools with tuition in Romanian language where Slovak is studied as a subject:  2

Number of pupils:  89

Number of teaching staff for this type of education:  6


§  Education in Ukrainian Language

 

Number of educational units and sections (with tuition in Ukrainian): 13

Number of children and pupils:  663 from pre-school to secondary school level included

Number of teaching staff at this type of education:  35

The School Inspectorates that have organized the study of the native language for pupils of Ukrainian nationality from Romania are: Mara­mureş, Sucea­va, Caraş-Severin, Timiş, Tulcea, Arad, Botoşani, Satu Mare.

Representative localities: Sighetu Marmaţiei, Siret, Rona de Sus, Po­ie­nile de sub Munte, Ruscova, Crăciuneşti, Remeţi, Copăcele, Zorile, Cornuţel-Banat, Negostina, Bălcăuţi, Şerbăuţi, Pogăneşti, Bethausen, Murighiol, Micula, Ştiuca, Lugoj etc.

The children belonging to the Ukrainian minority attend two forms of education:

  educational units with tuition in Ukrainian language;

  educational units with tuition in Romanian language, where the Ukrainian language is studied as a native language.

Although quite numerous (the data of the 1992 census reveal that the share of the Ukrainian minority is greater than that of other minorities. It is on the fourth place, after the Hungarian, Gypsy/Roma and German minorities), the school population of Ukrainian nationality attends preferably the second type of education. Pupils learn in schools with tuition in Romanian, where the Ukrainian language is studied as a subject, according to the desires of pupils and parents.

Teacher training for pre-schools and primary schools began in 1990/1991 school year at the Normal Schools from Sighetu Marmaţiei, Suceava and Tulcea. An important number of secondary school graduates were sent to study in Ukraine, first with the help of the Union of Ukrainians in Romania, then with that of the Ministry of Education and Research.

The textbooks for the study of the Ukrainian language and literature in grades I-VIII have been revised according to the curricula in force after 1990. As an immediate measure, the existing textbooks of Ukrainian language and literature were reedited in larger number of copies, in compliance with the requests received from the counties. The task was accomplished in December 2000 for grades I-VIII. As a future measure, a mixed Romanian-Ukrainian committee shall be established to elaborate textbooks for ethnic Ukrainians in Romania and for ethnic Romanians in Ukraine.

A remarkable moment in the life of the Ukrainian minority was the reestablishment in the 1997/1998 school year of the “Taras Şevcenko” Academic Secondary School in Sighetu Marmaţiei, Maramureş County.

An Ukrainian language and literature Olympic Contest is organized every year for the pupils in grades VII-VIII and, beginning with 2000, for grades IX-XII where the pupils reveal their particular skills.

Within the school inspectorates of Maramureş and Suceava Counties a school inspector for Ukrainian language functions in each.

It should be also mentioned that two new departments of Ukraine language and literature have been set up at the universities in Suceava and Cluj-Napoca, besides the already existing one at the University of Bucharest.

Representatives of education in the Ukrainian language, teachers and pupils, as well as school inspectors participate at further training courses in Ukraine.

The Embassy of Ukraine in Romania supported the “Taras Şev­cenko” Academic Secondary School with tuition in Ukrainian language from Sighetu Marmaţiei by buying 16 computers, school books and classical Ukrainian literature books for the library.

Large sums of money were remitted from the special funds of the Ministry of Education to equip the secondary school with central heating.

It must be mentioned that the directorate in charge of the ministry, in a close collaboration with the Union of Ukrainians in Romania and its deputy in the Romanian Parliament look for and find adequate solutions to overcome difficulties in studying Ukrainian language as native language in Romania. This includes the study of young ethnic Ukrainians in Ukraine.

Number of schools with tuition in Romanian language where Ukrainian is studied as a subject:  73

Number of pupils:  7,606

Number of teaching staff in those schools:  230

 


2. Educational Structures 
with partial Tuition
in the native language

 

 

§   Education with Partial Tuition
in Croatian Language

 

Number of schools:  1

Number of pupils:  49

Number of teaching staff:  6

The Croatian minority lives mainly in Caraş-Severin County. The cultural and spiritual center of the Croatians is Caraşova. It is here that the Bilingual Romanian-Croatian Secondary School functions and the instructive-educational process is carried on partially in Croatian. In the other localities where Croatians live – Clocotici, Lupac – the Croatian language is studied by ethnic Croatian pupils in schools with tuition in Romanian language.

In 2001-2002 school year:

  at pre-school and primary school level there are groups, respectively classes with tuition in Croatian in Caraşova and Clocotici;

  at middle school level all ethnic Croatian students attended schools with tuition in Romanian language and study the Croatian language as a separate subject;

  at secondary school level the 49 pupils study approximately 40% of the subjects in Croatian language.

A team of specialist elaborated the curricula for Croatian language. The textbook will be elaborated on their basis.

The Ministry of Education from Romania organizes further training courses (on specialization and methodology) with the participation of teachers from the above mentioned schools.

Number of schools in Romanian language where Croatian is studied as a subject:  9

Number of pupils:  520

Number of teaching staff:  10


§   Education with Partial Tuition
in Turkish Language

 

Number of schools:  3

Number of pupils:  498

Number of teaching staff:  23

The Turkish and Tartar minorities re-organized the study of their native languages with the help of the School Inspectorates of Constanţa and Tulcea Counties, beginning with 1989-1990 school year.

Schools providing education in Turkish and Tartar languages functioned in the fifties and sixties, but later on, between 1957-1959 these schools were closed down.

At the request of the Turkish and Tartar communities, beginning with 1990, groups and classes for study of the Turkish language were established in the Romanian schools of Constanţa and Tulcea Counties, as well as in the municipality of Bucharest.

Constanţa, Medgidia, Cobadin, Mangalia, Valu lui Traian, Fântâna-Mare, Tuzla, Castelu, Basarabi, Tulcea, Eforie Sud and the municipality of Bucharest were considered representative localities in this respect.

The necessity to diversify educational forms determined the establishment of:

1. The “Kemal Atatürk” Moslem Theological and Pedagogical Secondary School in Medgidia, Constanţa County. The educational unit established in partnership with the Ministry of Education in Turkey in 1995 renewed the traditions of the old Moslem Seminar in Romania. In 2000-2001 school year the educational unit changed its name into “Kemal Atatürk” National Academic College.

2. Two private secondary school for the study of computer sciences with tuition in Romanian, Turkish and English were established in Constanţa and Bucharest. These secondary schools are open both for ethnic Turkish and Tartar, as well as for Romanian pupils.

3. The “Kemal Atatürk” Pedagogical College within the “Ovidius” University in Constanţa in 2000-2001 academic year.

Teachers necessary for teaching the Turkish language are trained at the “Kemal Atatürk” Moslem Theological and Pedagogical Secondary School in Medgidia, the departments of Turkish language at the Uni­ver­sity of Bucharest and of Constanţa, and at the “Kemal Atatürk” Pedago­gical College in Constanţa, departments of Turkish language–Romanian language and Turkish language–English language, esta­blished in 2000.

The educational process lined up with the objectives of the reform in the Romanian education.

In accordance with the national curriculum, the new school curricula for the Turkish language and the curricula for Moslem Religion for grades I-XII were elaborated and approved by Order of the minister in 1998.

The study of the native Turkish language is carried on by means of new (communication, primer), revised and republished textbooks edited by the Didactical and Pedagogical Publishing House or others brought from the Republic of Turkey. A bilingual collection of tales in Roma­nian and Turkish and an anthology of literary texts was published as supplementary reading for pre-school and secondary school pupils.

In the context of the intergovernmental Programme of exchange in the field of science, culture and education for 1997-2001, as well as the Agreement between the two Ministries of Education, teachers from Turkey teach the vocational subjects at the “Kemal Atatürk” Moslem Theological and Pedagogical Secondary School in Medgidia. In 2000-2001 school year, the number of teachers who came from Turkey was 7.

The educational process in the Turkish language is positively influenced by the permanent collaboration at the level of the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities with the unions of the Turkish and Tartar minorities, as well as with the School Inspectorates of Constanţa and Tulcea Counties.

§    The study of Turkish as a native language for ethnic Turkish and Tartar pupils, who attend schools with tuition in Romanian language.

In compliance with Law No. 84/1995, republished and modified, ethnic Turkish and Tartar children who attend schools with tuition in Romanian, at request, are granted the possibility to study the Turkish language and literature as a native language.

Groups/forms are formed in compliance with provisions of Order No. 3533/1999 of the Minister of Education and Research.

Pupils who opted for this type of study of the native language were conscious of their degree of effort, as the lessons of native language and literature are part of the Common Trunk of Framework-plans.

The deployment of the educational process in the Turkish language is influenced by the permanent collaboration achieved at the level of the General Educational Directorate for National Minorities with the unions of the Turkish and Tartar minorities, as well as with the School Inspectorates of Constanţa and Tulcea Counties.

Number of educational units:  66

Number of pupils:  3,393

Number of teaching staff:  64


3. Educational Structures with  Tuition in Romanian Language  with Study of the
native language
*

 

 

§   Armenian  Language

 

Number of schools:  11

Number of pupils:  40

Number of teaching staff:  2

School Inspectorates that have organized the study of the native language for pupils of Armenian nationality in Romania: the Municipal School Inspectorate of Bucharest and the School Inspectorate of Constanţa County

Representative localities: Bucharest, Constanţa

Beginning with the school year 1990/1991, the Armenian School in Bucharest was reopened due to the initiative of the Union of the Armenians in Romania. Children of all ages started to study the Armenian alphabet.

The study of the native language was organized at two levels, for beginners and advanced learners. An Armenian primer and visual aids made with the help of the Union of the Armenians in Romania were used.

The festivities organized on anniversaries and religious holidays offer good possibilities to evaluate the progress made by the young generation of Armenian ethnic origin.

The municipality of Constanţa also provides education in Armenian language for a group of pupils within a system of simultaneous teaching.


§   Bulgarian  Language

 

Number of schools:  4

Number of pupils:  511

Number of teaching staff:  11

The region with localities inhabited by a compact population of Bulgarian nationality is in Timiş County. The tradition of education in Bulgarian language in Romania contributed to the fact that the study of this language was not interrupted. In this respect Dudeştii Vechi is the most representative locality in the above mentioned county.

Based on Order No. 4981/1998 of the minister and following the meeting of the Romanian and Bulgarian ministers of education, the Bul­garian Secondary School in Bucharest re-opened its gates in 1999/2000 school year.

In the southern regions of the country where ethnic Bulgarians live, the study of the Bulgarian language is organized within the community.

Specialization on a higher level is carried out within the University of Bucharest, Department for the study of the Bulgarian language and literature. At the same time, young ethnic Bulgarians study at different higher educational institutions in Bulgaria.

The curricula for Bulgarian language were revised and new textbooks will be elaborated in compliance with it.

An ethnic Bulgarian methodologist was appointed at the School Inspectorate in Timiş County to monitor the educational process in Bulgarian language.


§   Greek  Language

 

Number of schools:  2

Number of pupils:  160

Number of teaching staff:  5

After 1989, education in Greek language began to flourish.

School inspectorates that organized the study of the native Greek language: Constanţa, Tulcea and Bucharest.

The Greek language is studied within groups organized with the effort of school inspectorates and the Greek community. In Bucharest the groups study within the Hellenic Union.

The Hellenic Union in Romania, with the support of the Embassy of Greece in Bucharest, sent young ethnic Greek persons for studies in Greece.

The school organizes cultural activities (artistic festivals, trips, camps, etc.) for ethnic Greek children and youth.

 

 

§   Polish  Language

 

Number of schools:  10

Number of pupils:  468

Number of teaching staff:  11

The School Inspectorate that organized the study of the native language for children of Polish nationality in Romania: the School Inspectorate of Suceava County.

Representative localities: Soloneţul Nou, Poiana Micului, Pleşa, Moara, Cacica, Gura Humorului, Păltinoasa, Siret, Suceava.

Education in Polish language organized initially according to 1948 Law on Education ceased in the sixties in the three localities – Soloneţul Nou, Poiana Micului and Pleşa – traditionally inhabited by Poles. It started again after 1989. New school units with classes and groups stu­dy­ing the native language were established in Suceava County (Moara, Cacica, Gura Humorului, Siret, Păltinoasa and Suceava).

In 1995, the new school bearing the name of the writer Henryk Sienkiewicz was opened for grades I-VIII, at Soloneţu Nou, the main locality with a compact popu­lation of Polish nationality at the same time with the inauguration of the new headquarters of “Dom Polski”. The school from Soloneţu Nou is very well equipped due to the help received from Poland. The ethnic Polish headmistress aimed at having a teaching staff formed of qualified teachers on one hand, and at finding the necessary funds for developing it, on the other hand.

As the number of qualified teachers for teaching Polish language is insufficient, according to the Intergovernmental Programme of co-ope­ration in the field of education and culture and, in conformity with the Agreement between the ministries of education from the two countries, teachers from Poland were employed. The trips and language camps organized during the holidays by the Polish side, as well as the teacher refresher courses organized in Poland have both contributed to a better acquiring of the Polish language.

The Union of the Poles of Romania supports the schools through a coherent programme for the training of the teaching staff, for the stimu­lation of pupils who study the Polish language. Thus, secondary school graduates were sent to Poland for pedagogical and philological studies. After returning and validating their graduation papers, they would start to work as primary and secondary school teachers.

In the Municipality of Bucharest, the demands concerning the learning of the Polish language were solved by the local branch of the Union of the Poles, supported by the Embassy of the Polish Republic.

Beginning with 1990, the textbooks, elaborated by Romanian au­thors, most of them teachers at the Department of Polish Language and Literature of the University of Bucharest, were revised and reedited by the Didactical and Pedagogical Publishing House.

It must be mentioned that according to Order No. 4758/12.10.1998 of the Minister of Education, the University of Suceava was encouraged to organize a section for specialization (at licence level) in Polish lan­guage, literature and culture.

We mention that the General Educational Directorate for National Minorities has fruitful relations of co-operation with the Suceava-based Union of the Poles of Romania.

 


§   Romany  Language

 

Number of schools:  102

Number of pupils:  12,650

Number of teaching staff: 164 full time teachers (out of the total of 260), and 96 who teach Romany only at forms where they are primary school teachers or have incomplete norms

1. Short historical survey (1990-1998)

In 1990-1991, the Ministry structured two of its efficient strategic targets developed later, namely the germs of an Roma infrastructure – by attracting of Roma pupils to learn to be primary school teachers – and the beginning of teaching the Romany language at three secondary schools with pedagogical profile (in Bucharest, Bacău, Târgu Mureş) in three hours weekly.

Later on, between 1991-1994, the Ministry outlined other three strategic targets: 1. extension of the teaching of the Romany language (four hours weekly at the request of Romany pupils and parents) in grades I‑XIII. 2. Co-optation of the first unqualified teachers from among the ethnic Romas (secondary school graduates with diploma of Baccalaureate) to teach the 3-4 supplementary lessons weekly of Romany language for grades I-IV, 3. Beginning of cooperation of Roma and non-Roma NGOs involved in educational field and in education for Roma.

We must mention that starting with 1992-1993 academic year, the germs of another future and successful strategic plan of the Ministry appeared, i.e. the structuring of a Roma intelligentsia by attracting Roma youth in higher education by the allocation of 10 special places for Roma candidates at the Department of Social Assistance of the University of Bucharest requested from the Ministry. Admission was granted on minimal criteria basis (mark 5.00). On 20 October 1992, for the first time in Romanian higher education, a practical university course in Romany language was introduced in two hours weekly, at the Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literature of the University of Bucharest (continued and extended today as an independent section).

During the following period, between 1994-1997, the above-men­tioned actions continued. The most prolific period was between 1998-2002; it represented a successful model of education for Romas.


2. Principles

With all the good results mentioned above, proved in the study of the Romany language as native language, education for Romas needed rethinking.

The first principle started from the reality that education for Romas must become, in perspective, an educational system ensured in preponderance by teachers promoted and instructed from among the ranks of ethnic Romas.

The second principle was to renounce to trace educational programs for Romas without the prior consultation of the beneficiaries, the Romas.

A third principle was that of reconsidering the educational contribution demonstrated in schooling projects of Roma and non-Roma NGOs or some domestic and foreign governmental structures, the Ministry and the pre-school, primary, junior secondary and senior secondary school system as they offered to be partners in the carrying out and initiation of schooling projects intended for Romas.

Finally, the fourth principle regards the reconsidering of the concept of “integration”.

3. Programs initiated and carried out by the Ministry of Education and Research

In order to have a representation on the modality in which the above-enumerated strategic principles were traced we invite the reader to imagine a circular edifice.

I. The “roof” of the construction is well built and solid. It is found in the strategic program of structuring of the new Roma intelligentsia, which in perspective would represent the model of aspiration and motivation of Romas to redefine on modern basis and in a specific way, the Roma identity. From the accomplishments, measures and activities of the Ministry in this perspective we mention:

1) Amplification of the program to allot separate places for Roma candidates in faculties and university colleges based on minimal criteria at the admission examination.

For this purpose, from a maximum of 30-40 places offered for Roma candidates each year (between 1993-1997) by the Ministry at the Social Assistance Department of the Universities in Bucharest, Cluj, Iaşi and Timişoara, by Order No. 3577/15.04.1998 on the admission of Roma candidates in 1998-1999 academic year, the MER ruled that an increased number of distinct places (149) be allotted to faculties and colleges in 8 universities with tradition (Bucharest, Braşov, Cluj-Napoca, Craiova, Constanţa, Iaşi, Sibiu, Timişoara) and at the SNSPA Bucharest in political-administrative field.

The number of places continued to increase yearly, ranging from 170 (in 1999), 373 (in 2001) and 390 (in 2002) by issuing Orders No. 5083/26.11.1999, No. 3294/01.03.2000 and No. 4542-18.09.2000. At the same time, the number of higher educational institutions increased to 9 (in 1998), to 11 (in 2000) by allotting places at the universities of Oradea and Suceava too, respectively to 23 (in 2001-2002 academic year) and 26 (for 2002-2003 academic year by Order No. 3699/15.05.2002 and Order No. 3700/15.05.2002 of the MER).

2) Extension of the study of the Romany language and literature at higher educational level by setting up a department at the Faculty of Foreign Language and Literature of the University of Bucharest. In 1998-1999 academic year another section was structured as a second specialization (B – the first specialization being Romanian or a foreign language). The Ministry allotted yearly 10 places for ethnic Roma or non-Roma candidates who wished to obtain a specialization at superior level in this field.

3) Initiation of a tuition program of open and distance education of higher educational level for unqualified Roma teachers (without higher educational studies, being only graduates of secondary education with a certificate of Baccalaureate) in order to obtain a university diploma with double specialization as “primary school teachers and teachers of Romany language”. The program started in October 2000. The “Education 2000+” Center ensured scholarships for a number of 30 ethnic Roma students who teach Romany language in schools as unqualified teachers.

Likewise, for other 38 Roma students of this section, the UNICEF gave financial assistance in assuming the tuition fee, lodging and transportation expenses of the students brought about by the monthly meetings of professional and methodological orientation. At its turn, the “Providence” Foundation in Bucharest gave 2 scholarships, and the “Good Luck” Organization from Tulcea a similar scholarship. The impact of this kind of training is extraordinary with the Romas (in 2000-2001-2002 academic years there were 71 students and for 2002-2003 academic year an impressive number of new students enrolled).

4) Allotting of distinct places for Romas at secondary, vocational and apprentice school level completes the series of facilities that began in 1990-1991 school year by allotting places for the instruction of future Roma primary school teachers. This was extended subsequently by Order No. 5083/26.11.1999 of the MER on the schooling number for 1999-2000 school year, respectively by subsequent yearly orders and regulations of the MER (Circular Letters No. 28042/27.03.2002, No. 28042/07.05.2002 and No. 28042/17.05.2002 speak about the allotment of an unlimited number of places in secondary and vocational schools in the sense of two places/specialization/form, irrespective of the educational unit in localities where the Roma candidates lay claims).

5) Attraction and “pre”-formation of the potential ethnic Roma tea­chers from among secondary school graduates with diploma of Baccalaureate by intensive summer courses of three weeks.

In August 2002, a similar summer course was organized with their financial assistance of “Education 2000+” and UNICEF (and the organizational help of the MER) to coach Roma (qualified and unqualified) teachers who would teach the history and the traditions of Romas scheduled for minorities (one hour for grades VI and VII).

II. “The body” of the building, which is circular, is constructed with a series of pillars distributed in several concentric circles forming the infrastructure. These are the Roma “human” pillars. In the center of these circles of pillars there is a strong supporting-pillar, that of the non-Roma teachers, and between this and the Roma “human” pillars is the circle of pillars formed of the network of Roma and non-Roma NGOs with concern in the field of education.

1) The first “human” supporting-pillar, the exterior one, is formed of the Roma and non-Roma network of inspectors appointed in 1999 at the 42 county inspectorates and the municipality of Bucharest. These inspec­tors, in compliance with their job description, apply at local level the strategy of the Ministry concerning the education of Romas. Even the appointment of some of these inspectors was made in the context of affirmative measures promoted by the MER, so that in October 1999, out of the 42 inspectors 22 were selected from among the ranks of Roma teachers.

The training of inspectors for education intended for Romas, from the perspective of new activities was achieved between October 1999 and October 2000 when a series of workshops were organized and financed by the MER and its partners: PER Târgu Mureş (two meetings at Târgu Mureş and Sfântu Gheorghe), Romani CRISS and OSCE (at Tulcea), Save the Children! (at Sibiu) and CEDU 2000+, through “Khe­tanes”, the organization of teachers (at Giurgiu). On these occasions a series of public acts and documents were elaborated. Their trai­ning sessions were resumed at Brăila in May 2002.

2) The second concentric ring of “human” supporting-pillars is formed of qualified or unqualified ethnic Roma teachers, who teach the native Romany language in schools.

It is known that the Romas did not choose monolingual education (tuition of all school subjects in Romany language), but the tuition of the Romany language in 3-4 hours/week in grades I-XIII, at requested.

3) The third concentric ring of “human” supporting-pillars is formed of the ethnic Roma teachers of different specialization, including the teachers qualified before 1989, but especially the new ethnic Roma (kindergarten, primary and secondary school) teachers instructed after 1990, who either received or did not receive support at admission to faculties or university colleges, but who acknowledge themselves as Romas and militate actively for the schooling of the Romas.

4) The fourth concentric ring of “human” supporting-pillars is for­med of the ethnic Roma school mediators due to the initiative of NGOs like the Romani CRISS, CEDU 2000+, Save the Children!, UNICEF, etc., that also pay their salaries. The volunteers can be also included here. (They work in schools and communities with Roma pupils; it is experimental at the initiative of the Organization “Save the Childern!”)

5) The fifth concentric ring of “human” supporting-pillars is represen­ted by the Roma and non-Roma NGOs, – domestic and foreign – governmental and non-governmental structures that have carried on and carry on important projects on the schooling of the Romas in partnership with the Ministry, the county school inspectorates and the school units.

Thus, besides partners with which the Ministry cooperated between 1993-1997 — Romani CRISS, FSD, Intercultural Institute Timişoara, Romani Baxt (France), the “Providenţa – Şcoala Rut”, “Phillip Hostel” Foundation, Satra – ASTRA (Association of Students and Young Anti­racist Romas), etc. —, beginning with 1998 cooperation was extended to other NGOs, governmental and non-governmental structures. Their number is over 80 now (in chronological order): Foundation for an Open Society (through SON Centers Bucharest and CRGC Cluj-Napoca), “Save the Children!” Organization, the Project for Ethnic Relations (USA, through its office in Târgu Mureş), the Organization „Caritas” of Satu Mare, Romas’ Party, DFNM – Government of Romania (later on the NDR of the Ministry of Public Information), SBIR (Interdenomina­tio­nal Biblical Society in Romania), GLAR (Work Group of Roma Associations), “Phoenix” Foundation Bucharest, Romani Union (Ger­many), MEDE, Embassies of Great Britain and Sweden in Bucharest, OSCE Warsaw, UNESCO, UNICEF, CREDIS (College of Open Dis­tance Education of the University of Bucharest), OPRE, ECHOSOC (Foundation for Social Recuperation, Integration and Promotion), Insti­tute of Educational Sciences, HELP Iaşi, Romano RAT Berlin, the Agency for Monitoring the Press “Caţavencu”, CRDE Cluj-Napoca, Pub­lishing Houses like Kriterion, Didactical and Pedagogical, ACADEM­PRINT, Dacia Cluj-Napoca etc.].

6) The central supporting-pillar – that of non-Roma teachers (espe­cially Romanians and Hungarians), including school headmasters, but also the human factor of county school administration – is the strongest, and from a chronological perspective, the first in the history of education that sustained and encouraged the instruction of entire gene­ra­tions of ethnic Roma pupils and youth.

Another project also financed by the UNICEF and carried out by the MER in 2001 in partnership with the Romani CRISS (which continues in 2002, but in the triumvirate UNICEF, MER and “Phoenix” Foun­da­tion) was meant to elaborate educational/teaching materials for Romas to assist the work of Romanian and Hungarian kindergarten and pri­mary school teachers. These teachers work with Roma children, who do not know well enough the language of tuition: Romanian or Hunga­rian at schooling.

Thus in 2001 the following educational materials were elaborated and published:

a) Illustrated trilingual dictionary (Romanian-Hungarian-Romany and Hungarian-Romanian-Romany dictionary), which contains 600 color illustrations of the words which were suited to be sketched. The two trilingual dictionaries include 1,700 words (including the illustrated ones), extracted from alternative Romanian and Hungarian primers

b) My daily program with trilingual text (Romanian-Hungarian-Romany) in rhymes ;

c) The audiocassette “The best Roma tales and parables”. It addres­ses Roma pre-school children and pupils through beautiful Roma tales ending stereotypically with expressions of parables of the following type: “Do you see children, that is why in life its better to …”. Naturally the destination of all these educational materials could be extended (through their bilingual or trilingual character). For example, during Romany lessons or it could be used in education with tuition in Romanian or Hungarian language, including thus the intercultural perspective.

To assist the work of Romanian and Hungarian kindergarten and primary school teachers, Roma and non-Roma pupils, a team of the General Directorate for Pre-university Education initiated the PHARE Project, also called “year zero in education”. This program is addressed to Roma and non-Roma pupils, who did not attend kindergartens and would thus attend a special school year.

III. “The fundament” of the edifice is unstable if we limit ourselves to the configuration of pre-school and primary education for Romas.

The Ministry recommended several Orders (No. 5080/01.07.1999
on “Second Chance through Education” National Program; Order No. 4231/18.08.1999 on the experimental enforcement of the program of fighting against the marginalization, social and professional exclusion of youth who abandoned compulsory education and did not acquire minimal competences to take a job; Order No. 4780/27.10.1999 on “Second Chance through Education” National Program) to county school inspectorates for 2000-2001 school year.

In September 2002 shall begin the pilot-project entitled “year zero in education”., which addresses especially those Roma pupils (but non-Roma as well), who did not attend kindergarten. During the preparing year the future pupils is prepared to become a first-form pupil by recovering the training he/she should have acquired during kindergarten.

4. Other activities (May 1998 – January 2001)

Beside actions, targets and strategic programs already referred to on the occasion of enumerating the component parts of the national “edifice” of education for Romas (“the roof”, “the body” and “the funda­ment”), the following strategic activities have been notable during the period of reference:

1) Initiation of a database on education for Romas.

In order to propose more efficient decisions, in September 1998 we considered useful the structuring of a documentary database in the filed, asking in this respect the county school inspectorates to send data on the basis of a questionnaire; data referred to the school attendance of the Romas, difficulties and proposals concerning education for Romas, other data which revealed information on projects operated together with NGOs, etc.

For 1998-1999 school year these data and information were concentrated in the yearbook: Education for Romas (1998-1999), which was also available on the web page of the Ministry between 1999-2000.

Year in, year out these data and information (on 1999-2000 and 2000-2001 school years) were published as county school inspectorates have provided them – with the aid of inspectors for Roma education – in an “Interactive Information Bulletin on the Education of the Romas”. It was distributed between October (no. 1) and June 2001 (No. 18) by elec­tronic way for the educational system, partner NGOs and was stocked on the web page of the Ministry until December 2001, when a selection took place (see www.edu.ro).

At present, data referring to the schooling of Romas in 2001-2002, respectively 2002-2003 school years shall be processed and published in a synthesized form approved by the leadership of the Ministry on the web page of the Ministry.

Aspects concerning the teaching of the Romany language, as well as the schooling of the Romas are included in the collective volume in four languages (Romanian, German, French and English) edited by the General Directorate for the Education in the Languages of National Mino­rities.

2) Another strategy was to elaborate instruments for work in schools (syllabuses and textbooks) with the help of ethnic Roma teachers.

The Ministry of Education and Research assisted the elaboration of two Roma primers, published with the financial help of “Education 2000+” Program and Resource Center for Roma Communities Cluj-Napoca. The primers represent the creative initiative of four Roma teachers.

3) Another solid strategic program was the strengthening of tuition in Romany language in schools. Out of the 34 counties that are remarkable in the introduction of lessons of Romany language on weekly basis we mention: Mureş, Dolj, Iaşi, Bacău, Ialomiţa, Timiş, Bihor, Satu Mare, Maramureş, Sălaj, Suceava, Olt, Vaslui, Harghita, Hunedoara, Arad, Alba, Vrancea, Giurgiu, Caraş-Severin, Mehedinţi, Galaţi, Covas­na, Brăila, Botoşani, Teleorman, Dâmboviţa etc.

Unfortunately an unexplainable refusal is met on behalf of four county school inspectorates concerning the introduction of Romany language by evoking false arguments (Argeş, Buzău, Neamţ, Vâlcea).

4) Another strategic program of the Ministry of Education was the cultivation of the Romany language through extracurricular activities organized during summer holidays (camps of Romany language, camps of intercultural education, when 200-250 places were given in camps by the seaside) and within the national contest of Romany language initiated in the summer of 2000 at Brăila at the proposal and financial help of the “Phoenix” Foundation, CRCR Cluj-Napoca, CEC, etc.

The second edition of the national contest of Romany language was overtaken by the Ministry and organized in Bacău in April 2001 (the best 43 Roma pupils who study Romany language in schools of 22 counties competed with each other), and the third edition took place in Turnu Severin, where 70 pupils from 28 counties (out of 34 where this language is taught) participated in April 2002.

 

 

§   Russian (LIPpOVan) Language

 

Number of schools:  20

Number of pupils:  1,817

Number of teaching staff:  35

School Inspectorates that have organized the study of the Russian native language: Tulcea, Brăila, Suceava, Constanţa, Iaşi, Botoşani.

Representative localities: Tulcea, Carcaliu, Sarichioi, Jurilovca, Bră­ila, Ghindăreşti, Lipoveni, Mitocu Dragomirnei, Rădăuţi, Mano­lea etc.

After 1989 education in the Russian language as native language could begin again, after being banned in the sixties. Beginning with 1990, classes and groups were established for the study of the native language in the above-mentioned counties, due to the interest of the Com­mu­nity of the Russian-Lippovan, who live in the largest number in Tulcea County (Danube Delta).

It must be mentioned that the organization of education provided in native language was facilitated by the tradition existing in teaching Russian as modern language and by the existence of qualified teachers, trained within the Romanian higher education institutions, at sections of Russian language and literature.

In order to preserve their identity, the Russian-Lippovan community considers a priority the acquisition of the native language in the schools of the localities with Russian population.

At the request of the Community of the Russian-Lippovans and to improve the co-ordination of the study of the Russian as native language in the already mentioned counties, the leadership of the Ministry of National Education approved a post of specialized inspector within the County School Inspectorate of Brăila County. The post was occupied following a competitive examination.

In 1991-1992 school year textbooks were edited for all forms. At present these must be republished and the number of textbooks for language and culture must be increased in conformity with the demands of county school inspectorates. At the same time, new textbooks must be elaborated.

To ensure the necessary number of teachers, beginning with 1990/1991 school year, Russian-Lippovan pupils were enrolled at the Normal Schools from Tulcea and Suceava and could study their native language. Some of them were appointed pre- and primary school tea­chers in localities inhabited by Russian-Lippovan population. Even at present there are Russian-Lippovan pupils who study their native lan­guage at the Normal Schools from Suceava.

Each year the teachers take part at refresher courses at the “A. S. Puşkin” Institute in Moscow organized on the basis of the Inter­go­vern­mental Programme of cultural and scientific co-operation.

During the last years ethnic Russian-Lippovan pupils took part in the International Olympic Contest of Russian language in Moscow ob­taining important prizes. Many of them returned with gold and silver medals.

The progress made in the domain of education in Russian language is, without doubt, the result of the good co-operation between the edu­cational directorate of the Ministry of Education and Research and the Community of Russians-Lippovans from Romania and its representative in the Parliament.


C. Compartment for Specific Problems in Pre-university Education

 

 

 

 

 

This department within the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities was established concomitant with the organizational scheme of the Ministry of Education and Research, starting from pragmatic grounds and the de facto situation in pre-university education in Romania.

From the point of view of educational policies, the programatic reasons are to be found in the Government Program of the SDPR, Chapter VI: “Education, research and culture – strategic factors of development” which delimit in a particular way the population categories that need programs for protection and educational maintenance: cultural minorities, persons who live in underdeveloped regions, young and adult illiterates, migrating populations, persons without permanent residence, ragamuffins, long-term unemployed, immigrants, refugees due to war or natural calamities etc.

The object of activity of this department is shaped by concrete situations from the world of schools: the presence and emergence of school abandon from various reasons, different forms of expulsion from school, non-participation in the institutionalized educational process, constant shortening of the schooling period for different categories of children and youth, lack of educational space for ragamuffins, interruption of the professional course etc. 

In this context it must be remarked that the provocation pre-univer­sity education in Romania must face, are the center of policies regarding, on one hand, the increase of competitiveness of the labor force in Romania through the superior performances of learning, and on the other hand, regarding directly the attainment of standards of integration into the European structures. Among them the ones on education have priority.

Consequently, the activity of the compartment centered on some main coordinates:

·    accomplishing of a quantitative and qualitative analyses to identify and evaluate the situation of vulnerable groups of population from the point of view of their participation in the compulsory schooling process, especially of the Roma children, school abandoning, elimination of the dangerous forms of working of minors, attendance in secondary education of young adults with interrupted schooling, the educational situation of ragamuffins etc.;

·    articulation of a global strategy of the ministry on solving the above mentioned problems and the identification of the means to solve them;

·    achievement of an efficient partnership relation between the MER and the non-governmental organizations whose objective of activity is the vulnerable groups of population, with other social factors and/or specialized international organisms;

·    elaboration of medium and long-term national programs for groups that are vulnerable from an educational viewpoint;

·    implementation of projects at national level in collaboration with the above-mentioned partners, their monitoring and evaluation.

 

Strategies of development for the education of Romas

(January 2001 – June 2002)

 

The question of education for Roma children has been a long-term preoccupation of the Ministry in Romania. From this viewpoint up to the elaboration of the Strategy to Improve the Situation of Romas several measures and a considerable number of actions were taken, all having as target-population Roma children. To exemplify we underline the fact that in the present school year 12,600 pupils study their native language, the Romany (3-4 hours weekly-form or group). Between January and June 2001, in conformity with the provisions of Government Decision No. 23/11.01.2001, the spheres of power of the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities were extended. Thus it includes education for underprivileged categories and programs for Roma children. The reorganization meant, on one hand, the establishment of a post of deputy director general with competence in the field, and on the other hand, the appointment, beside the counselor for Romany language, of an official in charge with the schooling of Romas (for primary level, children, adolescents, youth and adults).

Beginning with January 2001 up to the present (30 June 2002), the Ministry for Education and Research developed new programs for the education of Romas. These are to be found in the General plan of measures for the application of the Strategy to Improve the Situation of Romas, an integral part of GO No. 430/25.04.2001 (Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, Volume XIII, No. 25/16.05.2001).

In compliance with the provisions of the Government Program, Chapter VI and GO No. 430/2001, the Ministry for Education and Research proceeded to the application of specific measures that derive from the General plan of measures for the application of the Strategy to Improve the Situation of Romas.

We enumerate the main activities initiated or in progress as compared to the provisions of the Strategy:

·    By Order No. 4048/26.06.2001 the Ministerial Committee for Romas (MCR) was set up. Its nine members cover all the fields of competence of the Ministry at the scale of the national educational system. The General Directorate for the Education in the Languages of National Minorities ensures the secretariat of the MCR.

·    The Strategy for the development of pre-university education between 2001-2004 was elaborated with projections until 2010. This strategy includes the problems, human resources and means of action, the diagram and the delegation of responsibilities concerning target groups in question.

·    The personnel involved in the unfolding of the strategy participated at a program of training and tuition for the implementation structure of the strategy (experts MCR, 23-24 October 2001) and at the meetings of the Joint Committee for the Implementation and Monitoring of the Strategy (31 October 2001).

·    Out of the 42 inspectors appointed who are in charge with education in Romany language, half belong to this ethnicity. The draft budget of specific MCR activities deriving from the General Plan of Measures was elaborated (October 2001). The elaboration of the plan for the stimulation of school attendance and decrease of school abandon among Roma population took shape through the elaboration of the “Strategy on the stimulation of participation at education of Roma children and youth”.

·    Elaboration of an annual report on the school situation of pupils of Roma descent. The above-mentioned study (part I) accomplished by the MER in cooperation with the Institute of Educational Sciences, UNICEF Romania is a diagnosis of the school situation of Roma children (data collection, quantitative processing and comparative analysis with national level indicators).

The MER elaborated and implemented in partnership with UNICEF, NGOs and public authorities a series of projects that subsume Paragraph 2 and 8 of the General Plan of Measures. Thus the following projects are carried out:

·    At the initiative of the MER: “Access to education of the disadvantaged groups, especially Roma children” Program with a budget of 8.33 million euro (7 million euro from the European Union and 1.33 million euro from the Government of Romania). The program shall be carried out between 2002-2004 in approximately 10 counties. The program takes into account the training of Roma teachers and inspectors who work in underprivileged communities with school units where the percentage Roma children is high.

·    The introduction of school mediators on the list of professions and specialization in Romania (2002), recognizing thus the utility of their work in schools within Roma communities;

·    Making of punctual analyses or national level analysis on school abandon through Project: “School attendance of Roma children” (MER, UNICEF Romania, Institute of Research on the Quality of Life and the Institute of Educational Sciences. The program is being carried out until December 2002.

·    Participation at the project “Development of Roma communities’ capacity to withdraw children from hazardous forms of work and to integrate them in the national educational system” in partnership with MER, ECOSOC, International Labor Bureau (project is being carried out until 2003).

·    Initiation, monitoring and evaluation of the “Good start in school” Project, in Panciu, enrolled by MER/DGLIM in partnership with UNICEF, ISE, ICCV and Romani Criss (Project enrolled until 2002).

·    Participation of the MER at the projectDevelopment of the CSDR’s capacity to contribute to the surmounting of the worst forms of child labor”. The project is subsumed to the “National Action on the Prevention and Elimination of Child Labour” in compliance with the Memorandum of Understanding signed by Romania.

We mention other concrete activities undertaken by the General Direc­torate for the Education in the Languages of National Minorities in the above figuration for the period referred to in a summary enumeration:

1) Identification of funds obtained from the UNICEF in December 2001 for 38 ethnic Roma students from open and distance education at the College of Open and Distance Education of the University of Bucharest (double specialization as “primary school teachers and teachers of Romany language”, the duration of studies two years.). Beside them there are 30 bursaries of CEDU 2000+, two of the “Providence” Foundation and one of the “Good luck” Organization from Tulcea for which taxes have been assumed for 2-3 academic years.

2) Identification of necessary funds (UNICEF) to organize summer schools of Romany language and methodology of teaching Romany language (2001, 2002 editions), respectively for the tuition of the history and traditions of Romas (CEDU 2000+ and UNICEF, 2002 edition).

3) Elaboration and printing of studies:

– Education of Roma children Specificity and Integrated Perspectives [Bucharest, 2002, pg. 1-16,18-32]. Partner institutions: ECHOSOC, MER, “Together” – Agency for Community Development, BIM (International Labor Bureau), PIEMC (International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor). The study was elaborated as a documentary basis for solutions within the framework of action program: “Enhancing the capacity of Roma communities in selected areas for the withdrawal of Roma working children from the streets and/or other hazardous work implemented by ILB – PIEMC, UNICEF Romania, Phare Program “Im­provement of the Roma Situation, 2001-2002”, with financing from the Labor Department of the USA through ILB – PIEMC.

– Strategy on the stimulation of school attendance of Roma children and youth, Bucharest, Ministry of Education and Research, Institute of Educational Sciences, UNICEF Romania, [2002, pg. 45]. This study identified the causes of low school attendance and school abandon. Moreover, strategic solutions are elaborated to improve the situation of this child category (system of priority zones of education). The strategy proposed in the study was assumed by the MER and is included in the general strategy of the Ministry.

4) Initiation and carrying out of a program to elaborate and publish uni­versity courses in Romany language and literature – between 2001-2002 – for Roma students of the department of primary school teachers and teachers of Romany language of the College of Open Distance Education CREDIS (University of Bucharest) in partnership with CREDIS and CEDU 2000+ (covers the royalties). Until now (June 2002) 6 university courses were elaborated and published, followed by the elaboration and publishing of 3 more courses in 2003.

5) Consultancy in the field, logistic assistance and recommendation of authors and specialists in the field of Romany language, history and culture to NGOs and publishing houses in order to edit teaching/educa­tio­nal materials or referring to the Roma language, literature, history and civilization elaborated by Romas (CEDU 2000+ for Roma primer, Stories of my life; RCRC Cluj-Napoca for Roma gem/Romane textaja, Sachet with two pennies – dramatization in verse, Sufferings – volume of Roma poetry, Roma stories, etc.; Providence Foundation for Antho­logy of biblical texts in Romany language; PER and RCRC Cluj-Napoca for Roma primer; HELP Iaşi for a study, etc.) and for translations in Romany language.

The experts of the Directorate answered positively the requests of certain NGOs to participate at presentations on the state of education for Romas at training sessions organized by them for Roma and non-Roma teaching staff (Save the Children!, Romani Criss, CEDU 2000+, OPRE, Intercultural Institute of Timişoara, PER – Târgu Mureş, County School Inspectorate of Bacău County, Diversity – Bulgaria, Council of Europe – seminar in Macedonia, Center for Multiculturalism – Novi Sad, Romano Rat – Germany, etc.).

6) The revision of the syllabuses for the history and traditions of Romas through consulting Roma history teachers (June-September 2002) and the elaboration of the syllabuses for Romany language and literature for grades V-VIII by Roma authors (June-September 2002).

7) Granting in 2002-2003 academic year of an increased number of distinct places at the admission examinations for Roma candidates to universities and colleges by taking the necessary steps in Order of the Minister of Education and Research No. 3699/15.05.2002, i.e. by gran­ting 390 places in 26 state universities. Taking measures so that the General Directorate for Pre-university Education grant a number of distinct pla­ces in secondary schools and vocational schools for Roma pupils.

8) Continuing to cooperate with NGOs on schooling of Roma pupils in 2001 and 2002.

9) Computerization of data and information received from Roma inspectors on the situation of education for Romas in each county for 2001-2002 school year.


 

 

 

D. EXCERPTS FROM THE LEGISLATION REGULATING THE  EDUCATION OF NATIONAL  MINORITIES IN ROMANIA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents:

1.  The Constitution of Romania (excerpts)

2.  Law on Education (excerpts)

3.  Law on the Prevention and Fighting against Social Marginalization (excerpts)

4.  Instructions on the study of the native language for pupils belonging to national minorities and attend schools with tuition in Romanian

5.  Methodology concerning the application of the instructions on the study of the native language for pupils belonging to national minorities and attend schools with tuition in Romanian



1. The  constitution  of  Romania
(excerpts)

 

 


The Constitution of Romania, approved by referendum on December 8, 1991, contains the following provisions, relevant for the rights of persons belonging to minorities:

Title  I    General principles

Article 4  – Unity of the people and equality among citizens

(2)  Romania is the common and indivisible homeland of all its citizens, without any discrimination on account of race, nationality, ethnic origin, language, religion, sex, opinion, political adherence, property or social origin.

Article 6  – Right to identity

(1)  The State recognizes and guarantees the right of persons belonging to national minorities, to the preservation, development and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity.

(2)  The protecting measures taken by the Romanian State for the preservation, development and expression of the identity of persons belonging to national minorities shall conform to the principles of equality and non-discrimination in relation to the other Romanian citizens.

Title  II  – Fundamental rights, freedoms and duties

Chapter  I  – Common provisions

Article 16  – Equality of rights

(1)  Citizens are equal before the law and public authorities, without any privilege or discrimination.

Article  20  – International human rights treaties

(1)  Constitutional provisions concerning the citizens' rights and liberties shall be interpreted and enforced in conformity with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, with the covenants and other treaties Romania is a party to.

(2)  Where any inconsistencies exist between the covenants and treaties on fundamental human rights Romania is a party to, and internal laws, the inter­national regulations shall take precedence.

Chapter  II  – Fundamental rights and freedoms

Article  29  – Freedom of conscience

(1)  Freedom of thought, opinion, and religious beliefs shall not be restricted in any form whatsoever. No one shall be compelled to embrace an opinion or religion contrary to his own convictions.

(2)  Freedom of conscience is guaranteed; it must be manifested in a spirit of tolerance and mutual respect.

(3)  All religions shall be free and organized in accordance with their own statutes, under the terms laid down by law.

(4)  Any forms, means, acts or actions of religious enmity shall be prohibited in the relationships among the cults.

(5)  Religious cults shall be autonomous from the State and shall enjoy support from it, including the facilitation of religious assistance in the army, in hospitals, prisons, homes and orphanages.

(6)  Parents or legal tutors have the right to ensure, in accordance with their own convictions, the education of the minor children whose responsi­bility devolves on them.

Article  30  – Freedom of expression

(7)  Any defamation of the country and the nation, any instigation to a war of aggression, to national, racial, class or religious hatred, any incitement to discrimination, territorial separatism, or public violence shall be prohibited by law.

Article  32  – Right to Education

(3)  The right of persons belonging to national minorities to learn their native language, and their right to be educated in this language are guaran­teed; the ways to exercise these rights shall be regulated by law.

(4)  Public education shall be free, according to the law.

(7)  The State shall ensure the freedom of religious education, in accor­dance with the specific requirements of each religious cult. (...)

Article  37  – Right of association

(1)  Citizens may freely associate into political parties, trade unions and other forms of association.

(2)  Any political parties or organizations which, by their aims or activity, militate against political pluralism, the principles of a State governed by the rule of law, or against the sovereignty, integrity or indepen­dence of Romania shall be unconstitutional.

Chapter  III    Fundamental duties

Article  50  – Faithfulness towards the country

(1)  Faithfulness towards the country is sacred.

Article  51  – Observance of the Constitution and laws

The observance of the Constitution, of its supremacy and of the laws is binding.

Title  III  – Public authorities

Chapter  I  – Parliament

Article  59  – Election of the Chambers

(2)  Organizations of citizens belonging to national minorities, which fail to obtain in the elections the number of votes for representation in Parliament, have the right to one Deputy seat each, under the terms of the electoral law. Citizens of a national minority are entitled to be represented by one organization only.

Chapter  V  – Public administration

Section 2  – Local public administration

Article  119  – Basic principles

Public administration in territorial-administrative units is based on the principle of local autonomy and decentralization of public services.

Chapter  VI  – Judicial authority

Section 1  – Courts of law

Article  127  – Right to have an interpreter

(1)  Procedure shall be conducted in Romanian.

(2)  Citizens belonging to national minorities, as well as persons who cannot understand or speak Romanian have the right to take cognizance of all acts and files of the case, to speak before the Court and formulate conclusions, through an interpreter; in criminal trials, this right shall be ensured free of charge.

Title  VI    Revision of the Constitution

Article  148  – Limits of revision

(1)  The provisions of this Constitution with regard to the national, independent, unitary and indivisible character of the Romanian State, the Republican form of government, territorial integrity, independence of the judiciary, political pluralism and official language shall not be subject to revision.”


2. Law  on  Education*

 (excerpts)

 

 

Chapter XII

Education for persons belonging to national minorities

 

Art. 118. – Persons belonging to national minorities have the right to study and receive instruction in their native language, at all levels and forms of education with appropriate request, according to the present law.”

Art. 119. – (1) Taking into account local needs, groups, classes, sections or school units with teaching in the languages of national minorities may be established, at request and in accordance with the provisions of this law.

(2) Paragraph (1) of this article shall be implemented without prejudice to the learning of the official language and the teaching in this language.

Art. 120. – (1) In primary schools Romanian Language and Litera­ture is taught according to curricula and textbooks specially conceived for the respective minority. In middle schools Romanian Language and Literature is taught according to identical curricula as for grades with tuition in Romanian, but from special textbooks. In secondary schools Romanian Language and Literature curricula and textbooks are identical as for grades with tuition in Romanian.

(2) In primary schools with tuition in the languages of national minorities, the History of the Romanians and the Geography of Romania are taught in these languages, according to identical curricula and textbooks as for the grades with tuition in Romanian; it is compulsory to transcribed and acquired the toponymy and Romanian proper names. In middle schools and in secondary schools, the History of the Romanians and the Geography of Romania are taught in Romanian, according to the same curricula and the same textbooks as for the grades with tuition in Romanian. Examination in the History of the Romanians and the Geo­gra­phy of Romania shall be taken in the language in which it was studied.

(3) In curricula and textbooks of world history and the History of the Romanians the history and the traditions of national minorities in Romania shall be also reflected.

(4) In middle school the subject of study the History and the traditions of national minorities shall be introduced, at request, in the native language.

Art. 121. – Pupils belonging to national minorities that attend schools with tuition in Romanian shall be granted, at request and according to the present law, the study of the Language and the literature of the native language as well as the history and traditions of the respective national minority, as school subjects.

Art. 122. – In public vocational, secondary, and specialized post-secondary education where specialist training is provided in the native language, at request and according to the present law, it is compulsory to acquire the special terminology in Romanian language as well.

Art. 123. – (1) Within higher educational institutions run by the state, groups, sections, colleges, faculties teaching in native language may be organized, according to the law, at request. In this case, the acquiring of the specialized terminology in Romanian language shall be assured. At request and according to law, multicultural higher educational institutions can be established. The languages of teaching shall be determined in the foundation law.

(2) Persons belonging to national minorities shall have the right to set up and manage their own private higher educational institutions according to the law.

(3) Institutions of higher education with multicultural structures and activities shall be encouraged for promotion of harmonious inter-ethnic relations and of integration both at national and European level.

(4) All Romanian citizens can register and study at all educational forms teaching in Romanian or in the languages of national minorities irrespective to his native language or to the language in which they studied previously.

Art. 124. – In education at all levels entrance and graduation (school leaving) examinations can be taken in the language in which the respective subject matters have been studied, according to the present law.

Art. 125. – The Ministry of National Education provides the training and the further training of the teaching staff, as well as the school textbooks and other didactic material.

Art. 126. – The teaching staff belonging to national minorities shall be proportionally represented in the managing boards of educational units and institutions with classes, sections and groups providing tuition in the lan­gua­ges of national minorities, in compliance with their professional compe­tence.


3. Law on the Prevention and Fighting against Social Marginalization*

(excerpts)

 

 

Chapter I

General Provisions

 

Art. 1 – The social character of the Romanian state, as stated in the Constitution, compels the establishment of measures to avoid the degradation of the living standard of and to maintain the dignity of all citizens.

Art. 2 – The aim of the present law is to guarantee the real access of especially the youth  to elementary and basic rights, such as: right to a place of work, housing, medical assistance, education, as well as the establishment of measures to prevent and fight against social marginalization and the mobilization of institutions with such competences.

Art. 3 – Social marginalization, in the sense of the present law, is defined as the peripheral, isolated social position of individuals or groups with a limited access to economic, political, educational and communicational resources of the collectivity; it manifests itself through the lack of minimum social conditions of life.

Art. 4 – (1) The harmonization of politics intended for the detection and prevention of situations which determine social marginalization is achieved with the participation of public institutions, local communities, representatives of the patron organizations and syndicates, as well as of the civil organizations.

(2) Central and local public institutions are obliged to establish measures and to take actions to fight against social marginalization.

(3) The State, through its institutions ensures full information and real access to the fundamental rights of citizens.


Chapter II

Granting of Access to Elemental and Fundamental Rights

 

Section 4

Access to education

Art. 19 – (1) School-age persons, who are members of families that have the right to a minimum guaranteed income, have two or more children, and are enrolled in compulsory education stipulated by law, benefit of scholarship.

(2) The amount of scholarship is established each year by government order and represents an indexable sum that is conferred from the budget that is allocated to the Ministry of Education and Research or to local budgets, in conformity with annual Appropriation Act.

(3) In order to get ready the children that are in the situation as presented in par. (1), in August each year, through their legal representatives, they receive 40% of the annual schooling scholarship. The purpose of this sum is to buy articles of clothing, footwear and school equipment.

(4) The remaining 60% of the scholarship is granted in monthly or, as the case may be, quarterly payments on the condition of class attendance and obtaining of passing grades.

(5) In case of school abandon, the allocated sums shall be recovered from the child’s legal representative, who had received them, in compliance with the special provisions of forced seizure in the case of budgetary claims.

Art. 20 – (1) The Ministry of Education and Research elaborates and applies territorial adult literacy programs.

(2) The participants of these programs can benefit of a scholarship. Its amount shall be determined in the resolution of local councils, its payment is ensured from local budgets.

Art. 21 – (1) Compulsory education graduates, who continue their studies in pre-university educational units and in higher educational units, and whose families meet the requirements of Art. 19 par. (1) benefit of a scho­lar­ship each month to continue their studies.

(2) The amount of scholarship for the continuation of studies is established each year in a government order and represents an indexable sum that would at least cover the equivalent of lodging, respectively the meals in hostels, boarding schools and refectories. It is conferred from the budget that is allocated to the Ministry of Education and Research or to local budgets, in conformity with annual Appropriation Act.

(3) The granting of scholarship for the continuation of studies is conditioned on class attendance and obtaining of passing grades.

Art. 22 – The Ministry of Education and Research shall ensure from sums allocated from the budget, the free access in holiday and training camps for those beneficiaries of schooling scholarship and of continuing education scholarship, who had obtained remarkable results in learning.

 


4. INSTRUCtions*

on the study of the native language for pupils
belonging to national minorities and attend schools
with tuition in Romanian

 

 

On the strength of the Law on Education No. 84/1995 and Order No. 4646 of the Minister of National Education pupils belonging to national minorities who study in schools teaching in Romanian have the possibility to study their native language.

 Article 180, Title VII of the Law on Education stipulates: “The parent or the lawfully instituted guardian shall decide on the minor child's right to choose the language of study at school.”

 

I.      The study of the native language

1.   The study of the native language shall begin with the first class of the primary school.

2.   Should a pupil or more (group/class) not have studied his/their native language previously and would he/they wish to join a study group/class in function, other than the first class, he/they have to prove knowledge of the native language of the respective level by taking a language test. The test shall be taken with the teacher of the native language from the school and does not concern the beginners (first class).

II.    Number of pupils and study formations

1.   Study formations shall include grades and groups in accordance with Article 158 of the Law on Education No. 84/1995 and the Order No. 4150/1998 of the Minister of National Education, Appendices 1-2/d.

2.   According to Law on Education No. 84/1995, Title V, Chapter I, Article 158 paragraph 2, the county school inspectorates shall submit for approval all the requests concerning study formations with the number of pupils under the established limit. In localities with a reduced number of pupils, (under 10 per cycle) simultaneous education may be organized under the terms provided.

III.  Number of lessons for the study of the native language

1.   In the grades I-IX the number of lessons devoted to the study of the native language shall be 3-4 lessons per week.

2.   Considering that these lessons are part of the framework plan for grades I-VIII, school principals will include these lessons in the timetable of the school.

IV.   Appointment of the teaching staff

1.   In grades I-IV the native language shall be taught, as a rule, by teachers who know the pupils' native language. The teacher of the class shall have priority in the teaching of these lessons, if he or she speaks the language and belongs to the respective community. Since the native language lessons are not part of the compulsory work quota of the teachers in schools with tuition in the Romanian language, they shall be paid by the hour.

2.   In case the teacher of the class does not speak or wish to teach the native language, the lessons may be distributed to another appointed teacher or supply teacher of the school who speaks the language. The lessons are included in that teacher's work quota in case the respective teacher does not have a full work quota in the school, or they may be remunerated by the hour if exceeding the maximum obligation.

3.   In grades V-VIII, in vocational schools and high schools the native language lessons shall be taught by teachers specialized in that subject or personnel without a special qualification, but who can prove with documents or by testing a good command of the native language that they are to teach.

V.    Content of the teaching

Pupils belonging to various national minorities attending schools with tuition in Romanian shall study their native language on the basis of teaching curricula approved by the ministry and of school textbooks elaborated on their strength or authorized in accordance with Order No. 3811/1998 of the Minister of National Education.

The purpose in the study of the native language is to put into practice the general and operational objectives of the educational reform in Romania.

Teachers shall have the right to select from the textbooks, texts which they consider adequate for the pupils' level of knowledge, recommending for supplementary reading those which cannot be studied in the number of lessons provided.

VI.  Attendance and assessment of pupils

1.   The assessment of the pupils’ knowledge is in conformity with the methodology of assessment. In grades V-XII, the pupils shall have a written paper (essay) every semester in the study of the native language.

2.   The capacity examination in the study of the native language for this category of pupils shall be effected in accordance with the decision of the board of directors, following the compulsory consultation of the parents.

VII. The study of Romany as native language

Considering the specific character of education for the Gypsy popu­lation, the following supplementary provisions shall be observed:

1.   The study of the Romany language as native language is carried out in conformity with the provisions of Chapter I, 1, 2. In the case of pupils whose parents frequently change their domicile, these can begin to study in any class at any moment of the school year irrespective of whether they have permanent residence in the respective locality.

Likewise, the study of the Romany language can be introduced at all levels at any moment of the school year, including the case of gypsy pupils who do not speak the language and wish to study it.

The parents of the pupils can submit the request for the study of the Romany language individually or collectively. The school management and the teaching staff have no right to influence the options of the pupils and the parents concerning the study of the Romany language as native language.

2.   Appointment of the teaching staff

In the case of a limited number of teachers qualified in Romany language – in their absence – the lessons of Romany language as native language shall be assured by Gypsy high school graduates (with a certificate of final examination in a secondary school).

In exceptional cases, these lessons may be taught by high school graduates without a certificate of final examination in a secondary school or with graduates with at least 10 grades. Having in view the existing financial regulations, their payment can be assured by non-governmental organizations that set as a goal the schooling of the Gypsy population.


3.   Assessment

1)   The Gypsy pupils shall choose or not – according to their will – the Romany language as a supplementary subject at the capacity examination.

2)   In grades V-XII the semestrial written paper (essay) in Romany language is optional.

VIII. Final provisions

1.   County school inspectorates and the management of schools shall have the obligation to inform parents and pupils of various ethnic groups on the present Instructions so that they may knowingly benefit of their rights.

2.   School principals shall communicate in advance to the school inspectorates they belong to, the required number of textbooks for native language, having permanently in view the special printing conditions (once every four years for each title) for reduced number of copies.

3.   County school inspectorates shall have the obligation to provide schoolbooks for minorities, transmitting correctly and in time the number of textbooks required.

4.   The Department for the Education of National Minorities of the Ministry of National Education, through its specialized inspectors, shall grant support in the correct and efficient unfolding of the process of teaching the native languages of the national minorities. This shall be ensured in collaboration with all the responsible and interested factors inside and outside the educational network.

5.   The present Instructions make void the Instructions approved by Order No. 4787/1996 of the Minister, as well as any other dispositions or regulations contrary to the present Instructions.


5. Methodology 

on the application of the instructions* on the study
of the  native language for pupils belonging to national
minorities who attend Romanian Schools

 

 

As provided by Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished in Official Gazette No. 606/10.12.1999, part I, Art. 121, “Pupils belonging to national minorities, who study in educational units with tuition in Romanian language, shall have the possibility to study their native language and the history and the traditions of the respective national minority as a school subject, at request, under the conditions of the present law”.

Starting from this legal basis, conscious of the importance of lear­ning the native language to preserve, develop and express the identity of persons belonging to national minorities (the right to identity being guaranteed by Art. 6.1 of the Constitution of Romania), the Ministry of National Education took a series of measures that aim to ensure the access to the study of the native language in schools with tuition in Romanian language. As orders and notifications issued in this field comprise a longer period, it is indispensable to resume them in a single public act with a coherent and unitary regulation.

I.  The language and the literature of the native language

1.  The status of the subject “Native language and literature” in schools with tuition in Romanian language

In accordance with Order No. 4150 of the Minister of National Education on the national curricula (Appendix I, par. 1.1.5. on Common trunk), Order No. 3207/03.02.1999 on the application of the new Framework plans for education beginning with 1999/2000 school year and Order No. 3113/31.01.2000 on facilitating the access to the study of the native language for pupils belonging to national minorities who study in schools with tuition in Romanian language (Art. 1 and Art. 4.),

a.)   Lessons of The language and the literature of the native language are part of the common trunk of the framework plans and, consequently, these lessons are included compulsorily in the timetables of schools;

b.)   The number of lessons devoted for this subject is 3-4 hours per week in each year of study.

c.)   The subject The language and the literature of the native language cannot be included in the category “at the disposal” of the school, with the exception of the case when the pupils ask to extend their knowledge of the native language and already have insured 3-4 hours per week at this subject.

d.)   After the option was expressed, the study of the native language becomes compulsory during the entire primary and middle school cycle, and after a new option during the entire secondary school cycle.

2. Who has the right to study the native language?

Any pupil who considers, or whose parents or legally appointed guardian consider that the native language or the nationality of the pupils is not the Romanian has this right. It is banned to condition the access to the study of the native language by a declaration on nationality, as Art. 6 of the Constitution of Romania guarantees the right to identity, and the personal data of censuses are confidential. Since the affiliation to a nationality or to a native language cannot be checked, it is self-evident that any pupil of any nationality can study the language and the literature of the native language if he/she and the parent or legally appointed guardian consider this is for the advantage of the pupil.

Any pupil has the right to begin the study of the native language in any grade from the level of beginners.

In case a pupil or several pupils (group/form) did not study the native language previously and wish to join an already existing study group/form other than beginners, they must prove knowledge of the native language of the respective level by taking a language test.

3. Who and in which way can ask the setting up of groups or classes for the study the native language?

According to Art. 180 of the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished, “the parent or the legally appointed guardian shall decide on the right of the minor to study in Romanian language or in the language of a national minority”. By extending the idea, the same paragraph can be applied when the study of the native language is concerned. Parents, guardians or pupils who consider that their native language or nationality is other than the Romanian, or who consider themselves of other nationality, but wish to study the respective language as native language, can ask to study the native language.

The procedures to ask for the study of the native language are different, but each aim at facilitating the access to the study of the native language and the prevention of bureaucracy according to the criterion of good faith.

a.)   The easiest and most frequently used method is to go ahead the request of pupils and parents. In schools with tuition in Romanian language, where it is known that there are pupils belonging to national minorities, the schools organize the framework for the study of the native language. The pupils only need to enrol to the respective lessons (the parents or guardians have the possibility to withdraw the child from the respective subject if he/she does not agree with the option of the child).

b.)   The parent of the legally appointed guardian requests orally the introduction of the study of the native language at the meeting of the Committee of Parents. The request is registered in the minutes of the meeting and the school is obliged to take the necessary measures to create the framework for the study of the native language.

c.)   The pupil, the parent or the legally appointed guardian submits in writing a request for the introduction of the study of the native language to the respective school.

d.)   The parents who consider due to various reasons that their request is better represented by the associations and the alliances of the respective minorities, in compliance with Order No. 3113/31.01.2000 of the Minister of National Education shall inform orally the association or the alliance about it. The associations and the alliances of the respective national minorities or ethnic group nominate the pre-university educational units in which the parents and pupils are interested in the study of the native language and send a notice in this respect to the educational unit and the county school inspectorate. The association or the alliance of the respective national minority or ethnic group shall draw up a list with the parents who request that their children study the native language on the basis of oral declarations, on their own responsibility. If the respective school questions the authenticity of the respective list, it may request to be verified. In this case an impartial committee formed of representatives of the county school inspectorate, the Control Body of the Ministry of National Education and the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of National Minorities of the Ministry of National Education shall analyze the authenticity of the list and take the necessary steps. The association or the alliance in question has the right to delegate an observer to the procedure of verifying the authenticity of the lists.

4. When must these requests be submitted?

At any time between January 1 and May 31 as the requests concern the following school year.

5. What must the school, the school inspectorate and the Minis­try of National Education do after acknowledging the request?

In accordance with Order No. 4150/13.07.1998 of the Minister of National Education, Appendix I, par. 2/d, the school shall set up the forms or groups for the study of the native language as follows:

a.)   The study is organized in forms (15-25 pupils) or groups (7-15 pupils)

b.)   In the case of a reduced number of pupils (under 10 pupils/cycle), the school shall notify the county school inspectorate on this fact, and the latter shall submit a request to the Ministry of National Education for the approval of setting up groups of study with an insufficient number of pupils

c.)   In case of reduced number of pupils at several cycles (for ex. 3 pupils in grade I, 3 pupils in grade II and 2 pupils in grade III), simul­taneous education can be organized respecting the procedure of the former paragraph.

In case in which in a school there are less than 7 applications, the school shall report the situation to the county school inspectorate. The inspectorate shall propose for approval to the MNE the concrete modality of setting up groups or forms for the study of the native language at locality or county level (the regulation and establishment of this particular case see below at I.9.c. The setting up of groups or forms for the study of the native language at locality or county level).

In case until May 31 (the deadline for the requests) the pupil has already chosen a large number of optional subjects, he/she shall have to renounce to some of them. This means that together with the 3-4 lessons of native language (in grades VI-VII 4-5 lessons, including the lessons of the History and traditions of national minorities – see below Chapter II), the maximum number of hours per week cannot be exceeded.

6. Who will teach the subject the Language and literature of the native language?

In grades I-IV, the lessons of the native language shall be usually taught by the teachers who know the native language of the pupils. The teacher of the form has priority in teaching these lessons, if he/she speaks the language and belongs to the respective community. As in schools with tuition in Romanian language the native language lessons are not part of the compulsory work quota of the teachers, the lessons can be paid by the hour.

In case the teacher of the form does not know or does not wish to teach the native language, these lessons may be distributed to another titular teacher or substitute teacher of the school who speaks the language. The lessons may be included in that teacher's work quota in case the respective teacher does not have a full work quota in the school, or they may be remunerated by the hour if exceeding the maximum obligation.

In grades V-VIII, in vocational schools and in high schools the native language lessons shall be taught by specialist teachers or personnel without a specialist qualification, but who can prove with documents or by testing that they have a good command of the native language that they are to teach.

7. What is taught during these lessons?

Pupils belonging to various national minorities attending schools with tuition in Romanian shall study the native language on the basis of teaching curricula approved by the ministry, of the school textbooks elaborated in compliance with them, or the authorized textbooks in conformity with Order No. 3811/1998 of the MNE.

During the study of the native language the general and the operational objectives of the educational reform in Romania shall be put into practice.

Teachers shall have the right to select from the textbooks, the texts which they consider adequate for the pupils' level of knowledge, recommending for supplementary reading those which cannot be studied in the number of lessons provided.

8. How are the pupils assessed?

After stating the option for the study of the native language, the pupils shall take an evaluation test in order to assess exactly the starting level.

The so-called evaluation during the school year is in conformity with the methodology of assessment. In grades V-XII, the pupils shall be given a written paper per semester in the native language.

The capacity examination in the native language for this category of pupils shall depend on the latitude of the school management, with the compulsory consultation of the parents and pupils.

In each case, one should keep in mind that some pupils start from a very low level of knowledge the study of their native language.

9. Special cases

a.) Minorities that do not have a standard language

Pupils who belong to a national minority that does not have a standard language, and whose language the linguists consider as a dialect of a standard language, have the right to study the respective standard language. This is the case of the German minority formed of Saxons, Swa­bians, etc. that has always studied in schools with tuition in German. (The same situation is valid for the Carashovenians, who can choose Croatian, the Chango-Hungarians, who can choose the study of the Hungarian language if they want to, the Ruthenians, Hutzuls, etc. who can choose the study of the Ukrainian and for all those who consider themselves in the same situation.)

 

b.) The study of Romany as native language

Considering the specific character of education for the Gypsy populations, the following additional provisions shall be observed:

1. The study of the Romany language can begin in any year of study or at any moment of the school year irrespective of whether they have permanent residence in the respective locality.

Likewise, the study of Romany as native language can be introduced at all levels or at any moment of the school year, including the case of Gypsy pupils who do not speak the language and wish to study it.

2. Appointment of the teaching staff

In case of a limited number of teachers qualified in Romany language or in their absence, Gypsy high school graduates (with school leaving certificate) shall teach the lessons.

In exceptional cases, Gypsy high school graduates without school leaving certificate or graduates of at least 10 grades shall teach the lessons. Their payment can be assured, in conformity with the financial regulations in force, by non-governmental organization that set as a goal the schooling of the Gypsy population.

3. Assessment

– The Gypsy pupils shall choose or not the Romany language as a supplementary subject at the capacity examination according to their option.

– In grades V-XII, the written term paper (essay) in Romany language is compulsory.

 

c.) The setting up of groups or grades for the study of the native language at locality or county level

Usually, the study of the native language is ensured at the school where the pupil studies. Still, in extreme situations, in case the total number of pupils who request the study of the native language is very low (under 7 pupils), the pupils shall be distributed to a school in the locality where they can take part at courses of the native language in conformity with Order 4699/14.10.1999 of the MNE (on setting up forms with tuition in Greek). In case even at the level of the locality the number of the pupils is less than 5-6, (which would justify the approval of the MNE to set up a group for the study of the native language), the pupils who wish to study their native language can be transferred to the closest school in the county where the respective native language is studied. (For example in the case of the Greeks, the pupils from the schools of Constanţa and Brăila Counties, as well from the municipality of Bucharest study their native language at one school in Constanţa, Brăila and Bucharest.)

In this special case, the hours assigned for the study of the native language (3-4 per week) shall be distributed on two days (2 hours one day + 1-2 hours on another day). The subject is recorded in the catalogue of the school where the pupils study and in the timetable of the school. The report on the school progress of the pupils is sent by the school where the respective forms or groups are organized to the school where the pupil is enrolled.

d.) The situation of the pupils who live in two minority cultures

One of the special cases is the situation when the request for the study of the native language comes from pupils who are already included in the education for national minorities. The pupils who usually come from mixed marriages and live in two minority cultures (for example the German and Hungarian cultures) have the right to study both languages. For example, a pupil, who studies in a group/form with tuition in German, has the right to request to study the Hungarian as native language. Likewise, the Gypsy pupil who studies in a group/form with tuition in Hungarian or another minority language has the right to request the study of the Romany as native language. In this case, the procedure to access to native language is identical with the access to the study of the native language in schools with tuition in Romanian language (see above). In order to prevent the overburdening of pupils, the provisions of Art. 1 of Order No. 3812/10.05.1999 on the application of the educational framework-plans for middle and secondary education in the languages of national minorities shall be implemented. In accordance with the above mentioned article, the groups and forms in question “can function on the basis of their own scheme of timetable in which the maximum number of hours per week shall be equivalent with the maximum number of hours in schools with tuition in Romanian language”. This means that the number of hours is reduced at the decision of the school.

II. The history and the traditions of national minorities

 

As provided by Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished in Official Gazette No. 606/10.12.1999, part I, Art. 121, “Pupils belonging to national minorities, who study in educational units with tuition in Romanian language, shall have the possibility to study their native language and the history and the traditions of the respective national minority as a school subject, at request, under the conditions of the present law”, as well as Order No. 4796/10.09.1997 of the MNE “pupils belonging to different national minorities or who study in schools with tuition in Romanian, at request, shall study the History and traditions of minorities as a subject”. The request to study the native language automatically means the study of the History and traditions of minorities too.

Setting up of groups/forms at these subjects is similar to the setting up of groups/forms for the study of the Literature and language of the native language (see chapter I, par. 5 above).

According to Order No. 3250/12.03.1999 of the MNE on the application of the Framework-plan for grades I-VIII in 1999/2000 school year provided that compulsory education is of eight grades (appendix II), the subject is part of the common trunk of the educational Framework-plan.

According to Order No. 4796/10.09.1997 of the MNE the subject the “History and the traditions of national minorities shall be taught in the native language in one hour per week in grades VI and VII for all the national minorities”. This means that each pupil who studies his/her native language as a subject shall automatically study the History and the traditions of national minorities.

III. Religion

 

In conformity with Order No. 4646/23.09.1998, paragraph f.) “Reli­gion shall be taught to pupils belonging to national minorities in the native language of the pupil. The alliances and the representatives of the religious denominations are invited to contribute by ensuring the specialized personnel. In school with tuition in the Romanian language this provision is valid for pupils who study the subject Language and literature of the native language. In this case there is no need for further requests on behalf of the parents. The school is obliged to contact the religious denominations in order to ensure the qualified personnel.

IV. Final provisions

 

1. County school inspectorates, the school inspectorate of the municipality of Bucharest and the management of schools shall inform the parents and the pupils of different ethnic groups on the present Methodology that shall be posted permanently in a visible and protected place so that they may knowingly benefit of their rights.

2. School principals shall communicate in advance to the county school inspectorates they belong to the required number of textbooks for the native language, having permanently in view the special printing conditions (once every four years for each title) in case of reduced number of printed copies.

3. County school inspectorates and the educational units shall have the obligation to provide textbooks for minorities, transmitting correctly and in time the number of textbooks required.

4. The General Directorate for Education in the Languages of National Minorities of the Ministry of National Education through its specialist inspectors shall grant support in the correct and efficient unfolding of the teaching process of the native languages of the national minorities by collaborating with all the responsible and interested factors inside and outside the educational network.

5. The present Methodology, elaborated in a spirit as to enforce the present legislation, represents a framework for the entire educational network in Romania as far as the implementation without delay of the positive measures assumed by the Ministry of National Educated is concerned.

 

László Murvai

Director General


 

 

E. orders of the minister On EDUCATION For NATIONAL  MINORITIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents:

– Order No. 3031/2002 of the Minister of Education and Research

– Order No. 3342/2002 of the Minister of Education and Research

– Order No. 3229/2002 of the Minister of Education and Research

– Launching of the project “Secondary school textbooks for natio­nal minorities”

– Order No. 3638/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research

– Order No. 3670/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research

– Notification No. 30303/2001

– Notification No. 30706/2001

– Order No. 4318/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research

– Order No. 4319/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research

– Order No. 4320/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research

– Order No. 3084/2000 of the Minister of National Education

– Order No. 3113/2000 of the Minister of National Education

– Order No. 3294/2000 of the Minister of National Education

– Notification No. 27804/2000

– Note No. 28260/2000



ORDer
No. 3031/11.01.2002

on the General Criteria for Organizing and Carrying out of Admission to Public Higher Education
for 2002/2003 Academic Year

 

 

On the grounds of Art. 57, 58, 59, 60, 65, 89, 92 and 141 par. f) of the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished with consequent modifications and additions;

According with Art. 108 par. (2) of Law No. 128/1997 on the Status of the Teaching Staff, with consequent modifications and additions;

On the strength of Law No. 441/2001 for the approval of Government Edict of Urgency No. 133/2000 on public higher and post-higher education with tuition fee;

In accordance with Government Decision No. 23/2001 on the organization and functioning of the Ministry of Education and research and Government Decision No. 1011/2001on the organization and functioning of distance learning and of education with reduced attendance in institutions of higher education,

 

The Minister of Education and Research

rules:

Art. 1. Approves the general criteria concerning the organization and carrying out of admission to public higher education for 2002-2003 academic year.

Art. 2. Admission is organized only by higher educational institutions that include in their structure accredited specializations or specializations authorized to function temporarily according to government decisions in force.

Art. 3. The candidates for admission in higher education are secondary school graduates with school leaving certificates (baccalaureate diplomas).

Art. 4. A candidate declared admitted can attend only one specialization financed from the state budget for the normal duration of the study. The candidate admitted for several specializations on places without tuition fees is obliged to opt for one specialization he/she wishes to be financed from the state budget only in one higher educational institution.

Art. 5. Students of private higher educational institutions accredited or authorized, who are admitted in higher education on places financed from the state budget, may benefit from the acknowledgement of the accomplished period of study in conformity with the provisions established by the senate of the university.

Art. 6. Certified/licentiate graduates of private higher education have the right to attend a second specialization in public higher educational institutions in the terms of the law and the University Charta.

Art. 7. Certified/licentiate graduates have the right to be admitted and to attend a second specialization in fee-paying system in public higher educational institutions for long-term, respectively short-term education under the terms of the University Charta of each higher educational institution. The graduates are obliged to declare at registration if they attended another specalization and the period when they were assisted from the state budget.

Art. 8. The university senates establish the conditions in which the graduates of short-term higher education can continue their studies in long-term education or can attend a second specialization in short-term higher education in the limit of the approved places, observing the law.

Art. 9. Candidates admitted for the second specialization in public higher education can study as follows:

a) If the first specialization was obtained in non-paid system, the second one shall be in fee-paying system;

b) If the first specialization was obtained in fee-paying system, the second one may be obtained in non-paid system if the requirements of admission are satisfied.

Art. 10. The organization of admission is the competence of each higher educational institution and follows the general criteria established by the Ministry of Education and Research.

The university senates shall elaborate their own criteria for the organization and carrying out of admission for 2002-2003 academic year and shall publish them until 15 February 2002.

Art. 11. For all accredited and authorized higher educational forms (regular, evening, reduced frequency, distance learning) admission in the first year may take place between June-September 2002.

Art. 12. It is recommended that the organization of the admission be based on examination. The average of the marks obtained at the school-leaving examination or the results obtained by the candidates in the secondary school at the subjects established by the councils of faculties and the senates of universities can be taken into consideration in compliance with their specific criteria of admission.

Art. 13. The candidates can take the entrance examinations in the language in which they studied the respective subjects.

Art. 14. The places financed from the state budget, approved by the Government for 2002-2003 academic year are distributed to higher educational institutions through the order of the minister.

Art. 15. According to Law 441/2001 in public higher education instruction can be organized and function with tuition fee. The number of places proposed yearly by the university senate, depends on the schooling capacity of the institution and is authorized by the Ministry of Education and Research.

Art. 16. In order to register for admission, the candidates shall fill in an application form to which an ID type of photography and the following documents are attached:

– certificate of final examination (baccalaureate diploma) or its equi­valent;

– birth certificate, authenticated copy;

– standard health certificate;

– certificate proving the quality of being a student (for students who attend a second specialization);

– certificate of degree or its equivalent, as well as the diploma of gra­duation, in original or authenticated copy for those who wish to attend a second specialization;

– other documents established in the regulation of the respective institutions of higher education.

Art. 17. At registration, candidates who took the final examination (baccalaureate) in June-July 2002 session can present a certificate issued by the secondary school, in which both the average mark and the marks obtained at the examinations instead of a certificate of final examination (baccalaureate diploma). At request, secondary schools shall also issue the registration certificate of secondary school graduates.

Art. 18. The files of rejected candidates or of those who renounce to schooling are returned at request, on the basis of identity documents, according to the calendar established by each university.

Art. 19. Higher educational institutions, according to law, can take registration fee from candidates to organize and carry out admission. Its quantum includes the activities involved by the analysis of objections formulated within the legal time limit.

The amount of the registration fee is established by the senates of higher educational institutions. Through their own admission regulations, the senates of higher educational institutions can stipulate exemption from the payment of the respective fee. The children of the teaching staff are exempted from the payment of the registration fee for admission to higher educational institutions.

Art. 20. The amount of the fee for paid places is established by the senates of each higher educational institution depending on specific schooling expenses. The amount of the fee is announced to the candidates at least 15 days prior the admission. The number of places with fee is announced at the same time with the number of places without fee.

The status of the student with fee is maintained, usually, during the entire schooling period. The amount of the fee for each year of study is announced at least 15 days prior the beginning of the academic year.

The status of the student without fee is maintained, according to law, for a schooling period equal with the normal duration of studies at the respective specialization.

Art. 21. Admission to higher education is done strictly in the descending order of general average of marks (or a number of points) obtained by the candidates.

The criteria to delimit the candidates must be communicated in time, together with other details referring to admission.

Art. 22. The minimal average mark cannot be lower than 5 (five) or its equivalent score.

General marks (scores) obtained by the candidates at admission are valid for the establishment of placement only at the institution, faculty and, as case it may be, specialization they opted for, in compliance with the regulations of each institution of higher education and with the options mentioned by the candidates in the admission application.

Art. 23. In each admission session, students are accepted for places with tuition fee from among those candidates for admission who were situated after the last admitted candidate on places financed from the state budget, in an decreasing order of their classification; this is done on the basis of admission criteria and at the written request of candidates, under the terms established by the university senate.

Art. 24. After the results of the admission are displayed, the admitted candidates, who requested at application evening learning or reduced attendance schooling can be enrolled in such a form of education if the structure of the institution includes this possibility of schooling and if the number of candidates allows the establishment of such a study group.

Distance and reduced frequency education can be organized only in compliance with law.

Art. 25. The results of the admission verified and approved by the Admission Committee are brought to the notice of the interested parties by displaying them, specifying the hour and the date of the display.

Art. 26. On the basis of university autonomy, higher educational institutions that organize admissions are the only one entitled to determine the validity of contestations which must be handed within 48 hours beginning with the hour and date when the results of the admission session were displayed.

Art. 27. Approves the general criteria concerning the candidates who obtained recognized performances at international contests, have the right to be enrolled without admission on the places allotted by the Ministry of Education and Research, under the following conditions:

a) For specializations corresponding to the subjects they received the reward for, secondary school graduates with school leaving certificates (baccalaureate diplomas) who obtained:

– distinctions at international school Olympics in at least one of the last school year (2000/2001, 2001/2002);

b) For schools of physical education and sports, secondary school graduates with school leaving certificates (baccalaureate diplomas) who obtained the following sport performances:

– 1st, 2nd, 3rd places at Olympic Games, World Championship, Euro­pean Championship (senior, youth, junior). The nominal list of these top sportsmen, the distinction obtained, as well as the faculty and specia­lization opted for is communicated to the Ministry of Education and Research by the Ministry for Youth and Sports.

Art. 28. Candidates who obtained recognized performances at national contests or groups of countries can be enrolled without admission on the places allotted by the Ministry of Education and Research, under the following conditions:

a) For specializations corresponding to the subjects they received the reward for, secondary school graduates with school leaving certificates (baccalaureate diplomas) who obtained:

– 1st, 2nd, 3rd places at school contests at national level or that of groups of countries recognized by the Ministry of Education and Research in at least one of the last school year (2000/2001, 2001/2002);

– 1st, 2nd, 3rd places at school Olympics at national level or that of groups of countries in 1998/1999 and/or 1999/2000 at subjects studied in grades IX, X.

b) For schools of physical education and sports, secondary school graduates with school leaving certificates (baccalaureate diplomas) who obtained the following sport performances:

– 1st, 2nd, 3rd places at sports contest at national level or that of groups of countries in at least one of the last school year (2000/2001, 2001/2002);

c) The National Academy of Physical Education and Sports in Bucharest and the faculties of physical education and sports in the country are authorized to established regulations concerning enrollment without admission on places with tuition fee and for:

– 4th, 5th, 6th places at Olympic Games, World Championship, Euro­pean Championship (senior, youth, junior),

– sportsmen qualified for the final tour of the Olympic Games, World Championship, European Championship.

Sportsmen, who obtained the respective performances during their middle school and/or secondary school studies, benefit of the above stipulations during a period of maximum three years after graduating from secondary school.

Art. 29. Based on university autonomy, university senates are au­tho­rized to establish, on the basis of domestic and international contests approved in the order of the Minister, the relevant contests for the respective institution. This will be announced through their own admission regulations. Secondary school graduates who belong to the above mentioned categories shall address a written request to the managements of higher educational institutions that judge the requests.

Art. 30. Top sportsmen (competitors) with recognized performan­ces in international contests who belong to the category enumerated at Art. 27 of the present General Criteria can be assisted from the budget to attend a second specialization for which the conditions for enrollment are fulfilled.

Art. 31. Until 1 October 2002, higher educational institutions shall communicate to the Ministry of Education and Research the nominal list of top sportsmen (competitors) accepted, mentioning the specialization/spe­cializations they were admitted to, as well as the contest/Olym­pics at which they were winners and the year they obtained the prize.

Art. 32. The enactment of the present order make void Order No. 4400/30. 08.2000 of the Minister of National Education on the general criteria concerning the organization and carrying out of admission to public higher education for 2001 and Order No. 5081/01.07.1999 of the Minister of National Education on the continuation of studies in short term higher education (university colleges) of post-secondary graduates, as well as any other provisions contrary to the present one.

Art. 33. The provisions of the present order shall be implemented by the General Directorate for the Co-ordination of Higher Education and public higher educational institutions.

Art. 34. The present Order shall be sent to all public higher educational institutions.

 

Minister

Ecaterina Andronescu


ORDER
No. 3342/03.11.2002

on the Application of the National Curriculum
for 2002-2003 School Year

 

 

On the grounds of Art. 128 (1) and 141 par. c) of the Law on Educa­tion No. 84/1995, republished, with consequent modifications and additions;

On the grounds of Government Decision No. 23/2001 on the organi­zation and functioning of the Ministry of Education and Research, with consequent modifications and additions;

The Minister of Education and Research

rules:

Art. 1. (1) In 2002-2003 school year, compulsory education shall apply the Framework-plan for grades I-VIII as approved by the Order No. 3638/11.04.2001 of the Minister of Education and Research.

(2) In 2002-2003 school year, special education shall apply, the Framework-plan for grades I-VIII, as approved by the Order No. 4323/1998 of the Minister of Education and Research.

(3) In 2002-2003 school year, special integrated education from schools and forms subordinated to the General Directorate of Penitentiaries, shall apply the Framework-plan as approved by the Order No. 3529/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research.

Art. 2. (1) In 2002-2003 school year, regular secondary education shall apply the Framework-plan for grades IX-XII, as approved by the Order No. 3670/17.04.2001 of the Minister of Education and Research.

(2) Vocational education, pedagogical profile, specialization as kindergarten and primary school teacher shall apply the Framework-plan for grade IX as approved by the Order No. 3670/17.04.2001 of the Minister of Education and Research.

(3) For vocational education, pedagogical profile, specialization as kindergarten and primary school teacher, specific Framework-plans for grades X-XIII shall be approved by order of the Minister of Education and Research.

Art. 3. In 2002-2003 school year, evening secondary education shall apply the Framework-plan for grades IX-XII as approved by the Order No. 3680/18.04.2001 of the Minister of Education and Research.

Art. 4. In 2002-2003 school year, grades XIII of secondary education continue to function in conformity with the curriculum for secondary schools approved by Order No. 4634/03.08.1995 of the Minister of Education, Order No. 8325/1990 of the Minister of Education and Science and Order No. 4150/1998 of the Minister of National Education.

Art. 5. (1) In 2002-2003 school year, for grades I-XII the new de­con­gested syllabuses shall be applied in compliance with the provisions of Order No. 3915/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research.

(2) For grades XIII syllabuses corresponding to the curricula mentioned in Art. 4 shall continue to be applied.

Art. 6. (1) In 2002-2003 school year, vocational education (vocational schools) shall apply the framework-plans and syllabuses for 2001/2002 school year, as approved by the orders of the minister, presented in the appendix, which is integral part of the present order.

(2) In 2002-2003 school year, vocational education (apprentice schools) shall apply the framework-plans approved by Order No. 4277/2000 of the Minister of National Education.

(3) In 2002-2003 school year, special vocational education shall apply the framework-plans approved by Order No. 3796/1999 of the Minister of National Education.

Art. 7. (1) In 2002-2003 school year, laboratory classes for subjects such as Computer Sciences, Technology of Information and Computer Sciences, technologies assisted by computer, shall take place with the entire class.

(2) Forms of mathematics-computer sciences and intensive computer sciences the provisions of par. (1) do not apply.

(3) In 2002-2003 school year, practical instruction in secondary education with technological profile shall take place in compliance with Order No. 3592/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research, except for Art. 6 (1) that is repealed.

(4) In 2002-2003 school year, practical instruction in vocational education (apprentice and vocational schools) and secondary education with technological profile shall take place with the entire class on the condition that each pupil has a properly equipped place of work.

(5) For the 75 school units that are included in the Phare Vet RO 9405 program and which organizes vocational and secondary education the provisions of par. (4) do not apply.

Art. 8. The General Directorate for Pre-university Education, the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities, the General Directorate for Evaluation, Prognosis and Development, school inspectorates and pre-university educational units shall carry out the present order.

Minister,

Ecaterina Andronescu


ORDER
No. 3229/25.02.2002

on Secondary School Textbooks

 

 

On the grounds of Art. 128 (2) and 141 par. e) of the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished, with consequent modifications and additions;

On the grounds of Government Decision No. 23/2001 on the organization and functioning of the Ministry of Education and Research, with consequent modifications and additions;

 

The Minister of Education and Research

rules:

Art. 1. Approves the procedure and criteria of evaluation of the textbooks for secondary education for 2002/2003 school year, stipulated in Appendix No. 1, which is integral part of the present order.

Art. 2. Approves the schedule concerning the authorization of textbooks for secondary education for 2002/2003 school year, stipulated in Appendix No. 2, which is integral part of the present order

Art. 3. Approves the list of subjects for which textbooks for secondary education shall be elaborated for 2002/2003 school year, as stipulated in Appendix No. 3, which is integral part of the present order.

Art. 4. The General Directorate for Pre-university Education, the National Council for the Evaluation and Distribution and the school inspectorates shall carry out the provisions of the present order.

 

Minister,

Ecaterina Andronescu


Appendix No. 1

 

Procedure and Criteria of Evaluation

of the Textbooks for Secondary Education

 

Chapter I.  Procedure of Evaluation

 

Art. 1. (1) The publishing houses shall submit one tender/position to the Ministry of Education and Research in ten copies of the word-pro­cessed manuscript of the entire textbook submitted for approval according to the schedule presented in Appendix 2. The copy of the textbook shall be printed in typography or with printer, and shall be also presented on an electronic support.

(2) The manuscript shall be presented in black-and-white, except for the first eight pages, beginning with the first lesson, which shall be in color. The color pages shall be printed in two or four colors, depending on the situation. The publishing houses shall not present a smaller or larger number than 8 color pages. The first 25% of the pages of the manuscript, beginning with the first lesson, shall have illustrations. 25% of the total number of pages shall be rounded up to the closest integer. The rest of 75% of the pages of the manuscript shall contain suggestions of images. The 25% of the pages with illustrations shall include the 8 color pages. It is compulsory that the rest of the pages of the 25% of pages with illustrations be in black-and-white.

The form of the textbook – on paper:

·       The material must be bound (stapled, stitched, glued, with comb spines, or saw with thread). 

·       The material must be depersonalized (without the name of the publishing house, coat of arms, names of the authors, distinctive marks, etc.).

·       Pages must be numbered.

·       The first page shall contain the name of the material and the year of study (for ex. “Romanian language and literature, grade XII”), as well as the total number of pages.

Manuscripts printed in typography or with Laserjet or inkjet printers are accepted.

(3) The textbook on electronic support shall have PDF extension and shall be presented alike their versions printed in typography or on printer.

·       Each publishing house shall submit an original CD and a safety copy.

·       The cover of the CD and the CD shall bear the name of the publishing house.

·       The PDF files shall be located at the root of the CD (not in subdirectories).

·       The PDF files shall not be written or reading protected.

·       The name of the files, shall be formed of exactly three figures (see Appendix No. 3) and the name of the publishing house, separated exactly by one space (for ex. “011 PublishingHouse_X.pdf”).

·       PDF files shall present the textbook alike their versions printed in typography or with printer.

·       The textbooks must be depersonalized (without the name of the publi­­shing house, coat of arms, names of the authors, distinctive marks, etc.).

·       Pages must be numbered.

·       The first page shall contain the name of the material and the year of study (for ex. “Romanian language and literature, grade XII”), as well as the total number of pages.

In case a publishing house participates with several textbooks, the files of several textbooks can be grouped on a single CD.

Art. 2. (1) The Ministry of Education and Research establishes a number of evaluators from several counties of the country, including the municipality of Bucharest from among renowned teachers who did not elaborate textbooks in the last three school years.

(2) The evaluators receive the bound textbooks, study and score them according to the annexed criteria. The evaluation is done by voting on the Internet, in compliance with the procedure established by the Ministry of Education and Research.

(3) The same evaluators assess all the textbooks for one subject.

Art. 3. (1) Each textbook is appreciated by giving scores from 0 to 100.

(2) From a total of 100 points:

a)     a maximum score of 60 can be given for content; for the evaluation of price are admitted the textbooks that receive at least 45 points.

b)    maximum 40 points can be given for price; for the final evaluation are admitted textbooks that receive at least 30 points.

(3) Secondary school textbooks that obtained at least 80 points are only accepted.

(4) Other textbooks are considered rejected.

Art. 4. (1) The results of the evaluation are centralized, analyzed and verified by the National Council for Evaluation and Distribution of Textbooks (NCEDT) and registered in a report.

(2) The report of the NCEDT is submitted for approval by the order of the Minister of Education and Research.

Art. 5. (1) The order of the Minister of Education and Research including the list of approved and rejected textbooks is communicated to the publishing houses by the NCEDT.

(2) Appeal can be lodged against the evaluation results of par. (1) of the mentioned order within four days after the notice is received.

Art. 6. Appeals concerning secondary school textbooks are solved within three days from the deadline for lodging appeals. The committees consisting of three members for each subject are named by the order of the Minister of Education and Research.

Art. 7. The results of the appeals are registered in a report that is submitted for approval to the Minister of Education and Research by the NCEDT.

Art. 8. In case after the approval of the textbook it is remarked through different modalities that it did not respect the basic criteria necessary for approval, the Minister of Education and Research decrees the withdrawal of the respective textbook.

 

Chapter II.  Criteria of Evaluation of the Textbooks for Secondary Education

 

Art. 9. Textbooks are evaluated having in view two indicators with the following relevance:

a) quality of the content and technical achievement: maximum 60 points;

b) price: maximum of 40 points: for textbooks for foreign languages the auxiliary materials shall be also mentioned. In case there are indispensable auxiliary materials, without which the textbook cannot be used, their price shall be also included in the price of the textbook.

Art. 10. The criteria concerning the content and the technical achie­ve­ment are:

a) Criteria concerning content (28 points):

1. Equivalence with the syllabus approved by the MER.

2. Observance of the scientific content.

3. Selection of themes treated and the importance laid on them in compliance with the present state of scientific thinking on the nature of the studied questions, their causes and effects, and eventual solutions.

4. Order of themes and coherent representation of their essential ele­ments.

5. Hierarchization of knowledge on stages of difficulty.

6. Scientific information from authorized and verifiable sources; theories, important or controversial generalizations and interpretations sustained by demonstrations referring to different opinions, relevant for the delineation of the controversy.

7. Precise visual documentation in compliance with the information included in the text of the textbook.

8. Accurateness of expression, proper for the terminology of the subject and at the level of intelligibility of the pupils.

9. Implementation of practical applications concerning life, based on the knowledge included in the textbook.

10. Offering of tests/themes for the assessment of competences obtained by the pupils after learning a set of lessons, systematized according to difficulty and made concrete through practical applications.

b) Criteria concerning the didactic concept and pedagogical method (28 points):

1. Promotion of efficient didactic strategies

2. Realization of logical didactic demarche with connections between what is known and what is being learnt.

3. Correspondence of the textbook with the age of the pupils and the level of acquired knowledge.

4. Contribution of the textbook to the stimulation of creativity and critical thinking.

5. Contribution of the textbook to develop the capacity of the pupil to apply and adapt the knowledge acquired.

6. Contribution of the textbook to the development of motivation for learning and permanent learning.

7. Encouragement of independent intellectual demarche of the pupil.

8. Motivation of the pupil to work in group.

9. Avoidance of stereotypes and prejudices.

10. Presentation of experiments, experiences and examples as many times as it is necessary to help the better understanding of the content and approaching knowledge to real life.

c) Criteria concerning the message of the textbook (4 points):

1. Adequate textbooks for the requirements of an education for a democratic society.

2. The message of the textbook consistent with the Constitution of Romania, the principles of a democratic society, the universal rights of men and peoples.

Textbooks exciting to violence, racist, extremist-nationalist messages, which propagate intolerance or other categories of messages incompatible with the Constitution of Romania, the values and principles of a democratic society and of the state under the rule of law are not approved.

d) Criteria concerning technical achievement (The specifications are minimal and compulsory, and are evaluated by a committee of experts):

The following minimal specifications are established:

– The number of pages is calculated according to 23.5 × 16.5 format. In case another format is chosen, the number of pages is calculated as follows:

Nminim,  where L1 describes the new format.

The value of N shall be rounded up to the closest multiple of 16.

– The number of pages is from 2 to 6 pages/hour.

– The textbook shall be bound (stapled, stitched, glued, with comb spines, or saw with thread). 

– The paper used is white Offset paper, 80%, 70g/sqm for the text and white cardboard, 230g/sqm for the cover.

– Illustrations and the number of colors are entrusted to the publishing houses. The score shall take into consideration the quality of drawings and the rational use of colors.

Art. 11. The score for price is calculated using the following formula:

P = 40 points


Launching of the project
Secondary school textbooks for national minorities

 

 

In compliance with the sphere of authority of the Ministry of Public Information according to Government Decision No. 13/2001 and the chapter on ethnic relations and protection of national minorities of the Government Program, the Department for Interethnic Relations within the Ministry aims at supporting the best projects that plan to meet demand on textbooks for secondary school pupils who attend different edu­cational forms in native language or study in native language in schools with tuition in Romanian language.

The textbooks for secondary education are not subsidized from the state budget. They are realized according to commercial criteria and purchased according to the principles of free market. The beneficiaries of these textbooks is a reduced number of pupils, therefore the number of copies is low, and the costs are extremely high. Thus, pupils who study in the languages of minorities are in a disadvantage as compared to their colleagues who study in Romanian language.

The Department for Interethnic Relations aims at launching a program to finance textbooks for secondary education in the languages of national minorities in order to eliminate this form of discrimination of pupils belonging to ethnic minorities. Should the program yield good results in 2002, it might be continued in the following years as well.

Objectives

The program for financing of textbooks for secondary education pursues:

– to attenuate the lack of textbooks for grades studying the native language or in that language;

– to contribute to the development of education in native language, protecting thus the linguistic heritage of Romania.

Partners

The projects shall be initialized by the organizations of national minorities that benefit of educational structures with full or partial tuition of the native language at secondary school level.

To fulfill the requirements the applicant must:

– be a legal person;

– be directly responsible with the elaboration and coordination of the project and not activate as intermediary;

– cover from its own sources or with the help of other partners at least 10% of the costs of the project.

Financial assistance offered

The selected projects shall be financed from the budget allocated to the Ministry of Public Information for the current year. The maximum limit of financing is of 300,000,000 ROL.

Activity type

– publishing and printing of textbooks in native language for schools with tuition in native language. This project type shall have priority.

– publishing, translating and printing of new textbooks for secondary education for pupils belonging to minorities, who study in educational units with full tuition in the native language or study their native language in schools with tuition in Romanian language.

– republishing and reprinting of alternative textbooks elaborated pre­viously.

Categories of eligibility

The sponsor shall consider the following criteria of eligibility:

– content and quality of the project

– if the textbook has a report from the MER

– area of coverage and the impact on the public

– types of expenses that can be carried out by the financing institution according to legal provisions.

Deadline

The projects shall be sent to the Department for Interethnic Relations until September 1, 2002 and shall be centralized at the Secretariat of the committee that shall make the review at that level.

The answer concerning financing shall be communicated in 30 days maximum from the submission of the project.

Details

The applications for financing shall be elaborated on a special application form requested from the contact person mentioned below. The applications shall be signed and sealed by the initiator. It shall include the data specified in the form and the technical documentation on the basis of which the cost specifications were made.

File can be posted or submitted at the secretariat of the Department for Interethnic Relations in a single original copy.

Address

Department for Interethnic Relations, 3 Smârdan str., District 3, Bucharest

Contact person

For details concerning the elaboration of the project and the compilation of the file for financing:              

Carmen Constantinescu, Directorate for Program Assistance

tel. 313 33 62, fax. 313 35 82, e-mail: carmen.constantinescu@publicinfo.ro


ORDer
No. 3638/11.04.2001

on the application of the educational framework-plans for grades I-VIII in 2001-2002 school year

 

 

Taking into consideration that the educational framework is a regu­lating component of the national curriculum,

Bearing in mind the necessity to accelerate the real reform of pre-university education in Romania, to ensure the quality of educational actions in the Romanian educational system,

Considering the fact that education in Romania must contribute at the formation of an active, motivated and creative personality, capable to make choices and decision,

Following the public discussions and negotiations with the interested factors concerning the proposals of the Ministry for Education and Re­search on the application the framework-plans approved by Orders No. 3207/1999 of the Minister of National Education,

On the basis of Art. 127 and 128 of the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished with the subsequent modifications and comple­tions,

On the basis of Government Edict No. 23/2001 on the organization and functioning of the Ministry for Education and Research,

 

The Minister of Education and Research

rules:

 

Art. 1.  In 2001-2002 school year the educational framework-plans for grades I-VIII shall be applied, as presented in Appendix No. 1, which is integral part of the present Order.

Art. 2.  In conformity with Article 9 of the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished with the subsequent modifications and completions, “(1) Curricula of primary, middle school, secondary, and vocational education include religion as a school subject, part of the common trunk. The pupil chooses the church and denomination subject with parental consent or the consent of his/her legally appointed guardian. (2) At the written request of the parents or the legal guardian, the pupil may not attend the religion lessons.” In this last situation, the pupils shall choose an optional subject instead of the subject religion.

Art. 3. In schools with tuition in the languages of national mino­ri­ties, the framework-plans shall be applied in conformity with Appendix 2, thus:

– the Romanian language and literature is studied in 4 lessons per week in grades I-IV and VI-VIII and in 5 lessons per week in grade V;

– the language and the literature of the native language is studied in a number of lessons equal with the study of the Romanian language and literature stipulated in the general framework-plan;

– the history and the traditions of national minorities is studied in a lesson per week in grades VI-VII;

– the study of the second foreign language in grades V-VIII is introduced at the decision of the school, for this subject two lessons may be allotted per week;

– all the other subjects included in the framework-plans for grades I‑VIII are compulsory and studied in conformity with the time allotted in Appendix 2.

Art. 4. In 2001-2002 school year the integrated tuition of the Natural Sciences ingrade V, in a number of schools established by the Institute of Educational Science and the Ministry for Education and Research.

Art. 5. The system of the Curriculum at the decision of the school in grades I-VIII.

At the level of compulsory education the framework-plan includes a common zone for all the pupils – the common trunk, represented by a minimal number of lessons specified in the framework-plan of each subject. During the lessons included the common trunk the Syllabus shall be studied excluding the elements noted with asterisk (*).

The lessons assigned in the framework-plan for each subject over the minimal number of lessons (if there is such), can be assigned in the scheme of timetable for extended or profound studies. Together with the optional lessons these represent the Curriculum at the decision of the school.

In case of option for extended studies, the syllabus shall be studied including the elements noted with asterisk (*).

The lesson for profound studies are proposed by the school for those pupils who during the preceding years did not succeed to acquire the minimum knowledge prescribed in the syllabus and which, as a consequence, need to be made up for. In case of option for extended knowledge, one or more lessons from the range destined for the respective subject for acquiring the syllabus from the common trunk shall be assigned for them.

To meet the number of lessons per week assigned in the framework-plan, in the offer of the school optional lessons, extended and, depending on the case, profound studies shall be also introduced.

The scheme of timetable for each grade shall comprise at least one compulsory optional lesson, established after the process of consultation.

The optional, extended and profound studies have the same significance both in primary and middle education. It must be mentioned that those subjects that do not have a range of lessons, no lessons can be assigned for extended and profound studies.

Art. 6. (1) In secondary school education groups can be organized for the intensive learning of the first foreign language. In this case the scheme of timetable shall include beside the two lessons allocated for the first foreign language, two more hours per week: one lesson of extended study and one optional lesson.

(2) In middle school education choir and sports activities can be orga­nized, beyond the daily program or on Saturdays. These activities can be included in the norm of the teacher, one hour per week for each group.

Art. 7. Schools with integrated art or sports training syllabuses shall observe the general regulations included in the present order and shall function in compliance with the Framework-plan for each school type included in Appendices 3, 4 and 5 of the present Order. Education with supplementary art program functions in compliance with regulations included in Appendix 6.

Art. 8. The Secretariat of State for Pre-university Education, General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities, General Direc­torate for Pre-university Education, the specialized directorates within the Ministry of Education and Research, the National Council for Curriculum, the county school directorates and that of the municipality of Bucharest, the leaderships of secondary schools shall carry out the present Order.

 

                                              Ecaterina Andronescu

                                                          Minister

 

       Vasile Molan

   Secretary of State

 

    Liliana Preoteasa                   László Murvai                     Cristina Icociu   Director General   Director General   Director General

 

      Mihaela Singer

Chairman of the NCC

Framework-plan  for  grades  I‑VIII

for the education in the languages of national mino­ri­ties
valid in 2001‑2002 school year

 

 

Curricular field / Subject

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

I. Language and
communication

11-12

11-12

11-14

11-14

12-13

10-11

10-11

11-12

Romanian language and liter.

4

4

4

4

5

4

4

4

Native language and literature

7-8

7-8

5-7

5-7

5

4

4

4

Foreign language 1

2-3

2-3

2-3

2-3

2-3

2-3

Latin language

1

II. Mathematics and natural sciences

3-4

3-4

4-6

4-6

5-6

8

10

9-10

Mathematics

3-4

3-4

3-4

3-4

4

4

4

4

Natural sciences

1-2

1-2

Physics

Chemistry

Biology

1-2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1-2

III. Man and society

1

1

2-3

3-5

3-5

4-6

5-7

6-7

Civic education

Civic culture

1-2

1-2

0-1

0-1

1-2

1-2

History

Geography

}1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

2

2

History and traditions of
minorities

1

1

Religion*

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

IV. Arts

2-3

2-3

2-3

2-3

2-3

2-3

2-3

1-2

Artistic education

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

}1-2

Musical education

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

V. Physical education and sports

2-3

2-3

2-3

2-3

2-3

2-3

2-3

1-2

VI. Technology

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

Practical abilities

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

-

-

-

-

Technological education

-

-

-

-

1-2

1-2

1-2

1-2

VII. Counseling and orientation

0-1

0-1

0-1

0-1

1

1

1

1

Total number of hours assigned for the common trunk subjects

20

20

22

23

26

28

31

30

Optional subjects

1-4

1-4

1-4

1-4

1-3

1-3

1-2

1-2

Minimum no. of hours/week

22

22

24

25

27

29

32

31

Maximum no. of hours/week

24

24

26

27

29

31

33

32


Order

No. 3670/17.04.2001

on the application of the educational framework-plans for secondary education in 2001-2002 school year

 

 

Taking into consideration that the educational framework is a regu­lating component of the national curriculum,

Bearing in mind the necessity to accelerate the real reform of pre-university education in Romania, to ensure the quality of educational actions in the Romanian educational system,

Considering the fact that education in Romania must contribute at the formation of an active, motivated and creative personality, capable to make choices and decision,

Following the public discussions and negotiations with the interested factors concerning the proposals of the Ministry for Education and Research on the application the framework-plans approved by Orders No. 3207/1999 of the Minister of National Education,

On the basis of Art. 127 and 128 of the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished with the subsequent modifications and completions,

On the basis of Government Edict No. 23/2001 on the organization and functioning of the Ministry for Education and Research,

 

The Minister of Education and Research

rules:

 

Art. 1. The framework-plan for the education of grades IX-XII, theoretic (Appendix 1), technological (Appendix 2) and vocational (Appendix 3) is approved, which is integral part of the present Order.

Art. 2. In 2001-2002 school year the educational framework-plans which are integral part of the present Order are applied for grades IX, X and XI.

Grade IX of pedagogical secondary schools with specialization as pre-school and primary school teacher shall function in 2001-2002 school year according to the syllabus of grade IX vocational training, pedagogical profile.

Grade XII continues to function in 2001-2002 school year according to the syllabus approved by Order No. 4634/1995 of the Minister of Education, Order No. 8325/1990 of the Minister of Education and Science and Order No. 4150/1998 of the Minister of National Education.

Art. 3. The syllabuses used for grades IX, X and XI in 2001-2002 school year revised and decongested, shall be published until August 1, 2001.

Art. 4. The framework-plans for grades IX-XII for education in the languages of national minorities include in the curricular area Language and Communication the subject Native Language and Literature for which, depending on the profile and specialization, the same number of lessons are allotted as for Romanian Language and Literature. In education in the languages of national minorities the study of the second foreign language is at the decision of the school, irrespective of specialization.

Art. 5. In conformity with Article 9 of the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished with the subsequent modifications and completions, “(1) Curricula of primary, middle school, secondary, and vocational education include Religion as a school subject, part of the common trunk. The pupil chooses the church and denomination subject with parental consent or the consent of his/her legally appointed guardian. (2) At the written request of the parents or the legal guardian, the pupil may not attend the religion lessons.” In this last situation, the pupils shall choose an optional subject instead of the subject religion.

Art. 6. (1) The lessons from the Curriculum at the decision of the school are used, first of all, for subjects from the curricular area corresponding to specialization.

In the curricular offer of the secondary school, the optional subjects shall be grouped in optional packages, which correspond to certain directions of formation in agreement with the managerial objectives and plan of development of the school. In each of the offered packages in grade IX, the subjects proposed for the following years shall be also stated. Thus a coherent educational line shall be ensured and thus the student can choose the package that corresponds to his aspirations.

In case in which certain students observe that the package does not correspond to their aspirations, they can ask the leadership of the school to modify their initial options for another package. According to concrete conditions, the leadership of the school can decide the manner in which the request is dealt with.

It is possible that due to an inadequate number of options for certain packages, these be not applicable at the level of grade IX. In this case, for the year to come, the leadership of the school shall either diversify the initial package for grade X, within the packages that have been selec­ted and done beginning with grade IX, or shall propose a new package that partially recovers the preceding package and starts with grade X.

In 2001-2002 school year optional packages shall be proposed which start with grade IX, respectively grade X. For grade XI, the offer of Curriculum at the Decision of the School can be done on packages or on subjects, depending on the Curriculum of the Secondary School.

(2) The optimization of the process of drawing up the schemes of timetable of grades, shall be done as follows:

The Council for the Curriculum of the secondary school elaborates the Curricular offer, which includes:

·    presentation of the finalities and objectives of the secondary school;

·    number of forms for each specialization and grade;

·    subjects of common trunk and the number of lessons allotted to them through the framework-plan for the existing specializations;

·    optionals/optional packages the school is able to offer;

·    methodology of selection and option concerning the curriculum at the decision of the school;

·    modalities of evaluation of the students at the compulsory subjects.

The offer made to the student must cover at least twice the number of lessons as to his possibility to opt for them.

Following the approval of the School Inspectorate, the offer of the secondary school shall be made public. Each secondary school shall spread its offer, perhaps under the form of a leaflet, on a large geographical area, in order to ensure a corresponding number of students for its finalities and objectives.

The curricular offer shall be made public and presented until the end of April of each year. The students shall present their options for the following years at the secretariat of the secondary school each school year until June. Once the option for a certain subject is expressed, it is compulsory for the period of time the respective subject was projected.

Students that were admitted in grade IX, must present their options during the first week after the final results of the entrance examinations were posted at the respective secondary school. Subsequently the school shall classify the options, re-evaluate the resources it disposes of and draws up the rolls of forms and groups of students, as well as their weekly timetable.

Art. 7. (1) In secondary school education choir and sports activities can be organized, beyond the daily program or on Saturdays. These activities can be included in the norm of the teacher, one hour per week for each group.

(2) For specialization in Fine arts in vocational schools, weekly two lessons shall be added for the respective workshop.

(3) The organization of forms for leading sportsmen signed on at sports clubs or associations is approved. These students shall be schooled in compliance with the provisions of sports education plans. The forms can be organized at county level, usually one form at a secondary school with sports program, observing the following situation:

·    the admittance of students is done in compliance with the general norms set up by the MER and the results obtained at the ability examinations; each pupil shall take the examination in the branch of sport he/she practices;

·    the branches of sport and the level of performance of the athlete students that are going to participate at the entrance examination shall be determine by the Council of Administration of the respective secondary school;

·    students are admitted in these forms according to the order of their general average mark obtained at the examination and the branch of sport included in the offer of the school;

·    pupils enrolled in these forms can take professional certificate and specific examinations during the final school-leaving examination, under similar conditions with the students from the secondary school with sports profile.

Art. 8.  In secondary education, forms with intensive study of ma­the­­matics and computer sciences can be organized. Three more lessons of computer sciences can be allotted to these forms.

Art. 9.  In conformity with Art. 10 of the Law on Education No. 84/1995 republished, the “Minister of education can approve the organization of the educational units and institutions with tuition in languages of large international circulation. In these schools Romanian Language and Literature and the History of the Romanians and the Geography of Romania are examined in Romanian language”.

The intensive program for the study of languages of large international circulation presumes the allocation of four lessons for the first modern language (this number also includes the lessons from the common trunk). Activity takes place in groups.

The bilingual program presumes the allocation in the scheme of timetable of a number of six lessons for the first modern language. This number of lessons also includes the lessons from the common trunk assigned through the framework-plan, as well as one lesson per week for the study of History (in grade X), Geography (in grade IX) and Elements of Culture and Civilization (in grades XI-XII) specific for the respective linguistic area. The study of the modern language in bilingual system is carried out in groups.

In case of the intensive / bilingual tuition of a modern language or in the case of forms of intensive mathematics-computer sciences, the total number of lessons per week cannot exceed 30, observing of the provisions of the present Order.

Art. 10. The Secretariat of State for Pre-university Education, General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities, General Directorate for Pre-university Education, the specialized directorates within the Ministry of Education and Research, the National Council for Curriculum, the county school directorates and that of the municipality of Bucharest, the leaderships of secondary schools shall carry out the present Order.

 

Ecaterina Andronescu
Minister

Vasile Molan

Secretary of State

 

 

 

 

 

Liliana Preoteasa

Director General

Murvai László

Director General

Cristina Icociu

Director General

 

 

 

Mihaela Singer

Chairman of the NCC

 

Zoica Vlăduţ

Director NCDP


NOTIFICAtion  No. 30303/11.05.2001

on the application of the educational framework-plans for 2001-2002 school year (excerpts)

 

For schools with tuition in the languages of national minorities

1. Concerning Order No. 3638/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research, we make the following specifications:

¨  The framework-plan specified in Appendix 2 or the above-men­tioned order is applied to all groups, forms, sections and school units with tuition in the languages of national minorities.

¨  In schools with tuition in Romanian language, the pupils belonging to national minorities can study, in terms of the law, their native language and literature as a school subject. The number of lessons assigned for this subject is 3-4 per week in each year of study. These lessons are part of the common trunk and are included in the scheme of timetable of the respective schools. Under these conditions the total number of lessons per week cannot exceed for these pupils the number of lessons approved in Appendix No. 1 of Order No. 3638/2001 of the Minister of National Education and Research.

2. Concerning Order No. 3670/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research, we make the following specifications:

¨  In the case of education with tuition in the languages of national minorities, taking into consideration Art. 4 of the mentioned order, the total number of lessons per week can exceed the maximum number of lessons established in Appendix 1, 2 and 3 of the Order No. 3670/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research observing the stipulations of the mentioned order.

 

 

NOTIFICation  No. 30706/16.05.2001

on the application of the educational framework-plans for 2001-2002 school year (excerpts)

 

1. In education with tuition in the languages of national minorities, the total number of lessons per week can exceed the maximum number of lessons established in Order No. 3638/2001 of the Minister of Education and Research with 1-2 lessons, in case a second foreign language is studied.


ORDER
No. 4318/29.08.2001

on the Approval of the Methodology to Organize and Carry out the Capacity Examination – 2002

 

 

On the strength of the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished with subsequent modifications and additions;

In accordance with Government Decision No. 23/2001 on the orga­nization and functioning of the Ministry of Education and Research,

 

The Minister of Education and Research

rules:

Art. 1. Approves the Calendar of the capacity examination – 2002 stipulated in Appendix No. 1, which is integral part of the present order.

Art. 2. Approves the Methodology to Organize and Carry out the Capacity Examination stipulated in Appendix No. 2, which is integral part of the present order.

Art. 3. Approves the curriculum for the subjects of the capacity test of the 2002 sessions presented in Appendix 3, which is integral part of the present order.

Art. 4. The present Order shall be published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I.

Art. 5. The General Directorate for Pre-university Education, the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities, the National Council for the Evaluation and Distribution and the county school inspectorates (and of the Municipality of Bucharest) shall carry out the provisions of the present order.

 

Minister,

Ecaterina Andronescu

 


Appendix 1

 

Methodology to Organize and Carry out the Capacity Examination 2002

 

 

Chapter I:  General Dispositions

 

Article 1

According to the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished, Art. 22: “Junior secondary education is finalized by a national capacity examination, structured on the basis of a methodology established by the Ministry of Education and Research and published before the beginning of the school year, for the following subjects: Romanian language and literature, mathematics and the history of Romanians or the geography of Romania. Pupils belonging to national minorities, who attend junior secondary education in the native language, shall take an examination in the native language and literature.”

Article 2

Graduates of grade VIII of junior secondary school of current series and those of prior series, who did not take the capacity examination, regardless to age, can sit for the national capacity examination. 

Article 7

The members of the National Committee of Capacity are:

Chairperson – the secretary of state for pre-university education;

Vice Chairpersons – the director general of the General Directorate for Pre-university Education;

– the director of the National Council for the Evaluation and Distri­bution

– the director general of the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities

Secretary – specialist at National Council for the Evaluation and Distribution

Members assistant directors general, inspectors of the Ministry, specialists of the National Council for the Evaluation and Distribution, pre-university teachers.

The nominal composition of this committee is approved each year by the order of the Minister of Education and Research.

Article 8

The National Committee has the following competences:

·  publishes at the beginning of the school year the Rule of organization and carrying out of the capacity examination and the examination curricula valid for the subjects of examination;

·  instructs the chairpersons of county school committees (and of the Municipality of Bucharest) and of the Municipality of Bucharest);

·  elaborates forms for the centralization of the results of the national capacity examination and distributes them through the county committees of examination (and of the Municipality of Bucharest);

·  coordinates the elaboration of subjects for written examinations, the assessment and marking, using the proposals of teachers and inspec­tors;

·  coordinates the multiplication of subjects in conformity with the number of examination centres;

·  decides, in special cases, on the use of standby subjects;

·  ensures the translation of subjects for mathematics in the languages of national minorities at the headquarters of the Ministry of Education and Research and offers consultancy on translation to the members of the committees in the centres of examination;

·  controls and guides the organization and carrying out of the capacity examination;

·  analyses the carrying out and results of the national capacity examination based on the report of the county committees (and that of the Municipality of Bucharest) and presents the conclusions to the direction of the Ministry of Education and Research;

·  proposes to the Minister of Education and Research possible modifications in the organization and carrying out of the national capacity examination;

·  may decide on the reassessment of certain papers during the examination or later;

·  decides on the assessment of certain papers at random to check if assessment was accurate;

Article 10

The members of the county committees (and of the Municipality of Bucharest) are:

Chairperson – one of the deputy chief inspectors

Vice Chairpersons – a school inspector director (in the Municipality of Bucharest a chairperson can be named for each district)

Secretaries 2-3 school inspectors

Members – departmental school inspectors, headmasters and tea­chers for each subject of examination

In counties where examination is taken in the languages of national minorities, the secretary of the committee shall be the inspector who coordinates the education in the languages of national minorities.

The nominal composition of this committee is approved each year by the decision of the county inspectors general (and the Municipality of Bucharest).

Article 11

The county committees (and the Municipality of Bucharest) have the following competences:

·  organize and are responsible for the carrying out of the national capacity examination on the entire territory of the county (and the Muni­ci­pality of Bucharest);

·  take measures to ensure the funds necessary to organize and carry out the national capacity examination, the equipment of centres of examination and correction with a sufficient number of blackboards, photocopiers, computers, telephone, etc., depending on case;

·  contact the County Health Inspectorates to ensure the presence of the medical staff in each center where capacity examinations held;

·  contact the organs of the Ministry of the Interior, the police and gendarmerie, at county level to ensure the presence of policemen or gendarmes during the transportation of written papers to the centers of correction and back, to ensure the safety of subjects and written papers, to maintain order at the centers of examination and correction;

·  establish the number of the centers of correction per county (Muni­cipality of Bucharest);

·  specify until 1 May 2002 the centers where national capacity examinations are hold, hereinafter called centers of examination, zonal centers of correction, as well as pertaining school units;

·  name the boards of the centers of examination and of the zonal centers of correction;

·  instruct the chairpersons of the centers of examination and of the zonal centers of correction;

·  take measures to ensure the transportation of the pupils to the centers of examination

·  have two types of stamps made bearing the following inscription:

a) the stamp for the centers of examination: “Capacity 2002 – C.E.”

b) the stamp for the zonal centers of correction: “Capacity 2002 – C.Z.C.”;

(…)

 

Chapter IV: Content of the national capacity
examination

 

Article 19

The subjects of the national capacity examination are:

a) Romanian language and literature, written examination from the syllabus of grades V-VIII;

b) Mathematics, written examination from the syllabus of grade V‑VIII.

Candidates belonging to national minority, who studied mathematics in native language, shall receive the translation of the subjects in the respective language.

c) The history of the Romanians or the Geography of Romania – written examination from the syllabus of grade VIII.

Candidates belonging to national minority, who in junior secondary school studied in native language, sit for an examination in:

d) Native language and literature, written examination from the syllabus of grade V-VIII.

Graduates of secondary schools of art and physical training shall also have:

e) an examination specific to the type of art or sport studied during the second semester of grade VIII. The results obtained at this examination are recorded in the certificate of capacity, but are not included in the calculus of the final average mark (See Appendix).

Article 20

The assessment mark of the written examination ranges from 10 to 1; the minimal mark for promotion is 5 for each written or practical examination.


ORDER
No. 4319/29.08.2001

on the Approval of the Calendar and Methodology to Organize and Carry out the Baccalaureate Examination 2002

 

 

On the strength of the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished with subsequent modifications and additions;

In accordance with Government Decision No. 23/2001 on the organization and functioning of the Ministry of Education and Research,

 

The Minister of Education and Research

rules:

Art. 1. Approves the Calendar of the Baccalaureate examination 2002 stipulated in Appendix No. 1, which is integral part of the present order.

Art. 2. Approves the Methodology to Organize and Carry out the Baccalaureate Examination stipulated in Appendix No. 2, which is integral part of the present order.

Art. 3. The present Order shall be published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I.

Art. 4. The General Directorate for Pre-university Education, the General Directorate for Education in the Languages of Minorities, the General Directorate for the Co-ordination of Higher Education, the National Council for the Evaluation and Distribution and the county school inspectorates (and of the Municipality of Bucharest), the managements of secondary schools shall carry out the provisions of the present order.

 

Minister,

Ecaterina Andronescu

 


Appendix 2

 

The Methodology to Organize and Carry out
the Baccalaureate Examination – 2002

 

 

I. General Dispositions

 

1. The Baccalaureate examination is the essential modality to assess secondary education, level of general education and specialization attained by secondary school graduates. It allows their access to higher education.

2. Last year graduates of secondary school regular, evening and correspondence education have the right to sit for the Baccalaureate.

3. The candidates of state education have the right to take the baccalaureate twice without fee. Subsequent sitting for examination is conditioned on the payment of an examination fee. Each time the candidates sit for the Baccalaureate, they shall have to take an examination at all subjects.

The candidates of private education shall sit for examination with fee in examination centers established by the county school inspectorates (and of the Municipality of Bucharest).

Each school inspectorate apart shall establish the examination fee. When establishing the amount of fee all the expenses per capita shall be taken into consideration.

4. In each school year, the Ministry of Education and Research organizes two sessions of Baccalaureate.

5. In compliance with the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished, the national Baccalaureate examination consists in two, respectively, three common and three differentiated examinations, depending on branch and profile.

The common examinations are:

a) Romanian language and literature – written and oral examination;

b) one of the foreign languages studied in the secondary school;

c) – native language, written and oral examination, for pupils who studied in the language of a national minority;

– foreign language for pupils who studied in the respective foreign language.

The examination subjects differentiated according to branch, profile, specialization and the option of the pupil are:

Theoretical branch

·  Humanistic profile:

d) history or geography – written examination;

e) an examination subject at choice from the curricular area corresponding to specialization – written examination;

f) an examination subject at choice from the other curricular area, other than the ones previously taken – written examination or physical education – practical examination.

·  Technical profile:

d) mathematics – written examination;

e) an examination subject at choice from the curricular area corresponding to specialization – written examination;

f) an examination subject at choice from the other curricular area, other than the ones previously taken – written examination or physical education – practical examination.

Technological branch

d) mathematics, for all profiles and specializations  – written examination;

e) an examination subject at choice from the curricular area of “Tech­no­logies”, depending on the specialization chosen by the pupil – written examination;

f) an examination subject at choice from the other curricular area, other than the previously chosen ones – written examination or physical education – practical examination.

Vocational branch

d) history or geography or a socio-humanistic school subject, respectively mathematics or science, depending on profile – written examination;

e) an examination subject at choice from the curricular area specific for the profile and specialization – written or practical examination;

f) an examination subject at choice from the other curricular area, other than the previously chosen ones – written examination or physical education – practical examination.

The list of school subjects at choice mentioned in the law, as well as the program of the examination subjects shall be established in a separate order.

For technological and vocational branch secondary school studies can be also closed with an examination of certification of the professional proficiency, apart from the Baccalaureate examination, in the terms of the law.

6. After taking the Baccalaureate examination, a diploma of Baccalaureate is issued for the graduates.

For secondary school graduates without Baccalaureate examination a certificate of graduation and an extract of school register may be issued at request.

 

17. The boards of examiners set up for candidates belonging to national minorities who studied in their native language and request to take the examinations in the respective language – at subjects studied in that language in the secondary school – shall include teachers specialized in the respective subjects who speak the native language and taught the respective subject in that language. The county board shall appoint a teacher specialized in the respective subjects who speaks the native language and taught the respective subject in that language for each examination subject where translation is needed to guarantee their correctness.

18. The attributions of the board of examiners from the examination centers are to:

·  organize and are responsible for the carrying out of the baccalaureate examination in that center;

·  take over from the headmaster of the educational unit, where the examination center is, the documents necessary to carry out the baccalaureate examination signed by the chairpersons. The managing boards of the educational units are responsible for the correctness of data transmitted, the documents handed over, the list of admission to the baccalaureate. The managing boards of the educational units ensure the necessary conditions to organize and carry out the baccalaureate i.e. rooms for the examinations, forms for the written examinations, photocopiers, a room with file cabinets to keep the documents of the baccalaureate in full security;

·  check the authenticity of the documents, the observance of the conditions of participation at the examination and the drawing up of the registration lists;

·  fill out the examination catalogues with the surname, the initial of the father and the first name of the candidates, the examination subjects they sit for. The examination catalogues are filled out in two identical copies that are numbered and sealed on each page.

·  distribute the candidates in rooms for the written examination in an alphabetical order and displays the respective lists 24 hours prior to the first examination at the notice-board and the doors of the rooms where the examination takes place;

·  take over the envelopes with the subjects signed by the chairperson and a delegate, and keep them in full security at the school unit where the examination center is in safes or in sealed metal file cabinets; The boards of examiners shall observe the methodology of maintaining the secret, of opening and sealing back of the envelopes, depending on the case;

·  report immediately to the county board any situation that requires the annulment of certain topics (loss of an envelope, damage to or opening of the seal on the envelope, etc.) or any special situation occurring during the examinations;

·  decide by lot the distribution of the supervising teachers;

·  instruct the teachers who ensure the supervising in the examination rooms;

·  multiply the topics for the written examination, immediately after the choice of the variant, sealing afterwards the original;

·  ensure the translation of the topics in the languages of national minorities, for the subjects which were studied in the respective language; in order to ensure that the translation is done in the shortest time possible, ensures a sufficient number of teachers who perform the trans­lation; distributes to the candidates who studied in the languages of national minorities the topic both in Romanian and in native language.

 

 


ORDER
No. 4320/29.08.2001

on the Approval of the Methodology to Organize
and Carry out the Examination to Obtain
the Certificate of Professional Proficiency

 

 

On the strength of Art. 26 par. (3) and (4) of the Law on Education No. 84/1995, republished with subsequent modifications and additions;

In accordance with Government Decision No. 23/2001 on the organization and functioning of the Ministry of Education and Research,